南昌同济整形美容医院去眼袋怎么样
时间:2019年10月23日 21:28:00

LOS ANGELES — When Edmund G. Brown Sr. was governor of California, people were moving in at a pace of 1,000 a day. With a jubilant Mr. Brown officiating, California commemorated the moment it became the nation’s largest state, in 1962, with a church-bell-ringing, four-day celebration. He was the boom-boom governor for a boom-boom time: championing highways, universities and, most consequential, a sprawling water network to feed the explosion of agriculture and development in the dry reaches of central and Southern California.洛杉矶——当老埃德蒙·G·布朗(Edmund G. Brown Sr.)担任加州州长时,平均每天有1000人搬到该州。1962年,在布朗热情洋溢的主持下,加州庆祝了成为美国第一大州的那一刻。教堂钟声响起,为期四天的庆祝活动拉开帷幕。他是繁荣时期一位有魄力的州长:持建造公路、大学,以及最具深远影响的庞大供水网络,满足农业的迅速扩展,以及加州中南部干旱地区的发展。Nearly 50 years later, it has fallen to Mr. Brown’s only son, Gov. Jerry Brown, to manage the modern-day California that his father helped to create. The state is prospering, with a population of more than double the 15.5 million it had when Mr. Brown, known as Pat, became governor in 1959. But California, the seventh-largest economy in the world, is confronting fundamental questions about its limits and growth, fed by the collision of the severe drought dominating Jerry Brown’s final years as governor and the water and energy demands — from homes, industries and farms, not to mention pools, gardens and golf courses — driven by the aggressive growth policies advocated by his father during his two terms in office.大约50年后,轮到布朗唯一的儿子杰瑞·布朗(Jerry Brown)执掌当代加州,一个由他父亲参与创建的加州。加州繁荣发展,人口数达到了老布朗——又被称为帕特(Pat)——1959年担任州长时的1550万人口的两倍多。但作为世界第七大经济体,加州正面临有关限制及增长的根本问题,其原因来自两方面的碰撞。一方面是杰瑞·布朗州长任期最后几年出现大旱的情况,而另一方面就是家庭、工业及农场需要大量水和能源的现实,更不用说还有水塘、花园及高尔夫球场。而其父在两个任期内曾推出积极增长政策,从而促使上述领域快速发展。The stark challenge that confronts this state is putting a spotlight on a father and son who, as much as any two people, define modern-day California. They are strikingly different symbols of different eras, with divergent styles and distinct views of government, growth and the nature of California itself.该州面临的严峻挑战让大家的目光投向了这一对父子,他们比其他任何两人都更多地塑造了现代加州。他们来自不同时代,象征着截然不同的东西,风格迥异,并对政府、发展和加州本身的性质持有大不相同的看法。Pat Brown, who died in 1996 at the age of 90, was the embodiment of the post-World War II explosion, when people flocked to this vast and beckoning state in search of a new life. “He loved that California was getting bigger when he was governor,” said Ethan Rarick, who wrote a biography of Pat Brown and directs the Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service at the University of California, Berkeley. “Pat saw an almost endless capacity for California growth.”帕特·布朗于1996年逝世,享年90岁。他是二战结束后迅猛发展的体现。当时人们涌入这个幅员辽阔、极具吸引力的州,寻求一种新的生活。“他担任州长时,加州不断发展壮大,他喜欢这种感觉,”帕特·布朗的传记作者、加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)松井武男政治与公共务中心(Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service)负责人伊桑·拉里克(Ethan Rarick)说。“帕特认为加州拥有几乎无穷尽的发展能力。”Jerry Brown arrived in Sacramento for the first of two stints he would serve as governor in 1975 — just over eight years after Pat Brown was defeated for re-election by Ronald Reagan. He was, at 36, the austere contrast to his father, a product of the post-Watergate and post-Vietnam era, wary of the kind of brawny, interventionist view of government that animated Pat Brown. The environmental movement had emerged in the years between Pat Brown’s defeat and Jerry Brown’s arrival — the first Earth Day and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries oil embargo took place during that period — and among its most passionate adherents was Pat Brown’s son.