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Two years since a shudder in the Earth#39;s crust devastated Japan, the country#39;s scientists and engineers are still attempting to develop technologies to make Fukushima safe from radiation. But progress has been slow and—because of institutional failings—more advanced technologies have not been available to workers at the sire.日本遭受大地震重创之后已经过去了两年时间,该国的科学家和工程师仍然在尝试研发发更先进的技术,以保护福岛免受辐射侵害。不过由于研发进展缓慢,而且制度存在缺陷,当地的工人仍然无法采用更先进的技术。A country known as a technological superpower ultimately had to rely on low-tech methods during the disaster, including dumping water from the air to cool the raging reactors. High radiation levels prevented engineers from approaching critically damaged areas at the plant two years ago—and still does so today. Robots that some expected to be on call were conspicuously absent. The country faces a bill of between billion and .5 billion dollars to dismantle the Fukushima plant, and 40 years until it is safely decommissioned.日本虽以超级科技大国著称,但在这次灾难中为了冷却核反应堆温度,最终只能依靠空中泼水这类低技术含量的办法。两年前,强辐射让工程师无法进入核电站的关键损毁区域——今天依然如此。本以为能随时待命的机器人明显缺席了。日本需要花费10到25亿美元拆除福岛核电站,而要让它安全退役,还得花上40年。Only now are robots being developed that might be able to access the most contaminated areas within the shattered reactors#39; cores. So how did Japan, with the worlds#39; most ;advanced; robots (not to mention the biggest population of them), fail to deploy the machines that might have spared dangerous human toil?如今,有可能抵达位于反应堆核心的污染重灾区的,只有尚处于研发阶段的机器人。那么,拥有世界最先进机器人(更不用说机器人数量最多)的日本为何之前没能配置机器人,让工人免于从事如此危险的工作呢?;For a start,; says Dr. Masashi Goto who worked on designing containment vessels of Mark-1 reactors like those at Fukushima Daiichi, ;neither Japan#39;s nuclear power industry nor the government concede that an accident like this could ever happen. They have long held that all of Japan reactors are #39;absolutely safe.#39;; In other words, why prepare emergency backups or robots for the event of a quake-induced meltdown when the authorities denied such a thing could ever happen? Doing so would acknowledge a danger perpetually denied.后藤政志士曾参与设计了福岛第一核电站1号反应堆密闭壳。他说:“最初,日本核能工业和政府都不认为会发生这样的事故。他们长期以来的观点是,日本所有的反应堆都‘绝对安全’。换句话说,当局认为,地震根本不会导致反应堆熔毁,有必要事先准备紧急预案或者机器人吗?那样做就等于承认危险确实存在,而他们一直否认有任何危险。”;They said that accidents owing to earthquakes would be minimal,; adds Goto. ;As a consequence the companies involved in designed these reactors were told only to make #39;voluntary efforts to make the reactors#39; containment vessel quake proof.;后藤说:“他们称地震导致事故的可能性几乎为零。因此,参与设计核反应堆的公司被告知,并不强制要求该公司为核反应堆密闭壳做抗震处理,但可以自愿无偿进行。”Although TEPCO the firm that built and ran the reactors, and the authorities knew disaster response technology on hand was old, little was done to provide backups, such as robots, in the event of a meltdown. Cheap nuclear power was—and still is—too important to Japan#39;s economic competitiveness.尽管建造和运营反应堆的东京电力公司(TEPCO)和政府当局都知道现有的灾后应急技术陈旧过时,却在准备熔毁事故应急方案(例如机器人救援)时几乎无所作为。不论过去还是现在,廉价的核能对日本经济竞争力实在是太过重要了。Luckily, so far radiation released from Fukushima is only one tenth of Chernobyl#39;s. The Ukrainian plant blew its top, literally, and spewed, chimney like, nuclear fallout far and wide. Daiichi shutdown, Chernobyl did not. Enough safety protocols functioned to avert an even larger disaster, but the reactors remain unstable. Still, the fact is that no machine exists that can safely obtain proper ings from near the radioactive cores. ;It will be difficult to explain where the fuel is. We can#39;t get close enough for proper measurements,; admits Yoshinori Moriyama, of Japan#39;s nuclear watchdog NISA.