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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年06月19日 06:58:37
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A vegetarian diet, especially one that includes fish, significantly reduces the risk of colorectal cancer, a large new study reports.一项大型研究最近称,素食饮食,特别是包括鱼在内的素食饮食,能极大降低患结肠直肠癌的风险。Researchers recruited 77,659 men and women from Seventh-day Adventist churches nationwide. All filled out well-validated questionnaires that included more than 200 food items.研究者从美国各地的基督复临安息日会(Seventh-day Adventist)招募了77659名男女。所有调查对象都填写了确定有效的问卷,其中提到200多种食物。Meat intake in the population was very low — an average of about two ounces a day. During an average of seven years of follow-up, the scientists found 490 cases of colorectal cancer. Over all, after adjusting for many health and behavioral variables, vegetarians had a 21 percent reduced risk of cancer compared with nonvegetarians. The results are in JAMA Internal Medicine.这些调查对象的总体肉摄入量很低,平均每天约二盎司(约合56.7克)。在平均长达七年的跟踪调查中,科学家们发现了490例结肠直肠癌。在根据很多健康和行为变量调整之后,研究者们算出,总的来说,素食者比非素食者的患癌风险低21%。该研究结果发表在《美国医学会杂志·内科学卷》(JAMA Internal Medicine)上。But some vegetarian diets were better than others. Results for people who modified a vegetarian diet with eating meat or fish up to four times a month derived little benefit. But “pescovegetarians,” who ate fish one or more times a month and other meats less than once a month, reduced their risk by 42 percent compared with nonvegetarians.不过,有些素食优于其他素食。在素食基础上每月最多吃四次肉类或鱼类,几乎不会带来更多益处。但是,“鱼素者”(pescovegetarian),也就是那些每月至少吃一次鱼、最多吃一次肉的人——比非素食者患结肠直肠癌的风险低42%。“We’re looking at the low end of the meat consumption spectrum,” said the lead author, Dr. Michael J. Orlich, an assistant professor of epidemiology at the Loma Linda University School of Public Health, “but even compared to a moderate intake of meat, a zero intake looks better, with or without fish.”“我们调查的是肉摄入量较低的人,”这项研究的主要作者、洛马林达大学公共卫生学院的流行病学助理教授迈克尔·J·奥尔利奇士(Michael J. Orlich)说,“不过,与适量摄入肉类相比,完全不吃肉甚至似乎更好——不管是否摄入鱼类。” /201503/365693

A little black dress may be the easiest answer to the burning question of what to wear once holiday party season rolls around, but with so many festive options to choose from in stores, it would seem a shame to celebrate in basic black. In fact, you may not want to wear a dress at all; party y pants were a favorite on the runways and will set you apart in a see of black cocktail frocks. Here are a few looks to emulate when celebrating this season:在节假日派对季来临之际,关于穿什么这样一个令人焦虑的问题,最简单的可能就是一条小黑裙。但是,既然商店里有那么多的节日盛装可以选择,只穿一件基本款的黑裙子去参加庆典,就显得太局促了。实际上,你可能根本就不想穿裙子;适合派对穿着的长裤在时装秀上大受欢迎,会让你在一片黑色宴会连衣裙中脱颖而出。在本季的节日庆典中,有如下几种可以仿效的穿着搭配:Must Have Metallic:一定要有金属元素:If subtle is the look you are going for, this one is not for you. But if you do opt for a high shine metallic dress, at least you’ll save time by not having to pick out jewelry.如果你要的是低调风格,那这项建议并不适合你;但如果你的确适合那种有金属质感的闪亮饰,至少,你不用再花时间挑选珠宝了。Suit Up:套装:Because of the ‘70s theme that was integral to so many designers’ collections this year, there will be no shortage of leisure suit looks in stores this holiday season. Best of all, a brightly colored jacket or trouser will look great separately when paired with a crisp white blouse after the festivities have come to an end.由于“70年代”主题在许多设计师今年的作品系列中都是必不可少的元素,所以在这个节日季,商店里肯定少不了休闲套装的身影。而在假日结束之后,用那样一件鲜艳的夹克衫或长裤单独搭配一件轻薄的白衬衫,也将获得很棒的效果。An Updated Classic:翻新经典:Sequins at New Years may seem cliché, but with so many updated options to choose from, the look will be hard to resist this season. Sexy dresses sparkled down the runways of Louis Vuitton, Jason Wu, Tom Ford and Saint Laurent, so keep an eye out for similar options in stores.在新年期间穿亮片饰可能看起来有点老套,但既然有那么多时新的款式可供选择,这一风格在本季仍将令人难以抗拒。在路易·威登、吴季刚(Jason Wu)、汤姆·福德(Tom Ford)与圣罗兰(Saint Laurent)的时装秀上,有许多性感的礼都闪闪发光,所以多多留意一下商店里的类似选择吧。Festive Florals:节日印花:Floral patterns, particularly in bold, bright reds are a great option for looking feminine at any gathering this winter. They’ll also transition perfectly in to the spring when actual flowers are blooming. This is another trend that will last you for years to come by taking you from Christmas party to garden party again and again.这个冬季,不管是在哪种聚会场合,身穿印花图案——尤其是那种鲜艳大胆的红色印花,都是看来很有女人味的最佳选择。而且,这种带有印花图案的款式在春季到来、真正的鲜花绽放之时,也是完美的过渡。这是又一轮将在今后数年里持续热度的潮流,让你从圣诞派对穿到花园派对,重复演绎,总不过时。For Last Minute Ladies:给那些来不及打扮的女士:If you just don’t have time to spend popping in and out of dressing rooms, the classic black dress truly is the easiest answer. Update your favorite LBD with one of the season’s hottest accessories: the neck collar. This new necklace is sexy and sophisticated and will instantly update whatever your go-to party look is.如果你没有时间进出更衣室,那么经典黑色礼确实是最简单的选择。就用这一季最热门的饰品——假领(neck collar)来装点你最爱的小黑裙吧。这款饰品既性感,又精致,能够让你无论穿着怎样的派对装,都会立刻焕然一新。 /201411/342260

  

