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哈尔滨做人流那个医院好点哈尔滨维多利亚妇产医院做体检多少钱怎么样Wives may be better at lugging heavy loads than husbands, according to new research.据《每日电讯报》报道,妻子的负重能力可能更胜于丈夫。Scientists studying the physics of backpacking found that smaller hikers can be better equipped to carry heavy loads than people with larger frames.科学家研究背包客身体状况发现,身材矮小的徒步旅行者似乎比身材高大的徒步旅行者更能负重。The reason may be linked to the fact that walkers carrying backpacks also have to haul their own body weight, scientists believe.科学家们相信这个结果与如下事实有关:徒步旅行者携带背包的同时也负担着自己的体重。Hiking guidelines say that the weight of a pack should correspond to body size, with smaller individuals bearing lighter burdens.徒步旅行指南说道背包的负重应与自身体型相对应,身材矮小的人就应该背更轻负重。Professor Michael O#39;Shea, from Kansas State University, US, who conducted the research using a computer model, said: ;Online advice from several sources was somewhat misleading in suggesting that pack weight should be a certain per cent of a person#39;s weight. However, as the size of any animal increases, strength increases more slowly than body weight - the reason why tiny ants can carry a disproportionately heavy load compared to their weight.来自美国堪萨斯州立大学的迈克尔·奥谢教授运用电脑模型完成了该项研究,他说:“网上那些认为身材矮小的人应该负重更轻完全是误导性的建议。然而,事实并非如此,随着体重的增加,力量的提升并没有与之成正比,这也就是为什么蚂蚁能够负重起远重于它体重的东西的原因。”;Overall strength of an individual does not determine how heavy a backpack a person can comfortably carry.;“一个人的力气并不决定他能负载多重的东西。”Prof O#39;Shea noticed that some of the smaller hikers could carry greater back weights than larger students with similar fitness levels.奥谢教授发现身材矮小的徒步旅行者似乎比身材高大的徒步旅行者更能负重。Incorporating pack weight and body proportion data, he came up with an equation to determine the maximum rucksack load suitable for a person of given size.通过比对负重与体重数据,他得出一个关于背包最大负重量与人体重量的等式关系。 /201411/340505鹤岗市月经不调多少钱 Millions of prosthetics, breast implants, and pacemakers now exist – so what happens to all these augmentations when their owners die or no longer need them? Frank Swain investigates.当今社会假肢、隆胸和心脏起搏器的使用屡见不鲜。而当这些假体的使用者死去或者不再需要它们时,它们会面临怎样的命运呢?弗兰克?斯温(Frank Swain)对此进行了调查。The first patient to be fitted with a pioneering artificial heart in France has died世界首例人工心脏移植手术曾在法国成功完成,患者如今已经去世。Under the watchful eye of the prison guards at Metro Davidson County Detention Facility, half a dozen inmates in blue overalls are wrestling with prosthetic legs. They strip each one down into a collection of screws, bolts, connectors, feet and other components. The prison workshop is home to a collaboration with Standing With Hope, a US charity based in Nashville, Tennessee that recycles unwanted prosthetic limbs for the developing world. The disassembled legs will be shipped to Ghana, where locally trained clinicians will rebuild them to fit patients there.在戴维森郡拘留所(Metro Davidson County Detention Facility)狱警的监督下,6名身穿蓝色工作的犯人正在忙碌地处理着那些假肢。他们要把每条假肢的螺钉、螺栓、连接器、脚和其他零件都拆分开来。这个监狱车间是由监狱与美国一家慈善机构“与希望同立”(Standing With Hope)合作建立的,该机构总部位于田纳西州首府纳什维尔(Nashville),专门回收多余的假肢,然后稍往发展中国家。被拆卸的假肢将被运到加纳(Ghana),在那里,接收过培训的本地医生会重新组装这些部件,做成适合病人的假肢。These legs will get a second life, but other types of prosthetics and implants usually face a different destiny. What to do with augmented human parts when they are no longer needed – often due to the owner’s death – is an increasingly common issue. Modern medicine offers a litany of replacement parts, from whole limbs to metal hips, shoulders and joints. Then there are pacemakers and internal cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), as well as more common augmentations like dentures and silicone breast implants. What happens to these augmentations when someone dies?这些假肢将得到“二次生命”,但是其他类型的假肢或植入物通常面临着不同的命运。怎样处理人体这些不再需要(通常是由于主人死亡)的多余部分,已经成为了一个日益普遍的问题。现代医学提供了一连串的替换零件,从整个肢体到金属臀部、肩膀以及关节等等。日常使用的增加物还包括心脏起搏器,内部心脏除颤器(ICDs)以及更为常见的假牙和硅胶乳房植入物等。