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来源:妙手问答    发布时间:2018年02月26日 09:43:36    编辑:admin         

And therere. The holiday shopping season is officially underway. Hear that Jingle? Thats the sound of shoppers using smartphones to ring up deals. From comparing prices to finding must-have items. Santa has elves but you have a mobile phone.就是这里。假日购物季正式开始了。听到铃声了吗?那是卖家在用智能手机电话交易。从比价到寻找必备物品。圣诞老人有小精灵,而你则有移动电话。;Its about the convenience that customers are looking for and retailers are trying to provide it.;“消费者在寻求轻松的购物方式,零售商则努力迎合。”Starts simple, find your favorite retailers on Twitter and Facebook for exclusive discounts for fans and followers. Then make sure you are checking in on GPS apps, like Foursquare. JCPenny and Toys R Us are among those with special perks for holiday shoppers. 简单来说吧,去推特和脸谱找你最爱的商店,去购买打折的风扇和鲜花。一定要使用像Foursquare等GPS应用软件定位对购物者有优待的商铺,比如JCPenny(杰西潘尼,美国装店)和Toys R Us(玩具反斗城)。;With Foursquare, we are going to give you the opportunity to get a special Jeffrey badge.;“有了Foursquare,你将有机会获得特别的Jeffrey勋章。”Ditch store circulars and skip the clip, the shop-kick app delivers rewards to your phone when you are walking to the stores like Target, and Best Buy while Yowza has sent exclusive deals based on your geographic area. Meanwhile, Amazons price check up and Shop Savvy let you scan bar codes in store and compare prices from different retailers and get deep daily discounts from group buying sites sent to your mobile device every morning. Groupon has aly kicked off a festival holiday deals in hundreds of local markets. Living Social starts 12 days of gift-able items on December 13th. 丢掉店铺通告,跳过优惠券夹吧,你朝Target(塔吉特,美国百货商店)和Best Buy(百思买,网络零售品牌)这样的商店走时,应用软件shop-kick会给你的手机发送奖励,并且Yowza也会根据你所在的地理位置发送独家的交易。于此同时,亚马逊价格审查和Shop Savvy(条形码识别)会帮你扫描条形码,比较不同零售店的价格,还会每天早晨将团购网站上的最优惠折扣发送到你的手机上。Groupon(团购网)已经拉开了节假日交易的序幕。12月13日在线社区开始了为期12天的礼物赠送活动。;We are celebrating the holidays and helping consumers buy gifts for their loved ones.;“我们在庆祝节日,帮助消费者购买他们喜爱的商品。”Karin Caifa, CNN, Washington.Karin Caifa,CNN,华盛顿。本文译文属201206/187095。

Science and Technology科技Climate and the solar cycle气候与太阳周期Chilling out in the winter sun冬日下的冷噤Stratospheric changes can lead to nasty cold snaps平流层变化引起讨厌的严寒THOSE unconvinced-and those seeking to unconvince others-of the reality of man-made global warming often point to the changeable behaviour of the sun as an alternative hypothesis.那些自己不信和那些游说他人不要相信人类活动导致全球变暖的人,常常将其归咎于太阳活动多变。A new study showing how the severity of winters in Europe, and warming in the Arctic, might be linked to changes in solar activity might seem to add to this case.一项新的研究似乎为此提供了新据:该研究显示欧洲冬日的严寒以及北极地区的温暖也许真与太阳活动有关。In itself, it does not, for the heat (or, rather, the cold) in question is being redistributed, not retained.就研究本身而言,它并不能提供新的据,因为所提到的热能(或者是寒气)是被重新分配而不是滞留固定的。But it does point to two other lessons about climate change: that hard data on the factors which affect it are sometimes difficult to come by;但它的确指出了关于气候变化的另外两个问题:一是有时候很难获得影响气候变化的因素的切实数据;and that computer models of the climate can be quite impressive tools for working out what is going on.二是计算机气候模型在探究气候现象方面是十分强大的工具。