  AUSTIN, Ind. — She became addicted to painkillers over a decade ago, when a car wreck left her with a broken back and doctors prescribed OxyContin during her recovery. Then came a new prescription opiate, Opana, easily obtained on the street and more potent when crushed, dissolved in water and injected. She did just that, many times a day, sometimes sharing needles with other addicts.印第安纳州奥斯汀——十年前,她开始对镇痛剂上瘾。当时,她在一次车祸中脊柱受伤,医生在她康复期间给她开了奥施康定(OxyContin)。然后,又出现了一种新的处方麻醉剂Opana,这种药在外面很容易买,碾碎后效力更强,可溶于水,还可以用于注射。她就是那样做的,而且每天要用很多次,有时还会与其他上瘾者共用针头。Last month, the thin, 45-year-old woman learned the unforgiving consequences. She tested positive for H.I.V., one of nearly 150 cases in this socially conservative, largely rural region just north of the Kentucky border. Now a life long hobbled by addiction is, like so many others here, consumed by fear.上个月,这个瘦削的45岁女人得知,这样做造成了不可挽回的后果。她的艾滋病毒(HIV)检测结果呈阳性,是靠近肯塔基州北部边界这个民风保守、以农业为主的地区的近150例艾滋病毒携带者之一。现在,与这里的许多人一样,因为上瘾而长期受到困扰的生活已经被恐惧吞噬。She is afraid to start antiretroviral therapy because she does not want to be spotted entering the clinic on Main Street, she says, and afraid to learn her prognosis after hearing a rumor — false, it turns out — that someone else with the virus was given six months to live. Other drug users have refused to be tested at all.她说,她不敢开始抗逆转录病毒治疗,因为她不想被人看到走进主街那家诊所,在听到有个病毒携带者经诊断只剩六个月时间后(后经明是谣言),她甚至不敢去了解自己的预后。还有些药物使用者完全拒绝接受测试。“I thought it was just a homosexual disease,” the woman said one recent evening, twisting a tissue in her manicured hands as tears filled her eyes. She asked that her name not be published out of concerns about being stigmatized. “I didn’t ever think it would be in my small hometown.”“我还以为这是同性恋才会得的病,”她在近日的一个晚上说,她做过美甲的双手揉捏着一张纸巾,眼中噙满泪水。因为担心被人歧视,她要求对自己的姓名保密。“我从没想过,这种事会发生在我家乡的小镇。”The crisis would test even a large metropolis; Austin, population 4,200, is overwhelmed despite help from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the state and nonprofit groups like the AIDS Healthcare Foundation. H.I.V. had been all but unknown here, and misinformation is rife. Attempts to halt the outbreak have been hindered by strong but misguided local beliefs about how to address it, according to people involved in the response.这个危机甚至还会考验一个大都市;尽管有疾病控制与预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,简称CDC)、州和艾滋病健康护理基金会(AIDS Healthcare Foundation)等非营利组织的帮助,人口仅4200的奥斯汀还是有些不知所措。这里几乎对HIV一无所知,而且错误信息也很多。相关人士表示,在如何应对它的问题上,当地一些强烈而具有误导性的观念,对阻止HIV蔓延的工作造成了阻碍。Gov. Mike Pence reluctantly authorized a needle exchange program last month, but local officials are not running it according to best practices, outside experts say. Austin residents still must wait for addiction treatment, even though they have been given priority. And getting those who are H.I.V.-positive on medication, and making sure they adhere to the protocol, has been difficult.外界有专家称,上个月州长迈克·彭斯(Mike Pence)不情愿地批准了一个针头更换项目,但当地官员的执行不力。本应得到优先待遇的奥斯汀居民仍然必须等待接受药物上瘾治疗。此外,让那些HIV检测呈阳性的人接受药物治疗,并保他们能遵守规定,也并非易事。Officials here say the need for education is urgent and deep; even local health workers are learning as they go. Brittany Combs, the public health nurse for Scott County, said she was stunned to discover from talking to addicts that many were using the same needle up to 300 times, until it broke off in their arms. Some were in the habit of using nail polish to mark syringes as their own, but with needles scarce and houses full of people frequently shooting up together, efforts to avoid sharing often failed.这里的官员表示,对教育的需求迫切而深刻;连当地的医务人员都摸索着工作。斯科特县(Scott County)的公共卫生护士布里特妮·库姆斯(Brittany Combs)说,她在与上瘾者交谈的过程中发现,很多人会使用同一个针头达300次,直到针头断在胳膊里,她对此感到震惊。有些人还习惯用指甲油标示出自己的注射器,但是由于针头不多,再加上屋子里满是经常一起进行注射的人,所以往往很难避免共用针头的情况。