当这些增加物的使用者死去后,它们的命运会如何呢?Inert devices such as breast implants and replacement hips tend not to be removed after death, largely because there’s no compelling reason to do so, and they pose little threat to the environment. So it’s likely that the archaeologists of future centuries will uncover peculiar objects in the graves of the millennial dead: silicone bags, plastic teeth and sculpted metal bones.在人死后,乳房植入物,臀部替换物等惰性设备一般不会被移出体外,很大原因在于没有硬性要求一定要移除这些增加物,而且它们对环境不会造成太大威胁。所以很有可能未来的考古学家会在几千年前的坟墓里面有独特的发现:硅胶袋、假牙和雕刻过的金属骨骼。It’s a different story for cremation. In a furnace, silicone may burn up, but not the metal in implants – such as titanium or cobalt alloy. It is often separated from the ash and disposed of separately. Even tiny amounts of precious metals such as gold fillings can be discovered by waving a metal-detector over the ashes.而火葬的话,情况则大不相同。在炉灶中,硅胶可能会被烧掉,但植入物中的金属如钛或钴合金却不会。通常这些金属会从灰烬中分离出来,单独处理。用金属探测仪在灰烬堆上方扫扫,即使是微量的贵重金属,比如金制品原料,也能被探测到。In recent years, enterprising organisations have stepped in to recycle this material. Dutch company Orthometals, for example, collects 250 tonnes of metal every year from hundreds of crematoriums around Europe. At their facility in Steenbergen, it is sorted and melted down into ingots before being sold to the automobile and aeronautical industries. A similar US company, Implant Recycling, sells the melted and recast metals back into the medical industry. After you die, a little piece of you may one day end up in an aeroplane, a wind turbine, or even another person.近年来,一些企业已经开始回收这种材料。比如,荷兰Orthometals公司每年从欧洲各地的数百个火葬场回收250吨金属。然后运往位于Steenbergen的基地,在那里融化分解这些金属,然后卖给汽车和航空公司。美国也有一家类似的植入物回收公司(Implant Recycling),融化重塑金属后,重新卖给医药行业。在你死后,你身上的某个部分可能有一天最后会用于飞机,风力涡轮机,甚至出现在另外一个人身上。Pacemakers and ICDs, by contrast, are often taken out of the body after death – and almost always before cremation, because the batteries can explode when heated. The same goes for spinal cord stimulators that treat pain and some types of internal pumps for administering drugs, since they contain electronics too.相反,人死后,心脏起搏器和内部心脏除颤器都会被移出体外,而且几乎都是在火葬前,因为这些仪器内部的电池在加热时可能会爆炸。这同样适用于治疗疼痛的脊髓刺激器和某些类型的用来施用药物的内部泵,这些仪器也都含有电池。Once removed, implants are typically discarded – both the European Union and the US, among others, have rules that forbid the reuse of implanted medical devices. However, there is a growing trend to recover them for use in the developing world.这些植入物一旦被移出体外,基本上都会被丢弃-欧盟和美国都规定禁止再利用这些被植入过的医疗器械。然而在发展中国家,再利用这些使用过的医疗器械的趋势在日益增长。At ,000 for a pacemaker and ,000 for an ICD, a second-hand implant is the only way that millions of people will be able to afford this life-saving equipment. In the UK, charity Pace4Life collects functioning pacemakers from funeral parlours for use in India. In a similar effort, the journal Annals of Internal Medicine recently published the results of a US programme called Project My Heart Your Heart, which found that 75 patients who received second-hand ICDs showed no evidence of infection or malfunction. The group are now applying for FDA approval to send recycled heart devices overseas.一个心脏起搏器可以卖4000美元,一个内部心脏除颤器2万美元,因此二手植入物是许多人唯一能够负担得起的救生设备。英国一家慈善机构Pace4Life从殡仪馆回收功能正常的心脏起搏器,供印度人民使用。同样,内科医学年鉴杂志(Annals of Internal Medicine)最近发表了美国某项目“心心相印”(My heart Your Heart)的研究结果,该研究表明,75名使用二手的内部心脏除颤器的患者并没有出现感染或功能失常的症状。该研究小组目前正在申请食品药物(FDA)批准将这些回收的心脏装置运往海外。Back in Nashville, Standing With Hope has adopted a similar approach by shipping prosthetic limbs to Ghana. The charity’s co-founder, Gracie Rosenberger, was badly injured in a traffic accident at 17, an incident which cost her both legs. Like many amputees, Gracie acquired a stockpile of prosthetics over the years, which made her wonder whether they could be put to better use. As limbs are replaced or outgrown, the old ones gather dust in the backs of closets. When an amputee passes away, the family are often left with a cache of working limbs but no one to take them.