杰瑞·布朗两度担任加州州长,他于1975年,也就是帕特·布朗在连任竞选中败给罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)的八年之后,到达萨克拉门托,开始了第一个任期。那时,36岁的布朗与其父形成鲜明对比,他是后水门事件时代及后越战时代的产物,不认同帕特·布朗所热衷的强大政府及其干涉主义行事风格。在帕特·布朗竞选失败与杰瑞·布朗首次上任之间的时间里,环保运动横空出世。在那段时间里,出现了第一个地球日(Earth Day)及石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)的石油出口禁令。当时,帕特·布朗的这个儿子是环保运动最热诚的拥护者之一。If Pat Brown wanted the stunningly ambitious California State Water Project that he muscled into law to “be a monument to me,” as he later said of what was the most expensive public works project in the state’s history, Jerry Brown championed the modest if intellectually provocative “Small Is Beautiful” viewpoint espoused by the economist E. F. Schumacher, which emphasized the dangers of depleting natural resources. (Mr. Brown flew to London to speak at Schumacher’s funeral in 1977.) As governor, Jerry Brown spoke of limits and respect for the fragility of the planet from the moment he took office.如果说帕特·布朗希望他强力推动、并使之成为法律的宏大的加州水资源计划(California State Water Project)成为“我留下的丰碑”——就像他后来提到该州历史上耗资最大的公共工程计划时说的那样,杰瑞宣扬的则是经济学家E·F·舒马赫(E.F. Schumacher)提出的“小即是美”(Small Is Beautiful)的观点,这个并不宏大的观点在知识界曾颇具争议性,强调了消耗自然资源的危险。(布朗于1977年飞往伦敦参加舒马赫的葬礼并发表讲话。)作为州长,杰瑞·布朗自上任伊始,就开始谈论这个脆弱星球面临的限制,以及对它的尊重。“He positioned himself as very, very different from my father,” said Kathleen Brown, who is Mr. Brown’s youngest sister. “Some looked at it as a psychological battle between father and son. I don’t think it was that at all. I think it was a coming-of-age in a different period. The consciousness that our resources were limited was just beginning to take hold in the broader community.”“他对自己的定位与先父完全不同,”布朗最小的凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“有人将这看作是父亲与儿子之间的心理战。我认为根本不是这么回事。我觉得这是成长于不同时期所造成的差异。当年,那种资源有限的意识刚刚开始在更广泛的人群中扎根。”Since taking office as governor for the second time, in 2011, Jerry Brown has again been the voice of limits — though this time, his view is informed less by the theories of environmentalists and more by the demands of trying to manage a drought of historic proportions. One month Mr. Brown is ordering a 25 percent reduction in the use of potable water in urban communities; the next he is pressing for a 40 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions to battle the choking pollution that is another byproduct of the heady growth.自杰瑞·布朗于2011年开始第二个任期以来,他再次提出资源有限的观点,尽管这次他的观点更多的不是受环保主义理论的影响,而是源自努力应对史上罕见旱情的需要。布朗刚刚要求城市社区的饮用水量减少25%,接下来就要求将温室气体排放量减少40%,以对抗令人窒息的污染,而污染是快速发展造成的另一个附带结果。“We are dealing with different periods,” Mr. Brown said in an interview. “The word ‘environment’ wasn’t used then: You talked about conservation. Environmentalism came in after my father left. There was this sense that we can become No. 1 ahead of New York — they rang church bells when we did — but now, you fast-forward 60 years later, and people are concerned about whether the water is available, the cost to the environment, how to pay for suburban infrastructure.”“我们应对的是不同时期的问题,”杰瑞·布朗接受采访时说。“当年人们还不怎么使用‘环境’一词,谈的都是保护。我父亲离开后才出现环保主义这个说法。当时有那种我们能超越纽约,成为第一的感觉。当我们做到这一点时,他们纷纷庆祝。但现在,快进到60年后的今天,人们担心的是,是否有水可用,对环境的影响,以及怎么付郊区基础设施建设的费用。”