After the needle exchange program started last month, Ms. Combs also learned that many addicts were uncomfortable visiting a needle distribution center that opened April 4 on the outskirts of town. So she started taking needles directly to users in their neighborhoods.库姆斯还了解到,上个月针头更换项目开始后,许多上瘾者都不愿意去往针头分发中心。4月4日,该中心在城郊开放。所以,她开始直接把针头拿到社区,给那里的药物使用者。At the same time, H.I.V. specialists from Indianapolis — who have evaluated about 50 people with the virus here so far and started about 20 of them on antiretroviral drugs — are fighting a barrage of misinformation about the virus in Scott County, where almost all residents are white, few go to college and one in five live in poverty, according to the census.同时,来自印第安纳波利斯的HIV专家正在与斯科特县大量关于HIV的错误信息作斗争。据调查,这里几乎所有居民都是白人,上过大学的很少,五分之一的人生活在贫困之中。目前,这些专家已经对这里的大约50名病毒携带者进行了检查,并开始对其中20人使用抗逆转录病毒药物。“There are still a significant proportion of people in Austin who have biases about H.I.V. and are contributing to the stigma and subsequent fear,” said Dr. Diane Janowicz, an infectious disease specialist at Indiana University, who is treating H.I.V. patients here. “I have to reassure them — if your grandkid wants a sip of your drink, you can share it. It’s O.K. to eat at the same table. You can use the same bathroom.’”“奥斯汀仍然有很多人对HIV存在偏见,而且正在对与之相伴的耻辱感和恐惧起到推波助澜的作用,”在这里治疗HIV患者的印第安纳大学(Indiana University)传染病专家黛安娜·扬诺维茨士(Dr. Diane Janowicz)说。“我得反复告诉他们——如果你的孙子想喝一口你的饮料,你可以给孩子喝。在同一张桌子上吃饭也没有问题。你们还可以共用一个卫生间。”Many of the newly diagnosed here have strikingly high amounts of the virus in their blood, Dr. Janowicz said, and in one patient the H.I.V. has progressed to AIDS. Nonetheless, she said, “if they take their medicine for H.I.V., this is a chronic disease, not something they have to die from.”扬诺维茨说,这里许多近期确诊者的血液病毒含量都高得惊人。还有一位患者的HIV已经发展成了艾滋病(AIDS)。她说,不过,“如果他们使用针对HIV的药物,这就是一种慢性疾病,不见得一定会死于这个病。”Another complication is that the needle exchange has faced strong local resistance. Mr. Pence, a Republican, generally opposes such programs, saying they perpetuate drug use. Many residents here feel the same.另一个问题是,针头更换项目在当地遭到了强烈抵制。身为共和党人的彭斯对此类项目基本上持反对态度,说这样会使药物滥用的行为延续下去。这里的许多居民也这样认为。“If you would have asked me last year if I was for a needle exchange program, I would have said you’re nuts,” Ms. Combs said. “I thought, just like a lot of people do, that it’s enabling — that you’re just giving needles out and assisting them in their drug habit. But then I did the research on it, and there’s 28 years of research to prove that it actually works.”“如果你去年问我是否持针头更换项目,我会说你疯了,”库姆斯说。“与许多人一样,我认为这是在给药物使用提供方便——你把针头分发出去,为他们使用药物的习惯提供帮助。但是,我随后我做了一些了解,有28年的研究可以明这样做真的有用。”But researchers say that Scott County’s hastily created exchange has several features that could sharply curb its effectiveness. To get clean needles, drug users have to register, using their birth date and a few letters from their name to create an identification number that goes on a laminated card. But the police are arresting anyone found with needles but no card, saying it will prod more people to participate.但研究人员称,斯科特县匆忙创建的更换项目有几个地方会严重影响它的效果。要获得干净的针头,药物使用者必须登记,用出生日期和名字中的几个字母来创建一个识别码,这个码会印到一张塑封的卡片上。然而,任何有针头但没有卡片的人,一经发现就会被警察逮捕,理由是这样会促使更多人参与更换项目。Dr. Don Des Jarlais, the director of research for the chemical dependency institute at Mount Sinai Beth Israel hospital in New York, said the most successful needle exchange programs let participants pass out syringes to peers who remain in the shadows instead of requiring everyone to sign up. Arresting drug users who are not officially enrolled in the program “makes it hard to build trust,” Dr. Des Jarlais said, adding, “You’re not going to be able to get enough syringes out to really stop the epidemic if you have those types of restrictions.”纽约西奈山以色列堂医院(Mount Sinai Beth Israel)化学品依赖研究所的研究负责人唐·德夏莱(Don Des Jarlais)说,最成功的针头更换项目会让参与者把注射器传递给身边那些仍然躲在暗处的人,而不是要求每个人去登记。逮捕那些没有在这个项目中正式登记的药物使用者,“会导致很难建立起信任”,德夏莱说。他还表示,“如果设定这些限制,你就无法把足够多的注射器分发出去,从而真正阻止病毒的传播。”Local supporters of the needle exchange say a limited program is better than none, and believe that improvements will come with time. Last week, the state legislature sent a bill to Mr. Pence that would allow communities to create needle exchange programs for up to a year if they are experiencing an epidemic of H.I.V. or hepatitis C because of intravenous drug use. Mr. Pence said he would sign the measure, noting in a statement that it would allow only “limited and accountable” needle exchange programs, and only “where public health emergencies warrant such action.”