The suns activity waxes and wanes on an 11-year cycle, and over this cycle the amount of ultraviolet (UV) light the sun emits changes a lot more than does the total amount of energy.太阳活动的盛衰以11年为一个周期,在一个周期内,太阳放射的紫外线的变化幅度要比其放射的能量的变化幅度要大得多。The stratosphere, the part of the Earths atmosphere which does most to absorb UV, might thus be expected to particularly sensitive to the cycle.因此,地球大气中吸收最多紫外线的平流层也许对这一周期变化最为敏感。In a paper just published in Nature Geoscience, Sarah Ineson of Britains Meteorological Office and her colleagues compared the way that the Met Offices new and putatively improved climate model dealt with winters at times of high UV and at times of low UV, using data on the amount of ultraviolet the sun gives off that were collected by a satellite called SORCE.《自然地球科学》杂志刚刚发表的一篇论文上,英国气象局的莎拉?伊内森和她的同事们利用SORCE(太阳辐射和气候试验)卫星收集的太阳放射的紫外线数据,对比了气象局新建立的改良版气候模型对于紫外线峰值年与低谷年的冬天的处理方式。Dr Ineson found that at low UV levels the stratosphere in the tropics was cooler, because there was less UV for it to absorb, which meant the difference in temperature between the tropical stratosphere and the polar stratosphere shrank.伊内森士发现,热带平流层在紫外线低谷年的温度偏低,因为可吸收的紫外线较少,这就使得热带平流层与极地平流层的温差缩小。That changed the way the atmosphere circulated, and as those changes sp down into the lower atmosphere they made it easier for cold surface air from the Arctic to come south in winter, freezing chunks of northern Europe.这一温差变化会改变大气循环的方式,而低层大气循环方式的改变让冬天北极冷空气更易南下,冰冻北欧大片地区。These conditions looked similar to those seen in the past two cold European winters-which occurred at a time of low solar activity.这些状况与欧洲上两次均发生在太阳活动沉静期的严酷寒冬的状况十分相似。The Arctic itself, in models and in real life, was warmer than usual, as were parts of Canada.这种状况下,无论在气候模型中还是现实中,北极和加拿大部分地区都比平常要温暖。In contrast, northern Europe, swathes of Russia and bits of America were colder.相比之下,北欧、俄罗斯大部分地区以及美国小部分地区则比平常要冷。Why had this solar effect not been seen before?为何太阳在这方面的影响之前未被发现?To some extent it had.某种程度上说,的确有前人初见其端倪。Earlier modelling of a period of prolonged low solar activity in the 17th and 18th centuries showed similar patterns.早前一个的反映十七、十八世纪偏长的太阳活动低迷期的模型显示了类似的气候变化模式。That models of todays climate had not was, in part, because they used much lower estimates of the amount of UV variation over the solar cycle than those derived from the SORCE data, the most precise to be taken from a satellite looking at the sun.今日的模型未能发现这一影响的部分原因是,与SORCE卫星收集的最精确数据所计算衍生的数值相比,这些模型对太阳活动周期内紫外线值的变化幅度估计过低。It may just be that working with more realistic data made the model work better.也许就是更切实的数据让这些模型做得更好。This does not mean the question is settled.但问题并没有解决。Some scientists suspect the SORCE data may be exaggerating the suns variability, and if they were revised the link might go away.有些科学家认为SORCE卫星的数据有夸大太阳活动变化幅度的嫌疑,如果将数据加以修正,那么太阳活动与气候的所谓联系很可能也不复存在。There are other theories around seeking to explain the recent cold winters, too.还有其他一些理论也致力于找出近期严酷寒冬发生的原因。Improving predictions of future cold winters on the basis of this work, as the researchers say they would like to do, may thus prove hard.如研究人员所说,基于这项工作的成果,他们就有可能对寒冬做出更精准的预测。But though global warming has made people look to models as predictors of the future, that is not their strongest suit.尽管全球变暖使人们将气候模型视为预测工具,但这可不是它们最强大的地方。Something they can do much better is look at what happens when a variable such as UV is altered, compare that with the data, and thus gain insight into the mechanisms by which climate works.它们更精于研究当紫外线等某一变量变化时发生的情况,并将其与已有数据进行比较,从而了解气候运作机制。This new research provides a good example of what such an approach can achieve.此项新研究很好地给我们展现了这一方法的潜能。 /201211/207279。