“All of these insights and concerns developed after most of his governorship,” Mr. Brown said of his father. “But they preceded mine — and they have intensified.”“在他的任期过了大半时间后,才出现这些深刻看法及担忧,”杰瑞·布朗提到他父亲时说。“但它们出现在我的任期之前,而且自那时起愈演愈烈。”The House That Pat Built帕特的功绩When Pat Brown, then 53 and the state attorney general, was elected governor in 1958, the Republicans controlled both houses of the Legislature and most statewide offices. He swept to victory in an election that signaled a new direction for California: Brown was a Republican turned Democrat who identified with the New Deal policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt.1958年,时年53岁的州总检察长帕特·布朗当选为州长。当时,共和党控制着议会两院和全州范围内的大部分机构。他在一次选举中以压倒性优势获胜。那次选举标志着加州的新方向:布朗是一名从共和党转变而来的民主党人,认同富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)的“新政”(New Deal)政策。“He really in many ways built the modern California that we know,” said Raphael J. Sonenshein, the executive director of the Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles. “Even though he only had two terms, they were enormously consequential. I have to think that the California that we live in bears his stamp more than that of any other governor.”“他真的在很多方面打造了我们所知道的这个现代的加利福尼亚,” 加州大学洛杉矶分校埃德蒙·G·“帕特”·布朗公共事务研究所(Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles)的执行主管拉斐尔·J·索南沙因(Raphael J. Sonenshein)说。“只当了两届,但那两届影响巨大。我必须承认,他在我们现在所生活的加州留下的印记,比其他任何州长都多。”The new governor pledged in his inaugural address to follow “the path of responsible liberalism.” He rejected warnings from aides about the state’s deficit, and advocated tax increases to finance spending on school construction, parks and transportation. During his years in power, the state built three new campuses for the University of California and six more for the state college system — though that was not his top interest.那时,他作为新州长在就职演说中承诺,将遵循“负责任的自由主义道路”。他拒绝了助手有关该州赤字的警告,持增税,以便为学校建设、公园和交通运输开提供资金。在他当权的那些年里,该州为加州大学修了三个分校,并为该州高校体系建了六所学校。而这还不算是他最关心的领域。“Water was the No. 1 thing on his agenda,” said Martin Schiesl, a professor emeritus of history at California State University. In his first year in office, Pat Brown persuaded the Legislature to pass and send to voters a .75 billion bond to begin the state water project — a network of dams, pipes and an aqueduct designed to take water from the relatively wet north to Southern California, where 80 percent of the population lived.“水是他当时要处理的首要问题,”加州州立大学(California State University)历史学荣休教授马丁·席泽尔(Martin Schiesl)说。执政第一年,帕特·布朗说州议会通过了一项17.5亿美元的债券计划,并向选民兜售,以便开始州级水利项目——这是一个由水坝、管道和一条引水渠组成的网络,旨在把水资源从相对湿润的加州北部输送到州里80%的人口聚居的南部。Pat Brown was offering an ambitious vision of California as he campaigned across the state for the measure: California as its own vast and diverse nation, where the water of the north would feed the population and farm growth to the south. “He thought it was irresponsible not to plan for the growth that was coming,” Kathleen Brown said. “He used to say, ‘If you don’t want to manage and build for this growth today, we’ll have to do something else tomorrow.’ ”在州内各个地方为这项提案做宣传时,帕特·布朗勾画了一个关于加州的宏伟蓝图:加州本身就是个广阔而多元的地方,北部的水资源能够供养南部的人口,并保障那里的农业增长。“他认为,不为将来的增长做打算,是不负责任的行为,”凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“他常说,‘如果你今天不愿意为这种增长进行管理和建设方面的工作,我们明天就不得不去做额外的事情。’”