当地持针头更换项目的人表示,有限制的项目总比完全没有这类项目好,而且他们认为随着时间流逝,事情将出现改善。上周,州立法机构向彭斯提交了一个提案。根据该提案,当一个社区因为静脉药物注射而出现HIV或丙型肝炎的广泛传播时,可以创立一个长达一年的针头更换项目。彭斯称,他将签署这一提案,并在一项声明中指出,它将只批准“有限且可问责的”针头更换项目,而且只在“出现公共健康危机的前提下”进行。For now, the program here is giving out a maximum of 140 clean needles per user per week to whoever comes to the outreach center or accepts them from the roaming minivan. Ms. Combs said some people told her they injected as often as 15 times a day, and the exchange is erring on the side of providing slightly more than people need. She has passed out needles at a house where the owner, an older woman known as Momma, sits on the porch while a steady stream of visitors comes to shoot up inside. She has knocked on the door of a trailer where, she said, “multiple family members live and the daughters all prostitute themselves out and everyone is doing drugs.” One recent afternoon, on a street fragrant with lilacs, a young woman on a bicycle declined Ms. Combs’s offer of clean needles, saying she aly had some — and H.I.V.目前,这里的项目每周最多向每个药物使用者发放140个干净针头,发放对象是每个来到推广中心,或者从流动的小型货车上拿针头的人。库姆斯说,有人告诉她,他们每天会注射多达15次,而这个更换项目宁愿提供略微超出人们需求的数量。她曾去一户人家发放针头,这家的主人是一个年纪稍大的女性,名叫莫玛(Momma);莫玛坐在门廊上,有人不停地来到这里,到里面进行注射。库姆斯还曾敲过一个拖车式活动房屋的门,她说,“好几个家庭成员都住在里面,家里的女儿都会去卖淫,每个人都在用毒品。”近日的一天下午,在一条弥漫着紫丁香香味的街道上,一名骑自行车的年轻女性拒绝了库姆斯提供的干净针头,她说自己已经有了一些,而且自己已是HIV携带者。“I know I need the medicine to slow it down,” she murmured.她低声说道,“我知道我需要药物来延缓病情发展。”One unexpected benefit of the H.I.V. outbreak, according to the woman who tested positive and fears starting treatment, is that the men who used to stream into town daily, seeking young female addicts who would prostitute themselves in exchange for drug money, have all but disappeared.这名检测呈阳性,而且害怕开始治疗的女性表示,HIV的蔓延带来了一个意想不到的好处:那些曾经每天涌入城里,寻找年轻的女性用药上瘾者的男性几乎都消失了。他们之所以来这里,是因为上瘾者会用性务来换取毒品钱。“It took H.I.V. to change our town,” she said. “Those of us who are affected are devastated, but I’m glad H.I.V. is here.”“最终HIV改变了我们的城镇,”她说。“我们这些受感染的人被毁了,但我很高兴HIV来到了这里。” /201505/373927。

  You#39;ve tried a warm bath, a hot, milky drink and even counting sheep, but you#39;re still lying wide awake wondering why you can#39;t fall asleep.你肯定试过洗热水澡,喝热牛奶甚至数着小羊让自己入眠,可是还是异常清醒,搞不懂为啥就是睡不着。Now, one scientist claims he has a way of getting insomniacs to slip into a slumber in just 60 seconds – and it doesn#39;t involve prescription drugs or strange lighting.现在,一位科学家声称,他有办法让失眠症患者60秒钟之内就酣然入眠——不要用处方药物,也不用奇怪的灯光。Dubbed the 4-7-8 breathing technique, the method is described as a #39;natural tranquiliser for the nervous system#39; helping to reduce tension in the body.这种4-7-8呼吸法被形容为“神经系统的自然镇定剂”,能帮助人体减少紧张感。It was pioneered by Arizona-based Dr Andrew Weill who says on his YouTube channel: #39;It is utterly simple, takes almost no time, requires no equipment and can be done anywhere.#39;这种方法是由亚利桑那州的Andrew Well士发明的,在他的Youtube频道上,他说道:这种方法非常简单,不需要多少时间,也不需要任何的设备,随时随地都可以进行。To do the 4-7-8 breathing technique, you first need to exhale completely through your mouth while making a #39;whoosh#39; sound.完成4-7-8呼吸技巧的第一步是张大嘴巴呼气同时发出“呼”的声音。Close your mouth and inhale quietly through your nose to a mental count of four.然后闭上嘴巴用鼻子轻轻吸气,在心里默数4秒。Now hold your breath for a count of seven.接着屏住呼吸7秒钟。After this time has elapsed, exhale completely through your mouth, making another whoosh sound for eight second in one large breath.之后完全用嘴深深呼气,再次发出“呼”的声音,这次呼气持续8秒。Now inhale again and repeat the cycle three times for a total of four breaths.现在再一次吸气。将上述四个呼吸动作完整重复3次。#39;Note that you always inhale quietly through your nose and exhale audibly through your mouth. The tip of your tongue stays in position the whole time,#39; Dr Weil says.“要注意的总是用鼻子轻轻吸气,而用嘴呼气时要发出声音。舌尖在整个过程中都保持不动,”威尔士说。#39;Exhalation takes twice as long as inhalation. The absolute time you spend on each phase is not important; the ratio of 4-7-8 is important.#39;“呼气的时间要是吸气的两倍。每次吸呼过程的时间并不重要,重点是要保持4-7-8的比例系数。The technique is based on pranayama, an ancient Indian practice that means #39;regulation of breath.#39;这种技巧是由一种古代印度的叫做调息的方法发展来的,意思是;呼吸的规律;。