在纳什维尔,“与希望同立”慈善机构也是采取了类似的方法,将假肢运往加纳。格雷西?罗森伯格(Gracie Rosenberger)是该慈善机构的联合创始人,她17岁时在一次交通事故中严重受伤,并失去了双腿。和许多截肢者一样,这么多年来格雷西储存了许多假肢。于是她就想是否可以更好地利用这些假肢。旧的假肢被替换下来后就被放在柜橱后面,沾满灰尘。截肢者去世后,家里往往会剩下许多还能用的假肢,但没人会去用它们。“The private insurers do not want it back, I don’t even think Medicare wants it back,” explains Rosenberger’s husband Peter, who is president of Standing With Hope. “There are all kinds of liabilities. So a lot of this stuff is discarded, unfortunately.”罗森伯格的丈夫彼得(Peter)是该慈善机构的董事长,他解释道:“私人保险公司不想收回这些假肢,甚至是医疗机构也不想这样做。这些机构负债太多,很多这种东西都不得不丢弃。”Now amputees and their families can send old limbs in the mail to the Rosenbergers. When asking for donations, Standing With Hope’s website s: “We’re not asking for an arm and a leg... just a leg”.现在截肢者和他们的家人可以把不用的假肢邮寄给罗森伯格所在的这家机构。该慈善机构在请求捐赠时,就在网上写到:“我们的要求并不多,只是一条你不再需要了的义腿而已。”The goal is to beat last year’s total of 500 replacement limbs delivered to Ghana. “Last year I had a thing I called Operation Footloose, and on my radio show I would play the theme from Footloose and say ‘turn that foot loose so we can recycle it’,” Peter laughs.我们的目标是超过去年运送到加纳的500个假肢。“去年,我有个计划,我取名为‘浑身是劲’计划,我总是在我的广播节目里演奏《浑身是劲》(Footloose)的主题曲,然后唱到‘让我们浑身是劲地拆开假肢,把你循环利用吧’”,彼得笑道。Just like organ donors, those that bequeath their medical implants can bid farewell to the world with the knowledge they offer a stranger a second chance at life, be it a man with a heart defect in India, a woman undergoing a hip replacement in America, or a child with a missing limb in Ghana. And it’s not just donors and recipients that have something to gain from the process. The Metro Davidson County Detention Facility is just a few minutes’ drive from Peter’s home, and every so often he visits the inmates working in the limb disassembly workshop. As they chatted, one prisoner told Peter what the Standing With Hope project meant to him. “He had tears in his eyes and said to me: ‘I get to do something positive for the first time with my hands. I’ve never done anything positive with my hands’,” Peter recalls. “How rewarding is that?”那些捐赠医疗植入物的人和器官捐赠者一样,可以在告别世界的同时,给一个陌生人带来第二次生命,可能是一名有心脏缺陷的印度男子,可能是一位进行髋关节置换的美国女人,也可能是一个截肢的加纳孩子。在这个过程中,不仅仅是捐赠者和受赠者有所收获。开车从戴维森郡拘留所到彼得家只需要几分钟,因此他经常去看望在肢体拆卸车间工作的犯人们。他们聊天的时候,一名犯人告诉彼得,“与希望同立”慈善机构对自己意义重大。“他热泪盈眶地对我说,‘我第一次用自己的双手做了些有意义的事情。我之前从来没有做过任何有意义的事’ ”,彼得回忆道,“这多么值得啊!” /201403/282286哈尔滨市第三医院妇科预约

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大兴安岭流产价格Scotland is a unique and austere place,laden with history,where you can find aristocratic palaces and castles,as well as the traditional parades in national costumes.It has some of the most beautiful cities in Europe,a living testimony of a proud and splendid past.苏格兰是一个独特的地方,自然条件虽不得天独厚,历史的厚重感却随处可见。豪门望族的府第与城堡历历在目,仪仗队的士兵也还穿着传统装。这里有全欧洲最美的城市,诉说着苏格兰昔日的荣光。In order to see and discover the true soul of Scotland today,what forged the character of this splendid region,we have to go towards the northern regions,to the Grampian Mountains.Beautiful and unspoiled,it was difficult to farm.The Scots subdued the environment with simple spades and strong arms.想看看真正的苏格兰,追寻这里民族精神的源泉,就得去北部的格兰扁山区。格兰扁山区景色怡人,还没有受到现代文明的污染。格兰扁一度不适合耕作,倔强的苏格兰人,凭着双手征了这片土地。The history of this ancient struggle,and its people’s ancient love affair with the hard land,is enclosed within the walls of the Angus Folk Museum.You are able to get a feel of the typical rural atmosphere of times past from the everyday artifacts displayed here.苏格兰先民的艰苦劳作与他们自古对这片贫瘠土地的眷恋,在这个物馆里一览无余。这里展出的都是平常的物品,营造出往日乡间的氛围,使人油然而生怀旧之情。From coastal Aberdeen in towards the interior of the Grampian Mountains there runs the Castle Trail,a road that touches on many fortresses,which are witnesses of continual revolts against the dominion of neighboring England in Scottish history.