In a letter cited in “California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown,” the biography by Mr. Rarick, Pat Brown argued that he had no choice. “What are we to do? Build barriers around California and say nobody else can come in because we don’t have enough water to go around?”拉里克撰写的传记《加州的崛起:帕特·布朗及其时代》(California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown)中引用了一封信。帕特·布朗在其中表示,自己别无选择。“我们该怎么办?用栅栏把加州团团围住,说其他人等不得入内,就因为我们没有足够的水资源?”A New Tone新基调Jerry Brown did not originally go into the family business, spending his years as a young man as a Jesuit studying for the priesthood. He spent three years in the seminary, before emerging to prepare for law school and what would prove to be an almost- unbroken lifetime in public office. When he became governor, he arrived in the shadow of his father, who had gone from having an outsize reputation to a second-term decline and defeat in 1966 as he struggled with student unrest at Berkeley and a conservative shift by the electorate.杰瑞·布朗刚开始并没有子承父业,年轻时曾作为耶稣会士而研习神职。他在神学院度过三年,后来才为进入法学院做准备,随后开始了几乎不曾间断的公职生涯。在他成为州长的时候,父亲的阴影随之而来。他父亲最初享有很高的声望,却在第二任期时人气急跌,后来因为疲于应对伯克利的学生运动,再加上选民朝保守主义的转变,他在1966年落败。Jerry Brown’s new tone was clear from his first inaugural address as he warned of “the rising cost of energy, the depletion of our resources, the threat to the environment, the uncertainty of our economy and the monetary system, the lack of faith in government, the drift in political and moral leadership.”杰瑞·布朗的新基调在第一次州长就职演说中就表现得很清晰,他对“日益增长的能源成本、资源的损耗、环境所受到的威胁、我们的经济和货币体系面临的不确定性、政府公信力的缺乏,以及政治和道德领导力方面的偏移”发出了警告。With one notable exception — he campaigned, unsuccessfully, to win voter support for another water tunnel to finish his father’s project, which to this day he calls essential to the state’s long-term health — this would not be an administration about building roads, bridges, dams or college campuses. Instead, Mr. Brown focused on policies that regulated growth.这将不是一届致力于修建道路、桥梁、大坝或大学校园的政府。布朗关注的是调控增长的政策。不过,还是有一个引人注意的例外:他曾试图赢得选民对又一条引水渠的持,从而完成父亲的工程,但未能成功。迄今为止,他一直说该工程对加州的长期健康发展至关重要。Still, if Jerry Brown is different as a governor from his father, he is different from what he was 40 years ago as well. Even as he talks about strains on California, he is championing the kind of big projects that his father was known for: a high-speed train line from San Francisco to Los Angeles and two massive underground pipelines. The pipelines would help convey water through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, east of San Francisco, to central and Southern California — the state water project his father began. Some of that, no doubt, reflects the consideration of a man who realizes he has only so many years left in office. “Jerry has appreciated, as time has passed, that leaving a legacy as a political figure often requires concrete,” Kathleen Brown said. “My father’s legacy is very much tied and identified with building. Jerry’s first term was very much more about ideas and fundamental shifts in the focus of government.”不过,如果说杰瑞·布朗作为州长与父亲有所不同,那么他与40年前的自己也不一样。就算会谈论加州面临的压力,他仍在持让他父亲闻名的那种大工程:从旧金山到洛杉矶的高铁线路,以及两个大型的地下管道项目。这些管道将把水从旧金山以东的萨克拉门托-圣华金河三角洲输送到加州的中部和南部——这属于他父亲开启的州级水利项目。毫无疑问,其中有些元素反映出他意识到了自己在任的时间有限。“随着时间的流逝,杰瑞已经体会到,作为一个政治人物,留下的政绩往往需要是有形的东西,”凯瑟琳·布朗说。“先父的政绩很大程度上与建筑工程密不可分。杰瑞的第一个任期更多地强调理念,以及政府关注点方面的根本性转变。”