The Harvard-trained doctor claims that 4-7-8 is such a powerful technique because it allows oxygen to better fill the lungs.这位接受过哈佛教育的士表示4-7-8这种技巧是非常有用的,因为它能让氧气更好的进入肺部。This extra oxygen can have a relaxing effect on the parasympathetic nervous system, which promotes a state of calmness.而更多氧气能作用于副交感神经系统,从而让人体更加镇静。During times of stress, the nervous system becomes over stimulated leading to an imbalance that can cause a lack of sleep.在紧张的时候,神经系统会被过度的刺激导致一种不平衡,这种不平衡引起了失眠。As well as relaxing the parasympathetic nervous system, Dr Weil says 4-7-8 helps you feel connected to your body and distracts you from everyday thoughts that can disrupt sleep.威尔士称,4-7-8呼吸法不仅能放松副交感神经,你还会感觉和自己身体的联系更近了,使你忘记了每天扰乱你睡眠的思索。He says it can also help anxiety.他说这种方法还可以帮助缓解焦虑。On a Youtube explaining the technique, a commenter wrote: #39;I tried it and immediately felt better.在Youtube视频下一条写到“我试了,当时就感觉好了很多”。#39;I take meds for OCD and anxiety...I was feeling anxious when I stumbled onto this. One set of four and I feel way less anxious.#39;“因为我的强迫症和焦虑我一直在药,偶然看到这个方法时,做过仅仅做完第一次循环,我就感觉没那么焦虑了”。Dr Weil suggests practicing the technique twice a day, for six to eight weeks until you#39;ve mastered it enough to fall asleep in just 60 seconds.威尔士建议一天两次练习这个技巧,六到八个星期之后你就能熟练掌握,从而达到60秒入眠。 /201505/374400

  The EU prohibits many harmful ingredients America allows. But multinational corporations are looking to change that.欧盟禁止了许多在美国允许使用的添加剂。但是跨国公司们正在寻求改变这一现状。A speaker at an event I recently attended asked why U.S. food companies put butylated hydroxyltoluene, a food preservative and endocrine disruptor, in cereal sold stateside, while in Europe the same companies formulate the same product without BHT. 我最近参加的一场活动的发言人提出质疑,为什么美国的食品企业将丁基羟基甲苯(BHT)-一种会干扰内分泌的食品添加剂-加入在美国本土销售的麦片里面,与此同时这一公司在欧洲销售的同种产品中没有添加BHT。There are three answers to that question:对于这一质疑有以下三种解释:1.The European Union prohibits numerous harmful ingredients U.S. regulatory agencies allow.1. 欧盟禁止添加许多美国管制机构允许添加的有害添加剂。2.Well-informed European citizens have organized and pushed for those regulations.2.见多识广的欧洲居民们组织并奋力争取了这些(禁止添加有害添加剂的)条款的实施。3.U.S. citizens have not yet pushed for such regulations in sufficient numbers.3.尚未有足够数量的美国居民努力争取过这一类条款的实施。The precautionary principle is an approach to risk management which places the burden of proof to demonstrate a product or ingredient#39;s safety on the corporations that produces the product— prior to releasing it to the public. Over the last few decades, the U.S. has become lax with this approach while Europe proceeds with a greater amount of caution. But that contrast may not survive efforts by the U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman and multinational corporations, which are currently negotiating super trade treaties behind closed doors.预防原则是一种企业必须进行的明某种产品或添加剂安全性的的原则-在企业将某种产品或添加剂推出市场之前。在过去的几十年里,当美国在食品安全方面更加松懈的时候,欧洲在这一方面则越发谨慎。然而这种差别在美国贸易代表Michael Froman及跨国公司们闭门协商超级贸易协定的努力下可能化为泡影。Such treaties are enacted by Congress through what#39;s known as ;fast-track; legislation, meaning that the President negotiates trade agreements and Congress can only approve or disapprove, but cannot amend or filibuster the legislation.这些协定被利用;快速通道;法案在国会获得通过,意思就是总统协商贸易条款,国会仅能对这些条款进行通过或不通过的批复,而不能对条款进行修改或阻挠立法。According to sources at the negotiations of these treaties, the provisions in them may well eradicate the EU#39;s higher standards. Instead of getting the BHT and other questionable additives out of American products, the negotiated language will likely ;harmonize barriers to trade,; meaning corporations can put all the bad stuff in European products that they can#39;t now.据参加协商的消息来源称,贸易协定中的条款很有可能废除欧洲更高的(食品安全)标准。而不是将BHT和其他有问题的添加剂从美国制造的产品中移除,协商后的条款表述将类似于;和谐贸易障碍;,这意味(食品)企业将被允许在欧洲的产品中添加现在不允许添加的有害物质。Many Europeans vehemently oppose such trade deals because the mainstream media is extensively covering them. Here in the U.S., however, there#39;s pretty much a coverage blackout except for MSN#39;s The Ed Show.由于主流媒体的极力掩盖,许多欧洲人激烈反对这类交易条款。然而在美国这里,除了MSN的The Ed Show之外,(这类消息)全都被墙了。Despite leaks, side conversations and Wikileaks revelations that have given experts the opportunity to assess the deals, the American media and public don#39;t seem too concerned about the outcome. But important questions remain. Let#39;s begin with the obvious: Why are these deals secret? And why should ordinary citizens go along and trust that the secret handshake devised by corporations will serve the greater public good?