从沿海的阿伯丁,有一条古堡之路,一直蜿蜒到格兰扁山区深处。沿途很多昔日的要塞,都是苏格兰在历史上不断反抗英格兰统治的见。Perhaps the most uplifting moment for Scottish autonomy is the one experienced inside this ancient abbey of Arbroath,where,in 1320;the Declaration of Independence was celebrated,at the instigation of King Robert the Bruce.He carried out the plan for autonomy drawn up by the great popular hero William Wallace,to whom cinema has dedicated the wonderful film;Brave heart;,the winner of five Oscars.苏格兰争取自治的过程中最大快人心的时刻莫过于1320年在这个修道院,布鲁斯国王鼓动百姓大肆庆贺独立宣言签订。布鲁斯采纳传奇英雄威廉·华勒斯所献的计策,完成了自治大业,这个故事后来被改编成电影《勇敢的心》,该片曾摘取了五项奥斯卡奖。This is Glamis Castle.It is often remembered for being the residence of King Macbeth and Queen Elizabeth in her childhood.Among the most assiduous guests here are the inevitable ghosts,which are nourished,if not actually created,by ancient popular beliefs.These have been handed down over the centuries by a people inclined to live with mystery,with the forces of the supernatural.这座城堡之所以名闻遐迩,却是因为曾经的两位主人——苏格兰国王麦克白与幼年时的伊丽莎白女王。如今这里最相看无厌的客人当数传说中挥之不去的幽灵,这些传说即使不是源于世代相传的民间故事,也大有借鉴化用的嫌疑。苏格兰人似乎生来就笃信超自然的力量,因此才有了这些传说。Another attraction here is a legendary monster:the Loch Ness Monster.Is it real or imaginary,this monster,which has been nicknamed Nessie,has collected a good 3000 sightings over the last 50 years?To fuel the debate about the monster,and perhaps also curiosity about the lake,a price of 500,000 pounds sterling has been put on Nessie’s head.这里游人如织的另一个原因则是尼斯湖的怪兽。真假姑且不论,这个昵称Nessie的怪兽在过去的半个世纪中已经吸引了三千余名游客。如今它头上有五十万英镑的悬赏,使得学术界的争论日益激烈,或许也会令游人的好奇日盛吧。The true flag of Scotland,tartan,is recognizable from the brightly colored plaid patterns which are used to distinguish the various clans.Over the last few decades this fabric has made a comeback and is part of the daily life of this country.苏格兰格子呢是苏格兰真正的旗帜。它显著的花格子图案曾经是区分不同宗族的标志。在过去几十年里,格子呢在苏格兰再度流行,如今则已在日常生活中不可或缺。The typical Scottish garment,the kilt,is de rigeur when the Scots play the Great Highland bagpipes,especially when they march in parades.苏格兰传统的褶裙按照礼节是应该在演奏高地风笛时穿的,尤其是列队前进的时候。Bagpipes and dancing open the competitions of local sporting events,which are called Highland Gatherings.The games,which have strange rules,involve a spirit that has more to do with brute force than with athletics.高地风笛与利尔舞揭开了高地运动盛会的序幕。运动会的比赛项目规则奇特,与其说是田径比赛,不如说是大力士的较量。 /201409/332819 #39;What#39;s celebrity sex, Dad?#39; It was my 7-year-old son, who had been looking over my shoulder at my computer screen. He mispronounced #39;celebrity#39; but spoke the word #39;sex#39; as if he had been using it all his life. #39;Celebrity six,#39; I said, abruptly closing my AOL screen. #39;It#39;s a game famous people play in teams of three,#39; I said, as I ushered him out of my office and downstairs into what I assumed was the safety of the living room.“爸爸,什么是名人性爱(celebrity sex)?”问这个问题的是我七岁的儿子,他正从我的肩头看向电脑屏幕。他把“celebrity”(名人)发错了音,但说“sex”(性爱)这个词时就像是已经用了一辈子一样。我迅速关掉AOL的屏幕,说道:“六个名人(Celebrity six)(译者注:英语中“六”与“性”发音相近,因此作者故意将二者混淆,以向儿子解释),是名人们以三人团队形式玩的一种游戏。”我把他带出我的办公室去楼下客厅,我认为那里是安全的。No such luck. His 3-year-old sister had gotten her precocious little hands on my wife#39;s iPhone as it was charging on a table next to the sofa. By randomly tapping icons on the screen, she had conjured up an image of Beyonce barely clad in black leather, caught in a suggestive pose that I hoped would suggest nothing at all to her or her brother.结果明我想错了。他三岁的已把她那过早发育的小手放到了我妻子的iPhone上,当时手机正放在沙发旁的桌子上充电。她乱点着屏幕上的图标,“变出”了一张碧昂丝(Beyonce)穿着暴露黑色皮衣的图片,我希望碧昂丝那颇具暗示意味的造型对女儿或她哥哥都不会产生任何暗示意味。And so it went on this typical weekend. The eff-word popped out of TV programs we thought were friendly enough to have on while the children played in the next room. Ads depicting all but naked couples beckoned to them from the mainstream magazines scattered around the house. The kids peered over my shoulder as I perused my email inbox, their curiosity piqued by the endless stream of solicitations having to do with one aspect or another of sex, sex, sex!