Still, Mr. Brown said he would have done what his father did if he had been governor during Pat Brown’s era — and expected that his father would be doing the same thing Jerry Brown is doing were he running the state today.不过,杰瑞·布朗表示,如果在帕特·布朗的时代担任州长,他会采取和父亲同样的做法,而且他认为,如果父亲在今天担任州长,也会做和自己同样的事。“What else could you do?” he said. “Who sets the agenda? The times set the agenda. It’s not like I don’t have a lot of things I want to do. There are a lot of challenges — you have to respond, whether it’s water or drought or education. Health. Immigration. Here they are — do something. That’s what I do. I think my father would do the same thing.”“还能有别的什么选择吗?”他问道。“谁来设定议程?是时代在设定议程。并不是说我自己没有很多想做的事情。是太多挑战了——你必须加以应对,无论是水利、干旱、教育,还是卫生、移民。问题就摆在那里——你得采取行动。我就是这么干的。我认为父亲也会做同样的选择。” /201505/376333

Of all the great lines, in all the films, it all had to come down to a plastic spaceman.在所有电影中,最经典的台词来自一个宇航员造型的塑料玩具。According to a new poll, the greatest line in movie history is Buzz Lightyear’s catchphrase: ‘To infinity…and beyond!’据英国《每日邮报》11月4日报道,《广播时报》(Radio Times)举行了一次票选“大众最喜爱的电影台词”的活动。巴斯光年的那句口头禅“飞向宇宙,浩瀚无限”最终荣获桂冠。The public vote saw the line said by a toy astronaut in Disney’s 1995 film Toy Story come out top by just one vote.这是动画电影《玩具总动员》主角之一的玩具宇航员的口头禅,它以一票的微弱优势胜出,位居大众最喜爱电影台词榜榜首。该电影由迪斯尼公司于1995年出品。This narrow margin gave it victory over Michael Caine’s line, ‘You’re only supposed to blow the bloody doors off’ from 1969’s The Italian Job.英国著名演员迈克尔·凯恩在1969年的电影《偷天换日》中的那句“你只能杀出一条血路。”因一票之差,屈居第二。Third place went to ‘Say hello to my little friend’, screamed by Al Pacino in 1983’s Scarface.美国演员阿尔·帕西诺在1983年的电影《疤面煞星》中的那句“来问问我的吧”名列第三。The Radio Times vote is sure to split opinion, with only ten es chosen from an original shortlist of 50 and many favourites not included in the process at all.《广播时报》(Radio Times)在这次投票活动中仅仅是从列有50句台词的原始名单中选出10句,而很多大众喜爱的台词却根本没有出现。这无疑会引发大家对投票结果的争议。Quotes that were chosen by the magazine to go to the public vote, but failed to attract enough support to make it into the final ten, include: ‘May the Force be with you’ from Star Wars and ‘Here’s looking at you, kid’ from Casablanca.有些被杂志选中并进入大众投票环节的台词最终因没有足够的选票而未能进入十佳之列。比如,《星际大战》中的“愿原力与你同在”以及《卡萨布兰卡》中的“此志不渝”。#39;I love the smell of napalm in the morning’ from Apocalypse Now, ‘Love means never having to say you’re sorry’ from Love Story and ‘The stuff that dreams are made of’ from The Maltese Falcon, were not even up for consideration.而《现代启示录》中的“我喜爱清晨空气中汽油弹的味道”、《爱情故事》里的“爱意味着你永远不必说抱歉”、还有《马耳他雄鹰》中的“梦幻泡影”甚至都没有被列入考虑范围。Last out of the 50 was the famous line from Hitchcock’s thriller Psycho: ‘A boy’s best friend is his mother’, which picked up just one vote from the 2,500 cast in total.这50句台词中得票最少的是希区柯克执导的悬疑片《惊魂记》中的“母亲是男孩最好的朋友”,这句台词仅收获了全部2500张投票中的一张。The other famous lines in the top ten were ‘He’s not the Messiah. He’s a very naughty boy’ from Monty Python’s The Life of Brian which came in fourth. It was spoken by Brian’s mother, played by Terry Jones, and is one of a series of jokes in which Brian is mistaken for Jesus.十佳台词中的第四名是《布莱恩的一生》的“他不是救世主,而是个顽皮男孩”。这句台词出自特里·琼斯(Terry Jones)扮演的母亲一角,是布莱恩被错当成耶稣时的众多笑谈之一。该片由英国著名喜剧团体巨蟒剧团(Monty Python)出品。Next came ‘You’re going to need a bigger boat’ from Steven Spielberg’s Jaws and Gone with the Wind’s ‘Frankly, my dear, I don’t give a damn’.第五名是斯蒂芬·斯皮尔伯格执导的《大白鲨》中的“你会需要一条更大的船”;电影《飘》中的“老实说,亲爱的,我不在乎”则位居其后。