Science and technology.科技。Moral philosophy.道德哲学。Goodness has nothing to do with it.无关善恶。Utilitarians are not nice people.功利主义者并不是好人。IN THE grand scheme of things Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill are normally thought of as good guys. Between them, they came up with the ethical theory known as utilitarianism. The goal of this theory is encapsulated in Benthams aphorism that ;the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation.;从历史洪流的角度来看,杰里米·贝萨姆和约翰·斯图阿特·密尔通常都被认为是好人。他们一起合作建立了现在被称为功利主义的道德理论。该理论的核心目的可以被贝萨姆的一句格言很好地概括;道德和立法的基础在于让最多的人最大程度的幸福;Which all sounds fine and dandy until you start applying it to particular cases. A utilitarian, for example, might approve of the occasional torture of suspected terrorists-for the greater happiness of everyone else, you understand. That type of observation has led Daniel Bartels at Columbia University and David Pizarro at Cornell to ask what sort of people actually do have a utilitarian outlook on life. Their answers, just published in Cognition, are not comfortable.听上去很不错,但当你开始把这套理论应用在具体事件上时问题就出来了。比方说,功利主义者可能赞成对恐怖主义疑犯用刑。大家都明白,这是为了其它所有人好。哥伦比亚大学的丹尼尔·巴特尔斯和康奈尔大学的大卫·皮扎罗受到类似这样的观察启发,提出了哪一类型的人对生活的看法最接近功利主义这一有趣问题。他们的论文最近在认知科学上发表,其中得到的结论让人不安。One of the classic techniques used to measure a persons willingness to behave in a utilitarian way is known as trolleyology. The subject of the study is challenged with thought experiments involving a runaway railway trolley or train carriage. All involve choices, each of which leads to peoples deaths. For example: there are five railway workmen in the path of a runaway carriage. The men will surely be killed unless the subject of the experiment, a bystander in the story, does something. The subject is told he is on a bridge over the tracks. Next to him is a big, heavy stranger. The subject is informed that his own body would be too light to stop the train, but that if he pushes the stranger onto the tracks, the strangers large body will stop the train and save the five lives. That, unfortunately, would kill the stranger.测量一个人有多大的意愿以功利主义方式行事的一个传统方法是电车实验。参加者进行一个想象实验,实验里有一节失控的有轨电车或火车车厢。该实验有很多版本,不管哪一个都要求参加者进行选择,而且不管怎么选都会有人死亡。例如:有五个工人在失控车厢前方的轨道上。如果实验参加者作为故事中的一个旁观者不进行干涉这五个人就死定了。参加者被告知他在铁道上方的一座桥上,身边有一个身材肥胖的陌生人,同时参加者知道自己的体重太轻,无法停止火车,但如果把那个陌生人推下去,他的巨大身躯将会停止火车,让五个工人得救。不幸的是这么做会杀死该陌生人。Dr Bartels and Dr Pizarro knew from previous research that around 90% of people refuse the utilitarian act of killing one individual to save five. What no one had previously inquired about, though, was the nature of the remaining 10%.巴特尔斯士和皮扎罗士从之前的研究中得知大约90%的参加者会拒绝杀死一个陌生人救出五个人的功利主义行为。但是之前的研究没人提出过剩下的10%人的性格这一问题。