这个普通的周末就这样度过了。孩子们在另一个房间玩耍,电视节目上出现了F开头的那个词,而我们原本以为这些节目已足够温和。房子里散落着的主流杂志上,印有几乎全裸男女的广告在向他们打招呼。孩子们从我的肩头盯着我查邮件,与性有这样或那样关系的无止境的诱惑激起了他们的好奇心。When did the culture become so coarse? It#39;s a question that quickly gets you branded as either an unsophisticated rube or some angry culture warrior. But I swear on my hard drive that I#39;m neither. My favorite movie is #39;Last Tango in Paris.#39; I agree (on a theoretical level) with the notorious rake James Goldsmith, who said that when a man marries his mistress, he creates a job vacancy. I once thought of writing a book-length homage to the eff-word in American culture, the apotheosis of which was probably Sir Ben Kingsley pronouncing it with several syllables in an episode of #39;The Sopranos.#39;美国文化什么时候变得这么粗俗了?问出这个问题,你会迅速被贴上不懂世故的土包子或是愤怒的文化斗士的标签。但我用我的硬盘发誓,我两者都不是。我最喜欢的电影是《巴黎最后的探戈》(Last Tango in Paris)。我赞同(在理论上)臭名昭著的浪子詹姆斯#12539;戈德史密斯(James Goldsmith),他说过,当一个男人跟他的情妇结婚时,他就创造了一个就业机会。我曾经想过写一本书向美国文化中以F开头的那个词致敬,最能体现这个词“崇高”地位的可能是本#12539;金斯利爵士(Sir Ben Kingsley)在《黑道家族》(The Sopranos)某一集中用好几个音节把它讲出来的那一幕。I#39;m cool, and I#39;m down with everything, you bet, but I miss a time when there were powerful imprecations instead of mere obscenity -- or at least when sexual innuendo, because it was innuendo, served as a delicious release of tension between our private and public lives. Long before there was twerking, there were Elvis#39;s gyrations, which shocked people because gyrating hips are more associated with women (thrusting his hips forward would have had a masculine connotation). But Elvis#39;s physical motions on stage were all allusion, just as his lyrics were:我不介意,也没什么意见,但我想念激烈咒骂而非裸淫秽的时光――或者至少是有性影射的时光,由于是影射,应该是作为我们私生活和公共生活之间压力的美好释放。早在有电臀舞之前,就有了埃尔维斯(Elvis)的扭胯舞,人们对这种舞感到震惊,因为扭胯更多的是和女人联系在一起(臀部向前推则有一种男子气概的暗示)。但埃尔维斯在舞台上的动作都是暗示,就像他的歌词一样:Touch it, pound it, what good does it do触摸它,敲打它,能有什么用There#39;s just no stoppin#39; the way I feel for you没有什么能阻挡我对你的感觉Cos#39; every minute, every hour you#39;ll be shaken因为每一分钟,每个小时你都会By the strength and mighty power of my love被我强烈和坚定的爱所震颤The relative subtlety stimulates the imagination, while casual obscenity drowns it out. And such allusiveness maintains social norms even as they are being violated -- that#39;s sexy. The lyrics of Elvis#39;s #39;Power of My Love#39; gave him authority as a respected social figure, which made his asocial insinuations all the more gratifying.含蓄的暗示会刺激人的想像,而随随便便的淫秽会将想像力淹没。即使正在侵害着社会规范,但这种暗示仍维持着社会规范的存在――这很性感。埃尔维斯的《我的爱的力量》(Power of My Love)的歌词给了他成为受人尊敬的公众人物的权威,从而让他对社会的各种暗讽愈加令人愉悦。The same went, in a later era, for the young Madonna: #39;Two by two their bodies become one.#39; It#39;s an electric image because you are actively engaged in completing it. Contrast that with the aging Madonna trash-talking like a kid:后来,年轻的麦当娜(Madonna)也是如此:“成双成对的,他们的身体合二为一。”这是一个鲜活的画面,因为你在积极地完成它。这和上了年纪的麦当娜像孩子一样的废话形成了鲜明对比:Some girls got an attitude有些女孩喜欢摆架子Fake t--- and a nasty mood有一对假胸还有糟糕的情绪Hot s--- when she#39;s in the nude脱光的时候性感火辣(In the naughty naked nude)(调皮地脱光光)It#39;s the difference between locker-room talk and the language of seduction and desire. As Robbie Williams and the Pet Shop Boys observed a few years ago in their song #39;She#39;s Madonna#39;: #39;She#39;s got to be obscene to be believed.#39;这就像是偷偷讲黄色八卦和裸勾引欲望的区别。正如罗宾#12539;威廉姆斯(Robbie Williams)和“宠物店男孩”(Pet Shop Boys)几年前在《她是麦当娜》(She#39;s Madonna)里所唱的:“她变得粗俗得让人难以置信。”Everyone remembers the Rolling Stones#39; #39;Brown Sugar,#39; whose sexual and racial provocations were perfectly calibrated for 1971. Few, if any, people can recall their foray into explicit obscenity two years later with #39;Star Star.