尽管维基解密等渠道给了专家们评估这些条款的机会,美国媒体和大众们却并不关心评估结果。然而问题依然存在。让我们从最明显的开始:为什么这些条款是保密的?而且,为什么普通市民应该持并信任这些(跨国食品)公司们的秘密协议将务于广大群众的利益?To borrow a phrase from the GMO labeling movement, we need to safeguard the public#39;s right to know. It doesn#39;t matter whether we#39;re talking about secret trade deals or the contents of food, shampoo, building products, industrial emissions, knowledge protects us.借用;转基因标示运动;中的一句话,我们需要保卫大众的知情权。无论我们是否正在讨论这些秘密协定或者食品,洗发水,建筑材料,工业排放物的成分,知识保护我们。Is Knowledge a Barrier to Trade?知识是交易的阻碍么?While the most visible proponents of labeling are groups, like the Organic Consumers Organization, Food Democracy Now!, and Just Label It! which call for mandatory labeling of GMO-containing foods, GMOs are not the only food ingredients some people would like to see labeled in food. A small sample of others include:正当主要的标示运动持者结成团体-例如有机产品消费者组织,食物皿煮现在行动!,以及标示起来!-并且呼吁强制标示含转基因成分食品之时,转基因成分并不是一些人们寻求标示出的唯一的食品添加成分。其他被呼吁标出的成分中的一小部分如下:Allergenic ingredients (like wheat or egg)致敏成分(例如小麦或鸡蛋)Pro-inflammatory ingredients (like MSG or food colorings)导致发炎的成分(例如味精或食品染色剂)Obesogenic substances (like high fructose corn syrup aka HCFS)致胖成分(例如果葡糖浆-又称HCFS)Other stuff that has not been well studied (or studied at all) like certain ;flavors; or ;fragrances;其他未被充分研究(或根本未被研究)的物质,例如某些;调味剂;或;芳香剂;It doesn#39;t end with food. Women purchasing cosmetics or face creams want to know whether they contain methyl parabens which studies find concentrated in cancerous tumors. Parents buying their children#39;s car seats or nursing pillows want assurances that these products don#39;t contain toxic flame retardants. Homeowners and office dwellers want to know if their building materials and furnishings contain toxins like phthalates, which are associated with damage to the liver, thyroid and reproductive system. 并不仅仅是食物。女性购买化妆品或面霜时希望了解这些商品是否含有基苯甲酸甲酯-一种曾在癌症肿瘤中找到的物质。父母为他们的子女购买车用儿童座椅和哺乳枕的时候希望这些产品中不含有有毒阻燃剂。自有房屋者和上班族希望知道他们生活和上班的地方的建筑材料里面是否含有钛酸盐-一种与肝、甲状腺和生殖系统损伤有关的物质。And let#39;s not forget the chemicals used in fracking, emissions from manufacturing plants and gas pipeline infrastructures, methane and carbon dioxide releases contributing to climate change, and nuclear waste. Whether it#39;s consumer goods, building materials, or the energy industries, toxic outputs need to be monitored for health and environmental impacts. That#39;s impossible to do without the right to know what they contain, emit or produce. The only way to track them is through product labeling.并且不要忘记水压压裂中用到的化学物质,加工厂和燃气管道建造过程中的排放物,导致气候变化的甲烷和二氧化碳排放以及核废料。为了健康和环境影响,无论是日用品,建筑材料还是能源工业的有毒排放物都需要被监测。如果不知道他们(上述行为和排放物)包含什么,释放什么或者制造出来的是什么,这些监测行动根本无从谈起。追踪这些的唯一办法就是通过产品标示。Banning the Precautionary Principle取消;预防原则;From the perspective of corporations, the less the public knows about what their products contain or emit, the better. When knowledge deters people from a product or process, the industry considers that knowledge a barrier to trade. And the new uber-trade deals, the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) and Trans Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) are poised to be fast-tracked through Congress with a quick up or down vote, even before the treaties#39; contents are made known to Congress or the public.从公司的视角来看,大众对于他们生产什么或者排放什么知道的越少越好。当知识阻止人们(购买)产品或(从事)行为时,工业(所有者)就会将知识看成贸易的阻碍。并且新的超级贸易条款,跨太平洋伙伴协议(TPP)以及跨大西洋贸易及投资伙伴协议(TTIP)整时刻准备着通过快速通道在国会中进行迅速直接表决,甚至在协议条款并未被国会或公众知晓之前。;Big chemical companies, pesticide manufacturers, the manufacturers of products which are associated with cancer, autism, learning disabilities in children, and a host of other serious illnesses are attempting to use these trade regulations to stop government regulations of dangerous chemicals all around the globe,; says William Waren, senior trade analyst with Friends of the Earth.;大型化工企业,杀虫剂制造商,这些制造可能导致癌症,自闭症,儿童学习障碍以及大量其他严重疾病的产品的公司正试图利用这些贸易条款在全球范围内废止政府限制危险化学品的政策。;Friends of the Earth 的高级交易分析员William Waren说。;When we can#39;t adequately quantify risk, the burden of proof is on the party that would introduce a potentially risky product to show that the risk is low enough to avoid harm public health and the environment,; he continues.;当我们无法充分量化风险时,举责任就落到了那些愿意介绍一种具有潜在风险的产品来展示其中的风险足够低,且并不会对公众健康或环境造成负面影响的一方头上;他继续说道。