Carry On Cleo’s: ‘Infamy, infamy, they’ve all got it in for me’ came in seventh, beating Blade Runner’s ‘All those moments will be lost in time… like tears in rain’.英国经典喜剧电影《继续,克里奥!》中的“耻辱啊耻辱,他们统统给我了”获第七名,而《银翼杀手》中的“所有这些瞬间都将消失在时间中……一如雨中之泪”位居第八。‘Nobody’s perfect’ from Some Like It Hot and ‘We want the finest wines available to humanity. And we want them here, and we want them now’ from Withnail amp; I came ninth and tenth respectively. Just missing out was ‘Bond. James Bond’, first uttered in 1962’s Dr No by Sean Connery.《热情似火》中的“人无完人”和《我与长指甲》中的“我们希望人类能享用到美酒佳酿,而且我们此时此地就想要”分获第九、第十名。与“大众最爱十佳台词”失之交臂的是“邦德,詹姆斯·邦德”,这句台词首次出现在1962年肖恩·康纳利主演的007第一部《007:诺士》中。 /201411/343410

When most people think of psychotherapy, they picture patients relaxing on a sofa and spilling all of their emotions. “Tell me about your childhood,” the therapist says, taking a drag of his cigar. In reality, therapy takes place in all kinds of settings.人们一说到心理疗法,通常都会想到这样一副画面:患者舒适地躺在沙发上,向心理医生诉尽内心情感,而旁边的医生一边抽雪茄一边说道,“谈谈你的童年吧。”实际上,展开心理疗法的情景可谓千奇百怪。10.Sexual Surrogacy Therapy10.性行为替代疗法Your therapist looks deeply into your eyes, holds your hand, and kisses you passionately on the lips. This isn#39;t a violation of the American Psychological Association#39;s code of ethics. Kissing, and sometimes even more, is just part of the job as a sexual surrogate. Sexual surrogates are trained professionals that work with sex therapists to help people work through intimacy issues. Surrogacy goes beyond regular talk therapy; it includes activities to model appropriate romantic and sexual relationships.你的医师满眼深情,握住你的手,与你热情激吻。要知道这种行为并不违背美国心理协会的相关行业道德规范。不单单是亲吻,即使做得更加过火也无可厚非,因为这只是一种名为性行为替代疗法的治疗手段而已。性行为替代治疗师是一群与性学专家共事、接受过相关训练的专业人员,帮助人们解决一些与亲热行为相关的问题。这种替代性疗法并不像平常的谈心疗法那样简单,它会涉及一些在医师和患者之间模拟浪漫的性关系的行为。People may choose sexual surrogacy for many reasons, including anxiety about relationships or general sexual dysfunction. A newly widowed person struggling with dating or a war veteran returning as an amputee might practice flirting or body confidence with a surrogate. Sessions can include everything from social skills training to actual genital-to-genital contact. Surrogacy might sound like prostitution, but its therapeutic benefit seems to give it a free legal pass. The focus is not on pleasure, but on learning what appropriate sexual or relationship behavior feels like. Surrogates aim to get patients to the point where they can end therapy and forge connections on their own.人们选择性替代疗法的原因多种多样,或许是对自己的恋情感到焦虑,或许是常见的性功能障碍问题。不论是刚刚丧偶、想要开启一段新恋情的人,抑或是在战场上惨遭截肢的老兵都可以借助这种方法提升调情技巧、增加自身魅力。性行为替代疗法的内容也很丰富,不仅可以锻炼你的社交技能,也能为你提供真正的性接触治疗。替代疗法听起来或许有些像乱交,但其治疗效果似乎为它争得了合法性。这种疗法的关键不在于享受,而是让人们了解到什么样的性行为或亲密关系才是合适的。性行为替代治疗师的目标就在于让患者能自己建立人际关系,享受社交乐趣。9.Equine Therapy9.马背疗法Horseback riding is no longer a luxury for the rich. The impressive size and emotionally intelligent nature of the horse makes it an excellent therapy partner for troubled youth, drug addicts, and people with disabilities. Learning to care for and ride these gentle giants can be a way to develop important coping skills like self-confidence and patience. Therapy with a horse feels more like fun than work, so patients may feel more open to growth as they learn to take care of both themselves and of their animal friend.对于有钱人来说,骑马早已不再是一件奢侈的事。马儿身型庞大、天性友好,对于问题少年、瘾君子和残疾人而言,它是绝佳的治疗伙伴。学习照顾和驾驭这些温柔的大家伙有助于人们培养一些重要的应对技能,如自信心和耐性。在马儿的陪伴下所开展的心理治疗使人感觉更像是一项活动。