#39; The earlier song was sly and licentious; behind the sexual allusions were the vitality and energy to carry them out. The explicitness of #39;Star Star#39; was for bored, weary, repressed squares in the suburbs, with their swingers parties and #39;key clubs.#39;大家都记得滚石(Rolling Stones)的《Brown Sugar》,里面关于性和种族歧视的挑 语言堪称为1971年量身打造。很少有人能回想起两年后他们在《Star Star》中对露骨污秽内容的尝试。第一首歌是狡猾而放纵的,性暗示背后展现的是活力和能量。《Star Star》的直白是给郊区那些无趣、疲倦、压抑的土包子们听的,与之伴随的还有他们的性伴交换派对和“钥匙俱乐部”(key clubs)。Just as religious vows of abstinence mean nothing without the temptations of desire -- which is why St. Augustine spends so much time in his #39;Confessions#39; detailing the way he abandoned himself to the #39;fleshpots of Carthage#39; -- violating a social norm when the social norm is absent yields no real pleasure. The great provocations are also great releases because they exist side by side with the prohibitions that they are provoking. Once you spell it all out, the tension between temptation and taboo disappears.就像没有欲望诱惑时,节欲宗教誓言便毫无意义一样――这就是为什么 奥古斯汀(St. Augustine)会花那么多时间在他的《告白》(Confessions)中详细描述他是如何屈于“迦太基的奢侈生活”的――在社会规范缺失时,侵犯它也不会有真正的快感。好的挑 也是好的释放,因为它们和被挑 的禁忌是相辅相成的。一旦直白地讲出来,诱惑和禁忌之间的张力就消失了。The open secret of violating a taboo with language that -- through its richness, wit or rage -- acknowledges the taboo is that it represents a kind of moralizing. In fact, all the magnificent potty mouths -- from D.H. Lawrence to Norman Mailer, the Beats, the rockers, the proto-punks, punks and post-punks, Richard Pryor, Sam Kinison, Patti Smith, and up through, say, Sarah Silverman and the creators of #39;South Park#39; -- have been moralizers. The late Lou Reed#39;s #39;I Wanna Be Black#39; is so full of racial slurs, obscenity and repugnant sexual imagery that I could not find one meaningful phrase to e in this newspaper. It is also a wryly indignant song that rips into the racism of liberals whose reverence for black culture is a crippling caricature of black culture.用承认禁忌存在的语言――通过丰富的语义、机智或愤怒――来违反某个禁忌,公开的秘密在于它代表着某种道德说教。事实上,所有那些满嘴脏话的大人物――从D.H.劳伦斯(D.H. Lawrence)到诺曼#12539;梅勒(Norman Mailer),到the Beats乐队、摇滚歌手、原型朋克、朋克和后朋克,理查德#12539;普莱尔(Richard Pryor)、山姆#12539;金尼逊(Sam Kinison)、帕蒂#12539;史密斯(Patti Smith),再近一点有莎拉#12539;西尔弗曼(Sarah Silverman)和《南方公园》(South Park)的制作人――都是说教者。已故的路#12539;瑞德(Lou Reed)的《我想回去》(I Wanna Be Black)充斥着种族歧视语、污言秽语和令人厌恶的性画面,我甚至无法从中找到一句有意义的话在这里进行引述。这也是一首带有挖苦式愤怒的歌,猛烈抨击了自由主义者的种族主义,他们对黑人文化的崇敬是黑人文化的一副扭曲的讽刺画。Though many of these vulgar outlaws were eventually warily embraced by the mainstream, to one degree or another, it wasn#39;t until long after their deaths that society assimilated them, still warily, and sometimes not at all. In their own lifetimes, they mostly existed on the margins or in the depths; you had to seek them out in society#39;s obscure corners. That was especially the case during the advent of new types of music. Swing, bebop, Sinatra, cool jazz, rock #39;n#39; roll -- all were specialized, youth-oriented upheavals in sound and style, and they drove the older generation crazy.尽管这些粗俗之徒中有很多人最终都在一定程度上被主流文化小心翼翼地接受了,但直到他们离世后很久,社会才对其进行吸收,依然是小心翼翼,有时甚至根本就没吸收。他们在有生之年大都存在于边缘地带或藏在深处;你得在社会的昏暗角落里找寻。在新的音乐类型出现时尤其如此。摇摆乐(swing)、咆勃爵士乐(bebop)、Sinatra、冷爵士(cool jazz)、摇滚――这些音乐都在声音和风格上更加专门化并且以年轻人为主导,它们让老一代人抓狂。These days, with every new ripple in the culture transmitted, commented-on, analyzed, mocked, mashed-up and forgotten on countless universal devices every few minutes, everything is available to everyone instantly, every second, no matter how coarse or abrasive. You used to have to find your way to Lou Reed. Now as soon as some pointlessly vulgar song gets recorded, you hear it in a clothing store.如今,每隔几分钟就有一股新的文化浪潮在无数平台上传播、被、被分析、被模仿、被混杂和被遗忘,每个人时刻都能立即接触到所有东西,无论这些东西有多么粗俗或粗糙。以前得想法设法才能找到路#12539;瑞德,而现在一旦某一首空洞粗俗的歌曲被录制,在装店就能听到。