幸运的是,到目前为止,福岛泄露的核辐射仅有切尔诺贝利核电站泄漏事故的十分之一。当年,那所乌克兰核电站的屋顶被掀翻,如烟囱一般将核微粒喷洒向四面八方。福岛核电站被关闭,切尔诺贝利核电站却没有。全面的安全协议发挥了作用,避免了更大的灾难,但是目前反应堆仍然不稳定。然而问题是,现在的机器仍然无法从附近的反应堆堆芯中安全地获取正确的数据。日本核能监察机构原子力安全保安院(NISA)的嘉点森山承认:“很难搞清楚燃料究竟在哪。我们无法靠近,开展测量工作。”At the centre of all this are the Daiichi workers—those unlucky enough to have the task, limited to a few moments at a time, of labouring inside the debris-strewn reactor buildings. With radiation high enough to sabotage electronics, American robots donated to the Daiichi plant have been missing in action, along with a Japanese robot dubbed Quince. Human labor for some of the most dangerous tasks has had to substitute.福岛核电站的工人则处在事件最中心——这些不走运的人承担了这项任务,每次只能在这些洒满残骸的核反应堆建筑中工作很短的时间。辐射强到可以干扰电子设备,所有捐赠给福岛核电站的美国机器人都在任务中失去了联系,一同失踪的还有一台名为“Quince”的日本机器人。因此,某些最危险的任务还是只能通过人力来完成。 /201303/231606With the world buzzing over Apple’s reveal this month of the iPhone 6 and Apple Watch, it’s hard to believe that this multi-trillion-dollar tech giant was once a small computer startup.如今,全世界都在谈论苹果公司(Apple)刚推出的iPhone 6和苹果手表(Apple Watch),人们很难相信,这家价值数万亿美元的科技巨头曾经也只是一家很小的初创电脑公司。For many entrepreneurs, the epic trajectory of Apple AAPL -0.87% — or Facebook FB -1.63% or Twitter TWTR 0.07% , for that matter — serves as evidence that the consumer space is where you go to launch a winning startup.对于许多创业者们而言,苹果、Facebook或Twitter的发展轨迹,明消费者市场才是创业的蓝海。But that doesn’t always hold true. By foregoing the potentials of selling to business (as opposed to consumers), entrepreneurs are missing out on a world of opportunities — and lucrative ones at that.但这一点并非始终都是正确的。如果放弃与公司做生意(与消费者市场相反)的潜力,创业者们将错失大量有利可图的好机遇。As a board member at 1871, Chicago’s entrepreneurial hub for startups, I see a lot of startups and know what B2C companies can learn from B2B startups, including Fieldglass, MarkITx and Eved.作为芝加哥创业务组织1871的董事会成员,笔者接触过许多初创企业,因此很清楚B2C(企业对消费者)公司可以从B2B(企业对企业)初创公司学到什么,包括人力资源管理公司Fieldglass、在线企业硬件交易平台MarkITx和会议与活动在线交易市场Eved。The B2B space is rife with potential; by integrating new technologies into traditional businesses, entrepreneurs can dramatically improve efficiencies, uncover new markets, solve longstanding problems and, in some cases, disrupt entire industries. Indeed, an increasing number of B2B startups are experiencing rapid growth while achieving enviable profit margins.B2B领域有巨大的潜力;通过将新技术整合到传统业务当中,创业者们可以显著提高效率,开发新市场,解决长期存在的问题,在某些情况下,甚至会颠覆整个行业。事实上,越来越多的B2B初创公司正在经历快速增长,同时获取了令人艳羡的利润。Take Fieldglass, for example. Once a small startup, the Chicago-based software company is now the biggest vendor management system (VMS) provider in the world. In May, it was reportedly acquired by SAP for more than billion, one of the largest sales of a privately held tech company in recent years.以Fieldglass为例。这家芝加哥软件公司最初规模很小,如今已成为全世界最大的供应商管理系统(VMS)提供商。据报道,该公司在今年五月被SAP公司以超过10亿美元的价格收购,这是近几年规模最大的私人科技公司交易。Or consider MarkITx, an online marketplace to trade enterprise IT hardware, which earned a million valuation after only eight months of operations. After speaking with its co-founder Frank Muscarello, the company’s revenues are up 300 percent this year compared to last.再比如企业IT硬件在线交易平台MarkITx,公司成立仅8个月,市值便已经达到1,200万美元。笔者从公司联合创始人弗兰克o姆斯卡莱罗那里了解到,公司今年的收入同比增长了300%。