To find out, the two researchers gave 208 undergraduates a battery of trolleyological tests and measured, on a four-point scale, how utilitarian their responses were. Participants were also asked to respond to a series of statements intended to get a sense of their individual psychologies. These statements included, ;I like to see fist fights;, ;The best way to handle people is to tell them what they want to hear;, and ;When you really think about it, life is not worth the effort of getting up in the morning;. Each was asked to indicate, for each statement, where his views lay on a continuum that had ;strongly agree; at one end and ;strongly disagree; at the other. These statements, and others like them, were designed to measure, respectively, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and a persons sense of how meaningful life is.为了找出结果,这两个研究者对208个大学生进行了一系列电车实验,并以一到四分的机制来给他们的中的功利主义成分打分。参加者也要进行一系列分析个人心理的测试。测试包括这些问题,;我喜欢看人打架;,;应付别人最好的办法就是说他们想听的话;,以及;认真想想的话,生活没什么意思,每天起来真不值;。参加者要在一个连续的尺度上标出他们对每一个问题的看法,从;完全同意;到;完全不同意;。这三个问题按次序分别是为了测量一个人的冷血程度,厚黑程度以及他觉得生活是否有意义的程度,其它问题也是围绕着测量这三个方面而设计的。Dr Bartels and Dr Pizarro then correlated the results from the trolleyology with those from the personality tests. They found a strong link between utilitarian answers to moral dilemmas (push the fat guy off the bridge) and personalities that were psychopathic, Machiavellian or tended to view life as meaningless. Utilitarians, this suggests, may add to the sum of human happiness, but they are not very happy people themselves.巴特尔斯士和皮扎罗士然后开始寻找人格测试和电车实验结果的相关性。他们发现在面对道德两难(将胖子推下去)时回答体现功利主义的参加者和冷血变态心理,厚黑主义以及觉得生活没意义的想法有很强的关联。这表示虽然功利主义者能够增加人类整体的幸福值,但他们自己并不是什么快乐的人。That does not make utilitarianism wrong. Crafting legislation-one of the main things that Bentham and Mill wanted to improve-inevitably involves riding roughshod over someones interests. Utilitarianism provides a plausible framework for deciding who should get trampled. The results obtained by Dr Bartels and Dr Pizarro do, though, raise questions about the type of people who you want making the laws. Psychopathic, Machiavellian misanthropes? Apparently, yes.这并不意味着功利主义是错误的。任何法律的制定-当年贝萨姆和密尔希望借其理论能够有所助益的主要行为之一-不可避免的需要牺牲一部分人的利益。功利主义提供了一个比较合理的框架来决定应该牺牲谁的利益。不过巴特尔斯士和皮扎罗士的研究提出了应该让哪种人来制定法律的质疑。冷血,厚黑的厌恶人类者?从表面上来看,是的。 /201209/199776。

Science and Technology Animal behaviour Drip-feeding科技 动物行为 滴定进食Ecology raids the techniques of chemistry生态学里应用上了化学技术。BIOLOGISTS are sometimes accused of physics envy—and there is truth in this accusation. The essential fuzziness of biological systems can never be captured by the precise, mathematically based experiments of something like the Large Hadron Collider. Between physics and biology on the spectrum of fuzziness, though, lies chemistry. And a group of researchers led by Carolyn Nersesian of the University of Sydney has just borrowed one of chemistrys most elegant techniques, titration, to answer a pressing ecological question: how do animals choose where to feed?生物学家们常常被认为非常嫉妒研究物理学的人(事实上确实如此)。他们永远不可能通过像大型强子加速碰撞那样精确、量化的实验来揭示生物学里的一些关键性的奥秘。但是在这种奥秘的;两极;——物理学和生物学之间还有化学。最近由悉尼大学的卡洛琳·涅尔谢相带领的一组研究人员借用化学里一种非常精妙的技术——滴定法来解决一个迫待回答的问题:动物们如何选择觅食场所。Titration, to remind those who dozed through their chemistry lessons, is a way of working out the concentration of a substance in a solution. A reagent of known concentration is dripped (or titrated, to use the term of art) into the unknown solution in the presence of an appropriate indicator molecule (for example litmus, in the case of a reaction between an acid and an alkali). When the tipping point comes, and all of the unknown reagent has reacted, the solution changes colour. The unknown concentration can then be calculated from the amount of known reagent used.