The shock value of earlier vulgarity partly lay in the fact that a hitherto suppressed impulse erupted into the public realm. Today Twitter, Snapchat, Instagram and the rest have made impulsiveness a new social norm. No one is driving anyone crazy with some new form of expression. You#39;re a parent and you don#39;t like it when Kanye West sings: #39;I sent this girl a picture of my d---. I don#39;t know what it is with females. But I#39;m not too good with that s---#39;? Shame on you.早期粗俗内容之所以如此有冲击力,部分原因在于当时被压抑已久的冲动爆发进入了公共领域。而如今,Twitter、Snapchat、Instagram及其他社交网站已经让冲动变成了一种新的社会常规。没有谁会再为新的表达形式感到抓狂。当已为人父母的你听到坎耶#12539;韦斯特(Kanye West) 唱“我给这个女孩发了一张我‘小弟弟’的照片。我不知道女人会感觉怎么样。但我跟那个贱人的感觉不怎么样”的时候,你表示不喜欢,那我真替你脸红。The fact is that you#39;re hearing the same language, witnessing the same violence, experiencing the same graphic sexual imagery on cable, or satellite radio, or the Internet, or even on good old boring network TV, where almost explicit sexual innuendo and nakedly explicit violence come fast and furious. Old and young, high and low, the idiom is the same. Everything goes.事实是,你会听到同样的语言,看到同样的暴力,会在电视、电台、网上甚至在无聊的怀旧频道上看到同样的性画面,近乎裸的性暗示和暴力迅速激烈地袭来。无论是上了年纪的人还是年轻人,高声还是低吟,说的话都一样。什么都一样。Graphic references to sex were once a way to empower the individual. The unfair boss, the dishonest general, the amoral politician might elevate themselves above other mortals and abuse their power, but everyone has a naked body and a sexual capacity with which to throw off balance the enforcers of some oppressive social norm. That is what Montaigne meant when he reminded his ers that #39;both kings and philosophers defecate.#39; Making public the permanent and leveling truths of our animal nature, through obscenity or evocations of sex, is one of democracy#39;s sacred energies. #39;Even on the highest throne in the world,#39; Montaigne writes, #39;we are still sitting on our asses.#39;对性的形象暗示曾经是赋予人权力的一种方式。不公的老板、不诚实的将军、无道德感的政客可能会把自己提到高于其他普通人的高度上并且滥用权力,但人人都有一个裸露的身体和扰乱社会规范执行者的性能力。这正是蒙田(Montaigne)在提醒读者“国王和哲学家都要排便”时所要表达的意思。通过淫秽粗俗或性唤起,将人类之动物本性这一事实永恒而地公之于众,是民主的一种神 能量。蒙田写道:“即使是世界上最高的宝座,也是被屁股坐着的。”But we#39;ve lost the cleansing quality of #39;dirty#39; speech. Now it#39;s casual, boorish, smooth and corporate. Everybody is walking around sounding like Howard Stern. The trash-talking Jay-Z and Kanye West are superwealthy businessmen surrounded by bodyguards, media consultants and image-makers. It#39;s the same in other realms, too. What was once a cable revolution against treacly, morally simplistic network television has now become a formulaic ritual of #39;complex,#39; counterintuitive, heroic bad-guy characters like the murderous Walter White on #39;Breaking Bad#39; and the lovable serial killer in #39;Dexter.#39; And the constant stream of Internet gossip and brainless factoids passing themselves off as information has normalized the grossest references to sex and violence.然而“脏话”已经丧失了 化我们的能力。现在它们已变得随便、粗鲁、流畅和官方。每个人说话都像是霍华德#12539;斯特恩(Howard Stern)。废话连篇的Jay-Z和坎耶#12539;韦斯特都是超级有钱的商人,被保镖、媒体顾问和形象制作人团团包围。其他行业也是一样。曾经针对甜腻的、道德单纯化节目的电视革命现在成了“复杂的”、违背常理的、充满英雄色的坏人角色的公式化惯例,比如《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad)里残忍的沃特#12539;怀特(Walter White)和《嗜血法医》(Dexter)里讨人喜欢的连环杀手。无休止的网上八卦和愚蠢传闻被伪装成有用的信息,让最恶心的提及性和暴力的内容变成了正常。Back in the 1990s, growing explicitness and obscenity in popular culture gave rise to the so-called culture wars, in which the right and the left fought over the limits of free speech. Nowadays no one blames the culture for what the culture itself has become. This is, fundamentally, a positive development. Culture isn#39;t an autonomous condition that develops in isolation from other trends in society.回首1990年代,流行文化中露骨和淫秽内容的增多导致了所谓文化战争的产生,左翼和右翼群体就自由言论的界限展开了争论。现在没有人会因为文化本身的演进而批评文化。这从根本上来说是一种积极的发展。文化并不是孤立于社会上其他趋势自主发展的东西。The JFK assassination, the bloody rampage of Charles Manson and his followers, the incredible violence of the Vietnam War -- shocking history-in-the-making that was once hidden now became visible in American living rooms, night after night, through new technology, TV in particular. Culture raced to catch up with the straightforward transcriptions of current events.