When the precautionary principle is dismantled, as it is in U.S. policy, companies make it the public#39;s responsibility to show harm. Unless people go to extraordinary lengths to demonstrate a safety problem, corporations have no responsibility to guarantee safety.如预防原则被废止,就如美国现在的政策这样,公司就将发现损害的责任转移到了公众头上。除非人们用足够长(的时间)来明其确实存在安全隐患,否则公司将不再有保(产品)安全的责任。Current federal regulations are riddled with loopholes due to four decades of industry lobbying and legal opposition to proper safeguards. Efforts by major coalitions like Safer Chemicals, Healthy Families have been stalled.现存联邦法规由于四十年的工业游说和对适当保护措施的合法反对,已经千疮百孔。像;更安全的化工产品;,;健康家庭;这样主要组织的努力已陷入停滞。In the void left by our nation#39;s failure to regulate, some states, such as California, have taken it upon themselves to regulate toxic chemicals. The California Environmental Quality Act requires that ;no projects which would cause significant environmental effects should be approved as proposed if there are feasible alternatives or mitigation measures that would lessen those effects,; and ;environmental impact reports shall be used to provide full public disclosure of the environmental impacts of a proposed project.;在我们的国家规定失效留下的空白中,一些州,例如加利福尼亚,自行制定了规范有毒化学品的法规。加州环境质量法案要求;没有任何可能造成严重环境影响的工程可以获得通过-如存在可替代或减缓措施以减少这些影响的话;并且;必须提交(拟议计划的)环境影响报告以公开披露拟议计划的环境影响。;;It#39;s incremental but it#39;s real important, given the incapacity of the EPA to act,; notes Waren.;这增加了成本,但确实非常重要,考虑到环保局的无能为力;,Waren表示。Waren says that the ;Technical Barriers to Trade; chapters in treaties would also enact stringent limits on all governments, rolling back product safety regulations in Europe and elsewhere and freeze in place the current ineffective U.S. federal regulations. In addition, state regulations would be rolled back or nullified.Waren还说协议中;贸易的技术障碍;一章还会对严格要求(协议相关的)所有政府,在欧洲和其他国家按照现行美国联邦法案来修改其产品安全法规,同时冻结现行美国联邦法规。此外,州法案也将被降低至原来水平或取消。Europeans would have to eat their BHT and like it. No longer able to study health or environmental impacts, under threat of lawsuits by international trade tribunals, Californians would not be empowered to prevent fracking companies from dumping fracking waste into water aquifers—as recently occurred in Central Valley, California.欧洲人将被迫使用BHT并且喜欢上它。不再能够了解健康或环境影响,在被国际贸易法庭起诉的风险下,加州将不允许再对页岩气生产企业向地下含水层注入有害化工原料进行限制-正如最近在加州中央山谷发生的。;This is one of the leading negotiating points for the U.S. and they are making a lot of headway,; says Waren. ;The whole question of rolling back state and local safeguards on food and the environment is a very, very important one because a lot of states have aly acted in various ways, like New York which banned fracking.;;这是美国政府的主要谈判点之一,并且他们取得了很大进步;Waren说,;将州与地方食品安全与环境保护法案降至原来水平这一整个问题非常非常重要,因为许多州已经在用不同方法采取了行动,例如纽约州就禁止使用水力压裂法(采取页岩气)。;Waren says fast-track trade legislation is a ;fundamental attack on democracy. It#39;s frightening.;Waren将快速通过贸易法案形容为;对皿煮的根本攻击。令人恐惧;。 /201503/362010

  One Friday night last fall, 50 well-dressed guests piled into an apartment in Hell’s Kitchen for a party celebrating Sheela-Marie Padgett, a 57-year-old former dancer with the New York City Ballet.去年秋天的一个周五晚上,位于纽约地狱厨房区的一处公寓楼内,50位衣着光鲜的客人接踵而至。他们前来参加为前纽约市芭蕾舞团舞蹈演员、57岁的茜拉·玛丽·帕吉特(Sheela-Marie Padgett)举行的派对。Waiters passed drinks before a buffet dinner of fancy Indian food was presented. Then came a chocolate cake from the Erotic Bakery made in the shape of corseted showgirl with a male appendage. It was sliced up and served to the crowd.侍者们供应着酒水。之后,客人们享用了印式精致美食自助餐。甜点是来自“情欲面包房”的一块巧克力蛋糕。蛋糕的形状是一个穿了紧身胸衣却有着男性性器官的歌舞女郎。蛋糕被切成小块以偿宾客。Which was fitting enough, because the following morning, Sheela — formerly known as Bruce — was scheduled to fly to Scottsdale, Ariz., for the last major procedure in her transition from male to female: gender reassignment surgery.这真是再应景不过了。第二天早上,茜拉——她之前的名字是布鲁斯——就要飞到亚利桑那州的斯克茨戴尔完成她从男性变为女性的最后一步:变性手术。One by one, friends made their way over to the Nakashima-style wood dining table to offer congratulations. Almost unanimously, they noted that Bruce had been cynical, withdrawn and biting, while Sheela is soft and effervescent.朋友们一个接着一个走到中岛风格(Nakashima-style)的餐桌前,向茜拉表示祝贺。他们几乎不约而同地注意到:之前的布鲁斯愤世嫉俗、孤僻、爱嘲讽,而茜拉却温婉活泼。