滴定法(为了给那些在化学课上打过瞌睡的同学们提个醒)是一种计算溶质在溶液中的浓度的方法。在某种特定的指示分子的参与下(例如,酸溶液和碱溶液的反应中我们使用石蕊指示剂),将一种已知浓度的溶液滴到(专业术语叫滴定)未知溶液中。当滴定终点到来时,所有的未知溶液全都完成了化学反应,溶液的颜色就会发生变化。然后未知溶液的浓度就可以通过被消耗掉的已知溶液的体积计算出来。In Dr Nersesians titration the litmus was a species called the brushtail possum. The two reagents were predators and poisons. In the wild, possums feed mainly on eucalyptus trees. Feeding in trees this way also keeps them safe from ground-based predators, such as foxes. They frequently have to shift from tree to tree in search of non-poisonous leaves, though, because a tree that is being browsed starts manufacturing toxins. Dr Nersesian reasoned that there is probably a measurable point at which a plant becomes so toxic that possums prefer to take their chances with the predators on the ground—and she realised this was a perfect opportunity to do an ecological titration.涅尔谢相士的滴定实验中的;石蕊指示剂;是一种叫帚尾袋貂的动物。那两种溶液是;猎食者;和;有毒物;。在野生环境下,袋貂主要以桉树叶为食。生活在树上也能让它们安全地远离地面上的那些猎食者——例如狐狸。但是他们还得经常从一棵树上换到另一棵树上去寻找那些没有毒的叶子。因为一颗树如果被它们吃久了就会自动分泌毒素。涅尔谢相士认为可能当植物中的毒素达到一个量值的时候,袋貂会选择冒着被猎食的风险(途经地面换一棵树觅食),然后她就意识到这是一个应用生态滴定法绝好的机会。As she reports in the Journal of Animal Ecology, she attempted to imitate the distinction between trees and ground by giving eight possums the opportunity to feed in either of two enclosures. In one, cover was created with eucalyptus branches and light levels were kept low, mimicking an arboreal habitat. Here, the food was sometimes spiked with cineole—a poison often found in eucalyptus leaves. In the other enclosure, the food was always untarnished. However, no cover was provided and fox scent, in the form of faeces and urine, was scattered liberally around, mimicking conditions on the ground.她发表在动物生态学报上报告中写道:她通过给8只袋貂两种桉树来选择觅食来模拟树上和地面的区别。一棵桉树上,有特意放置的桉树枝来遮挡,光照强度也很低,模拟出适合树栖动物习性的环境。但是,这种树上的叶子有时含有桉树脑——桉树叶中常见的毒素。另一棵桉树上,叶子总是无毒的,但是,没有树枝的遮挡。而且通过将一些狐狸的;踪迹;,例如狐狸的脸谱尿液随意四散在周围,来模拟地面环境。To start with, when the level of cineole was low, possums preferred the first enclosure. But as the drip of the titration went up, from 0% to 1% to 2% to 5% and ultimately to 10% of the food being cineole, their behaviour changed. It was not quite the sudden shift from litmus red to blue of an acid being neutralised by an alkali, but it was not far off.开始桉树脑的浓度很低,袋貂都喜欢第一棵桉树。但是随着滴定程度的上升,食物中的桉树脑含量从0%到1%到2%到5% 到最终的10%,它们的行为开始出现变化。虽然不是完全像酸溶液完全被碱溶液中和时石蕊试剂突然从红变蓝那样迅速,但是也差不太多。When the food was toxin-free, the possums spent an average of 40 minutes of every hour eating safely under treelike cover and only 20 minutes in the risky, ground-like enclosure, and that scarcely changed for 1% and 2% cineole. The switch began at 5%, and by the time the cineole level had reached 10% the ratio of time the animals spent in the two enclosures had reversed itself—presumably reflecting, though this remains to be tested, the point at which they change trees in the wild.当叶子无毒时,袋貂们每小时用平均40分钟的时间在树枝状的遮蔽物下安全的进食。而在危险的类地面的桉树上只待20分钟,这时的桉树脑含量变化在1%到2%之间。