To launch the next great startup, here are six lessons that entrepreneurs can learn from B2B companies about how to launch the next great startup:要创建下一家伟大的初创公司,创业者们应该从B2B公司学会以下六条经验:Target your first customers wisely明智地确定第一批客户Many B2B businesses design their products and services around their initial clients, making it critically important to take a strategic approach to recruiting those first customers. Talia Mashiach, founder and CEO of Eved, went after large firms like Dell when her company was still in its early stages. She then designed Eved’s platform and online marketplace to address those customers’ needs and provide visibility into their meeting and the total amount spent on an event. That set the stage for the recruitment of other large-scale firms and helped her stock her online marketplace with more than 5,000 companies.许多B2B公司往往会围绕最初客户来设计产品与务,因此通过战略方法吸引第一批客户就变得至关重要。Eved成立之初,公司创始人兼CEO塔利亚o弥赛亚追逐的目标是戴尔(Dell)等大公司。后来,她设计了Eved平台和在线市场,以解决这些客户的需求,使客户可以直观了解会议和活动的总开。而这为吸引其他大公司奠定了基础,帮助她将客户增加到5,000多家公司。Long-term value of customers is critical客户的长期价值至关重要Generally speaking, B2B companies have longer sales cycles than B2C firms. However, most B2B customers are long-term customers and, in the end, companies can extract greater value from them. After Jai Shekhawat founded Fieldglass in 1999, it took him more than a year to land his first customers, which included Verizon VZ -0.80% , AIGAIG -3.34% , GlaxoSmithKline GSK -1.33% and Johnson amp; Johnson JNJ -2.36% . But he held on to them, and now each spend billions on contract labor annually. To date, Fieldglass boasts a customer retention rate of more than 99%.一般而言,B2B公司的销售周期比B2C公司更长。但大多数B2B客户都是长期客户,最终,B2B公司可以从客户获取更多价值。1999年,贾伊o谢卡瓦特成立Fieldglass,他花了超过一年时间才找到第一批客户,其中包括威瑞森(Verizon)、美国国际集团(AIG)、葛兰素史克(GlaxoSmithKline)和强生(Johnson amp; Johnson)。但他一直紧紧抓住这批客户,现在这些客户每年在合同雇工方面的开都达到数十亿美元。到目前为止,Fieldglass的客户保持率超过99%。To generate steady revenue, focus on opportunities to generate reoccurring revenue要获得稳定的收入,应该抓住能够产生经常性收入的机会。Prioritize customers that are most likely to use your product or service repeatedly.将最有可能重复使用公司产品或务的客户放在首位。Muscarello knew that financial companies would serve as ideal suppliers for his online exchange because they invest heavily in IT and frequently purge their inventory to make room for the latest technology. MarkITx’s first customer, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, is now on its 22nd trade since August 2013.姆斯卡莱罗深知,金融公司将是其在线交易平台的理想供应商,因为金融公司会在IT方面进行大量投入,并且经常要清理库存,为最新技术腾出空间。MarkITx的第一家客户是芝加哥商业交易所(Chicago Mercantile Exchange),从2013年8月以来已进行了22次交易。Build something that sticks开发有粘性的务或产品To develop a long-term relationship with your customers, you need to create products or services that are inherently “sticky” and provide several levels of integration within a company. MarkITx’s dashboard plugs into companies via API and provides real-time data about the mark-to-market value of their assets and the optimal time to refresh their IT infrastructure. As a result, these companies regularly check the dashboard and are more apt to use MarkITx when it comes time to sell their assets. Fieldglass takes integration a step further by staying enmeshed in its customers’ problems. It monitors, for example, changes in labor laws (in Europe alone, Shekhawat estimates that there are 25-30 changes per month) and ensures that its software immediately reflect those shifts. In turn, customers grow more dependent on Fieldglass to manage their problem for them.要与客户保持长期关系,必须创建天生具有“粘性”的产品与务,并且为同一家公司客户包含多个层级的整合务。MarkITx的仪表板可以通过应用程序接口(API)连接到客户公司,为客户提供其资产的实时市场价值数据,以及更新IT基础设施的最佳时间。结果,这些公司会经常查看仪表板,而且在需要出售资产的时候,会更倾向于使用MarkITx。通过投身客户遇到的实际困难当中,Fieldglass可以提前为客户打造整合性务。