约翰#12539;肯尼迪(JFK)被暗杀、查尔斯#12539;曼森(Charles Manson)及其追随者的血腥屠杀、越南战争(Vietnam War)骇人听闻的暴力――曾经不为人知的令人震惊的事件,现在出现在了美国家庭的客厅里。通过新科技,尤其是电视机,人们每晚都能看到。文化加速赶上了直截了当记录时事的速度。And, of course, the tendency of the media, as old as Lord Northcliffe and the first mass-circulation newspapers, to attract business through sex and violence only accelerated. Normalized by TV and the rest of the media, the counterculture of the 1970s was smoothly assimilated into the commercial culture of the 1980s. Recall the 15-year-old Brooke Shields appearing in a commercial for Calvin Klein jeans in 1980, sping her legs and saying, #39;Do you know what comes between me and my Calvins? Nothing.#39; From then on, there was no going back.当然,那些像诺思克利夫勋爵(Lord Northcliffe)和首批大规模发行的报纸一样古老的媒体,他们通过性和暴力来吸引业务的癖好有增无减。被电视及其他媒体正常化后,1970年代的反主流文化顺利地融入了1980年代的商业文化。回想当时15岁的布鲁克#12539;希尔兹(Brooke Shields)出现在1980年Calvin Klein牛仔裤广告中,她张开双腿说道:“知道我和我的Calvin之间有什么东西吗?什么都没有。”从那以后便一发不可收拾。Today, our cultural norms are driven in large part by technology, which in turn is often shaped by the lowest impulses in the culture. Behind the Internet#39;s success in making obscene images commonplace is the dirty little fact that it was the pornography industry that revolutionized the technology of the Internet. Streaming , technology like Flash, sites that confirm the validity of credit cards were all innovations of the porn business. The Internet and pornography go together like, well, love and marriage. No wonder so much culture seems to aspire to porn#39;s depersonalization, absolute transparency and intolerance of secrets.如今,我们的文化规范在很大程度上受到科技的推动,而科技常常源自文化中最低层次的冲动。互联网成功将淫秽图片变成司空见惯的东西,这背后是色情行业将互联网科技彻底改革的肮脏事实。流媒体视频、Flash等技术、还有验信用卡有效性的网站都是色情业的创新产品。互联网和色情业就像是爱和婚姻的关系。难怪会有那么多的文化会渴望实现色情片的去人性化和绝对透明,不允许秘密的存在。An essay like this typically ends with a set of prescriptions to solve the problem laid out in the previous paragraphs. But when the culture of vulgarity is produced by so many different factors -- commercial, economic, social, aesthetic -- there is no end in sight. One can only hope that, as happens so often in America, restless impatience with the status quo will carry the day and the pendulum will swing to the other side -- not toward censorship and repression but toward the sacred power of sexual self-assertion and outlaw imprecations.这样一篇文章,一般会以列出一套解决前文所述问题的方案为结尾。但是当粗俗文化的产生源自诸多不同因素时――商业、经济、社会、美学――目前还看不到解决办法。我们只能希望,人们对现状的焦躁和不耐烦最终会战胜一切,天平会倾向另一边――并非是向审查和压制倾斜,而是向性的自我肯定的神 力量以及对法外之徒的谴责之情倾斜。在美国,人们常常只能抱有这样的希望。From Miley Cyrus#39;s brilliant, purposeful, repeated travesties of her wholesome image -- #39;This is what culture is really about now,#39; she seems to be saying -- to songs by Eminem, Lady Gaga, Kanye West and others that express disgust with their own celebrity and wealth, pop culture itself seems to yearn for a time when obscenity and graphic sexual images were morally potent rather than merely titillating and profitable. So maybe there is hope, and we will find, after all, some relief from the relentless hum of casual coarseness and vulgarity.从麦莉#12539;赛勒斯(Miley Cyrus)刻意重复塑造的耀眼健康形象――她似乎在说:“这才是当前文化的本质”――到艾米纳姆(Eminem)、蕾迪#12539;卡卡(Lady Gaga)、坎耶#12539;韦斯特及其他对自己的名气和财富表达厌恶的人,流行文化本身似乎也在怀念那个曾经的年代,那时污秽和性画面具备精神性的强大能量,而不仅仅能用来挑逗观众并从中牟利。所以或许还是有希望的,我们最终能部分摆脱粗俗低级的无休止吟唱。Or maybe not. I#39;ll still be keeping my finger on the off-button of whatever device I happen to be using in case my children happen by. Celebrity Six is a game I hope they never learn to enjoy, even as adults.不过也很难说。无论使用什么设备,我都会准备着随时立刻关闭它们,以防我的孩子碰巧路过看到。我希望“六个名人”是一个他们永远都不会想要玩的游戏,即便长大成人后也不会。 /201401/272940哈尔滨市三院评价哈尔滨无痛人流的费用是多少



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