分界点出现在5%,当桉树脑含量达到10%,这些小动物们呆在这两颗桉树上的时间比完全颠倒过来了——这大致上能反映在野外环境下它们换树进食时的毒素量值,当然这还有待验。Though foxes are of recent introduction in Australia (having been brought for sport by British settlers), many marsupial predators, now extinct, were present before the arrival of man in both his Aboriginal and his European forms, so the ecological system of plants, herbivores and carnivores in the eucalyptus forests would probably not have been that different in the evolutionary past. A neat illustration, then, of co-evolution between three different parts of an ecosystem—and of the value, even in biology, of precise measurement.虽然狐狸是很晚才被引进到澳大利亚的(由英国移民出于狩猎运动的目的而带来的),但是在原始人或者欧洲人到来之前还有很多其他的有袋动物的猎食者(现在都灭绝了)。所以桉树林生态系统中的那些植物,素食动物肉食动物,与进化史中较早的生态系统相比,差别可能也没有那么大。这样一来生态系统中的三个不同角色的(植物,素食动物,肉食动物)协同进化的一张清晰的图表呈现出来。在生物学里也能进行精确的量化计算,这种尝试的价值是巨大的。 /201301/221409。

Banana Island, this is Boardwalk in the U.S. edition, Mayfair in the U.K. version. This is the most expensive piece of real estate in Lagos and in Monopoly: multi-million-dollar mansions, manicured lawns and swimming pools.香蕉岛,在美国版游戏中被称为Boardwalk,而在英国版是Mayfair。这是大富翁拉各斯最昂贵的一处房产,数百万美元的豪宅,拥有修剪整齐的草地和游泳池。Right here is Makoko, the Venice of Lagos, the cheapest piece of real estate on the board game. Now What I found quite interesting is that there are sponsored spots. All right, First Bank. You can see here for Banana Island. But on Makoko I guess nobody wants to sponsor the poorest and cheapest piece of real estate on this Monopoly board game. Monopoly was launched in 1935 in the ed States at the height of the Great Depression. The game was a way for most people who were earning just a couple of dollars a day to experience the life as a real estate noble, earning millions of dollars a year.然而,马科科,拉各斯的,最这一棋盘游戏中最便宜的房产。香蕉岛上有许多由第一赞助的景点。但是,有趣的是,在马科科,我猜没人愿意在大富翁棋盘游戏中的最便宜、最贫穷的地产上赞助任何项目。大富翁游戏发行之际,正值美国1935年经济大萧条最严重之时。对于每天只能挣得几美元的大多数人来说,这一游戏成为他们体验那种拥有豪华房产,每年轻松赚得上百万美元的生活的一种方式。Lagos State Government was heavily involved in bringing this game to Nigeria. Part of the reason was to promote the city, but also to encourage people to follow traffic regulations. Youve seen images of Lagos. You know that the city is clogged with traffic, so here one of the cards for the chance cards, for using the overheads pedestrian bridge, move forward three spaces. Many people try to run across highways, and many are killed every year. There are Pedestrian bridges above that traffic, and this is to encourage usage of those bridges. The game is still sold relatively cheaply in the ed States and U.K. On amazon.com, you can buy about 18 dollars, and in the U.K. you can buy 9 pounds 70. But here in Nigeria, the price is close to 40 dollars, putting it out of reach for most ordinary Nigerians, who earn less than 2 dollars a day.拉各斯州政府亲自大力持这一游戏进入尼日利亚市场。部分原因在于推动该市发展,同时鼓励人们遵守交通法规。你可能想象过拉各斯的情况。这一城市交通堵塞情况十分严重,因此,应该采用过街人行天桥。但是,许多人都企图穿越高速公路,每年有很多人因此丧生。拉各斯是过街人行天桥的,企图通过这一游戏使用这些天桥。目前,这一游戏在美国和英国卖得仍然相当便宜。通过On amazon.com网站,你仅花大约18美元就可以买上,而在英国是9.7英磅。但是,在尼日利亚,价格高达近40美元,远远超出了一般的尼日利亚人的消费能力,他们每天的收入不到2美元。Lagos, the first African city to be featured in the world famous board game Monopoly. Lets go explore some of the sites and Landmarks.拉各斯是出现在世界闻名的大富翁棋盘游戏中的第一座非洲城市。让我们来探索这里的一些地址和地标吧。 201212/217895。