例如,公司会密切关注劳动法的变化(谢卡瓦特估计,仅在欧洲,每月便会有25-30处变化),并确保其软件能及时反映这些变化。因此,为了解决问题,客户对Fieldglass变得越来越依赖。Look for a business idea on your desk从眼前寻找商机Think about the problems your company is facing or how you might address issues in your industry. There are business ideas there — maybe not sexy ones, but solid, profitable ones. Shekhawat came up with the idea for Fieldglass after serving as a contract developer, working for a technology vendor and consulting for buyers and customers, where he witnessed the challenges of managing contract labor. That insider knowledge also enabled him to build a company that easily overshadowed the five preceding competitors (all have since gone out of business).思考一下你的公司目前面临的问题,或者你会如何解决行业内的问题。商机无处不在——或许这些机遇没有那么令人兴奋,但却非常可靠且有利可图。谢卡瓦特在产生创建Fieldglass的想法之前,曾做过合同程序开发员,为一家技术供应商工作,并为买方和客户提供咨询,后来他发现了管理合同雇工所面临的挑战。对行业内情的了解,也使他创建的公司轻松打败了其他5家竞争对手(这些公司都已破产)。Know when to venture further清楚何时采取下一步行动Consider whether the work you’re doing now could parlay into something bigger. Before Eved went global in 2010, it was a local service company that grew to million in four years and landed on the Inc. 500. But Mashiach knew that there was a bigger opportunity out there. So she sold Eved’s service side, took its Ramp;D and re-launched it as a global company, with her sights set on a billion-dollar goal.思考一下,你现在的工作能否变成更大的事业。2010年,Eved进军国际市场之前,还是一家本土务公司,公司规模在4年内增长到1,000万美元,并入选Inc. 500强(Inc. 500)排行榜。但弥赛亚清楚,海外有更多机会。于是,她出售了Eved的务部门,保留了研发部,将其重新打造成一家全球性公司,她的目标是公司市值达到十亿美元。 /201410/336511Goodbye, Windows Live Messenger!再见了,MSN!As the B notes, Microsoft will soon be retiring its instant message chat tool and will instead be encouraging users to use Skype。援引B消息,微软很快就会让即时聊天工具MSN退休了,取而代之的是鼓励用户使用Skype。;Skype and Messenger are coming together,; wrote Tony Bates, President of the Skype Division at Microsoft, on Tuesday. ;We will retire Messenger in all countries worldwide in the first quarter of 2013 (with the exception of mainland China where Messenger will continue to be available).;微软公司Skype部门的负责人Tony Bates于周二表示,“Skype和Messenger将合并。我们会在2013年第一季度在全球各个国家停用MSN(中国大陆除外,可继续使用)。”Brian Hall,general manager of Microsoft#39;s Windows Live unit, had a similar message for users on the Windows blog。微软负责MSN的总经理Brian Hall在其微软的客中也发布了类似的消息。Tuesday#39;s announcement comes several months after the software giant bought Skype for .5 billion in May 2011.周二的这则声明在微软于2011年5月以85亿美元的价格收购了Skype以后的几个月后发出。Still, even though Microsoft promises that Skype will offer ;a better experience and [an] even stronger network,; the Windows instant messaging tool will undoubtedly be missed by many。尽管微软承诺Skype将会提供“更好的体验和更强大的网络”,毫无疑问,还是会有很多人想念MSN的。 /201211/208047

It's a well-known fact that shunning the sunscreen and basking in direct sun leads to wrinkles. But those who thought their skin was shielded while driving, or sitting in a conservatory, could be in for a nasty surprise.众所周知,不涂防晒霜就在太阳底下曝晒会长皱纹。然而那些认为自己因为开车时被玻璃遮挡、或者因为背光而坐从而不会对皮肤造成损伤的人,在读过这篇文章后会吃惊不小。The damage caused by sun coming through glass can be so dramatic that, over time, the side of the face exposed to the rays can end up looking up to seven years older than the other. Even a few hours sitting in a car during April results in skin damage, according to a study. The sun's ageing effects during autumn months are also far worse than previously realized, it found.太阳光穿过玻璃对皮肤造成的损害是如此巨大,以至于长时间对着光线的脸颊看起来要比另一半脸颊老7年之久。最新研究还表明,即使是在四月,只要在车中几个小时就可以对皮肤造成损伤。研究发现,秋日阳光的“老龄化”效果比想象的还要严重。 /201009/113313

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