在这种情况下,随着病人逐渐学会照顾自己和这些动物朋友,他们也会更顺利地成长。Because horses can weigh up to 900 kilograms (2,000 lb) and are easily frightened, patients get a hands-on education in overcoming fears. Anger and anxiety have no place in the saddle, so troubled youth and others struggling with those emotions may find that working with a horse helps to form new patterns of positive behavior. Caring for the horse and its equipment, or even learning to conquer the fear of riding, can be a powerful metaphor for other challenges in life.马儿体重最多可达900千克(2000磅)并且容易受惊,所以患者们需要临时接受相关训练以克对马儿的恐惧。一旦坐在马鞍之上,所有的愤怒和焦虑都会瞬间消失,因此问题少年或者那些深受不良情绪困扰的人或许会发现,马儿的陪伴有助于他们变得更加乐观积极。照料好马儿和骑马的用具,甚至只是克自身对骑马的恐惧都会为患者今后从容应对生活的各种挑战打下良好的基础。Horses aren#39;t the only animals helping people figure out their feelings; elephants, dolphins, monkeys, and many other animals have been used in therapeutic or service settings.而马儿并不是唯一具有这种神奇功能的动物。大象、海豚、猴子以及许多其他动物均已被广泛应用于心理治疗领域。8.Nude Psychotherapy8.裸体疗法While now a forgotten art, baring bodies and souls in nude therapy sessions was all the rage in the late 1960s. At the forefront of this movement was Paul Bindrim, an offbeat psychologist who believed nakedness allowed people to shake off the social expectations created by clothing and to deal directly with their most private emotions. During group therapy events, Bindrim preached that by shedding shirts and ties, people could explore repressed thoughts, heal marriage troubles, and achieve “peak experiences,” a euphoric state of being attained only through self-actualization.尽管现如今已是一门被遗忘的艺术,但是暴露身体、袒露心扉在上世纪60年代末却是裸体疗法中风靡一时的做法。这场运动的积极倡导者,保罗·宾迪曼(Paul Bindrim),是一个标新立异的心理学家。他相信裸体让人摆脱由装带来的社会期望,并直接应对最私密的情绪。在集体治疗活动期间,宾迪曼宣扬通过脱掉衬衫和领带,人们可以探索遭到压抑的思想、医治婚姻问题、达到“高峰体验”,这种愉快状态只有通过自我实现才能达到。Nude truth-seekers would delight in spending several days revealing their deepest secrets in facilitated exercises designed by Bindrim to promote trust and openness. Activities included everything from deeply gazing into a partner#39;s eyes to scrutinizing each others#39; genitals in an exercise called “crotch eyeballing.” Bindrim taught that true freedom from negative thoughts could only be achieved once a person could expose her most private motivations and parts. Staring directly into what he believed was the root of all repression was a means to do this. Groups of participants swam, meditated, hugged, and expressed rage, all in their birthday suits.着身体追寻真理的人喜欢花上几天时间用宾迪曼设计的促进练习来展现自己最深的秘密,提升信任与公开的程度。这些活动无所不有,包括深深地凝视伴侣的眼睛,以及仔细查看对方的生殖器——这种活动被称作“打量裆部”。宾迪曼教导说,一旦一个人可以展现她最隐密的动机及其身体部位,消极想法中真正的自由才能实现。他认为这个部位是所有压抑的根源,直视这里是做到这一点的一种办法。众多参与者们都一丝不挂地游泳、冥想、拥抱,或者愤怒。As the socially liberal climate of the 1960s dwindled, so did the popularity of nude therapy. Bindrim felt the sting of conservative critics, but his naked marathon programs seemed to fall out of favor due to changing times as opposed to any wrongdoing. Those seeking nude therapy today aren#39;t out of luck. The Human Awareness Institute in California offers participants courses in intimacy and sexuality, some with the option of ditching clothes in search of personal purpose.因为上世纪60年代的社会自由风气衰落了,所以裸体疗法未得以普及。宾迪曼感受到保守派批评家的刺痛,但他的裸体马拉松项目失宠似乎是由于时代的变迁,而不是任何不当行为。那些寻求裸体疗法的人们现如今并非不走运。人类意识研究所在加利福尼亚州为学员提供亲密关系和性方面的课程,其中有一些人选择抛弃衣探索个人意义。审校:Amy.L 编辑:Freya然 校对:落花生 /201507/385226


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