“It’s like you’re a different person,” said Edwin Pabon, a freelance photographer. “Before the lights were off, and now they’re on.”“她完全变了一个人,”自由职业摄影师埃德温·帕波恩说:“就好像之前灯是关着的,现在它们打开了。”“It’s true,” said Ms. Padgett, who stands 5 foot 7 inches tall (when not in heels), wore a black lace top, and, with her hair done in a Raphaelite style, looked rather like the portrait that would emerge if John Singer Sargent were alive today to paint Madonna. “My friends were all frightened of me. I was a nasty person. I was so unhappy. It tainted all my relationships.”“这是真的,”帕吉特女士说:“以前,我的朋友们都怕我。我不是一个好相处的人。我非常不快乐。这影响了我所有的人际关系。”帕吉特身高一米七,穿着一件黑色的蕾丝上衣,头发的样式模仿了拉斐尔派画像里的女性。如果肖像画家约翰·辛格·萨金特(John Singer Sargent)还在世的话,他画的麦当娜可能会和她别无二致。Lori Ogle, another friend, said: “It’s really brave to do what she’s doing and it’s even braver because it’s so late in life. We were born the same year. I don’t know what I want to change, but this is inspiring. It’s like, ‘Go ahead, it’s not too late.’ ”另一位朋友,萝莉·奥格(Lori Ogle)说:“她做这件事真的很有勇气。考虑到她的年龄,她尤其显得勇敢。我们是同一年出生的。帕吉特给了我激励,尽管我不知道我想改变什么。这就好像有人告诉我:‘放手去做吧,还为时不晚。’”Awareness of transgender issues has surged over the last year. Laverne Cox, a star of the television show “Orange Is the New Black,” appeared in June on the cover of Time. Janet Mock chronicled her transition from male to female in the memoir “Redefining Realness,” which landed last spring on the New York Times best-seller list. Transgender models like Andreja Pejic have walked the runways in New York and Milan. And major retailers like Barneys are using transgender men and women in their ad campaigns.对于跨性别话题的关注从去年开始高涨。电视剧《铁女子监狱》(Orange Is the New Black)中的主演之一,变性女星拉文·考克斯(Laverne Cox)在去年六月上了《时代》周刊的封面。简妮特·默克(Janet Mock)的回忆录《重新定义真实》(Redefining Realness)记述了她从男性到女性的转变,并于去年春季跻入《纽约时报》畅销书排行榜。像安德烈·佩伊其(Andreja Pejic)这样的跨性模特在纽约和米兰的秀场崭露头角。而诸如巴尼斯(Barneys)这样的零售商巨头也在广告宣传中启用了跨性人士。But it took Amazon’s popular and acclaimed TV series “Transparent,” about a septuagenarian father of three who is coming out as trans (which coincided with frenzied coverage of Bruce Jenner’s drastically changed physical appearance) to shed light on a largely undiscussed segment of the transgender population: those who undergo a gender change later in life, sometimes even in their 60s and 70s, after decades of feeling not fully whole.而很少人会去关注那些在人生后半段——有些甚至是到了六七十岁,在经历了好几十年的缺憾后才开始转变性别的跨性人群。亚马逊出品的《透明家庭》(Transparent)改变了这一情况。这部人气高涨,备受好评的电视剧讲述了一位耄耋之年,养育了三个子女的跨性父亲的出柜故事(电视播出的同时,媒体正大肆报道1949年出生的前运动员布鲁斯·詹纳[Bruce Jenner]变性后大为改变的外貌)。Coming out as transgender is not easy for anyone. But the issues are particularly thorny for those trying to reconfigure a central tenet of identity decades after building an adult life with family and career.出柜对于跨性人士来说并非易事。对于那些构建了好几十年人生,有了家庭和事业的人们来说,要想改变身份的核心成分更是难上加难。Social changes have a tendency to take root among the young, and to then trickle up years (sometimes decades) later. To be in transition around the time you qualify for AARP membership is to be on some level a paradox; a person newly born at a seasoned age.社会身份的变化会在年轻人心目中扎根,然后在数年甚至数十年后体现出来。到了该退休的年龄再想改变性别,这无异于一个悖论:本是熟龄人士,却刚获得新生。Additionally, these late transitioners grew up in an era of rigid gender stereotypes, which they have been both oppressed by and in some cases internalized. A great number of them are married and have children who struggle to accept that the person who raised them is now becoming someone new.此外,这些高龄变性者成长于一个性别观念僵化的年代。他们被这些观念压迫,而这些观念也成了他们当中某些人自我意识的一部分。他们中的大多数人都已成家,有了子女。对后代来说,要接受养育他们的家长现在就要变为另外一个人,这会是一个艰难的过程。There are pragmatic as well as physical challenges, too, particularly for the older population of trans women (which refers to those born with men’s anatomy and who have since transitioned). Men’s jaws and shoulders widen over time, making a more “womanly” shape hard to achieve. Hair grows on their bodies while disappearing from their scalps, necessitating hair transplants or wigs.另外还有一些现实的和身体上的挑战,尤其是对于女性跨性别者(女性跨性别者指的是生下来是男性,后来转变为女性的人士)来说。男性的下颚和肩膀会随着年岁增长变宽。这使得他们更难获得较为女性化的身材。他们的体毛变得旺盛,但是头发却逐渐脱落。这样他们不得不进行头发移植,或是戴假发。All of which has profound emotional consequences for a group of people coming to terms not only with their genders but with the indignities of aging and impending mortality. Many will not be beautiful, like the young transitioners they watch on TV. Many will not “pass.”所有这些困难对高龄变性人的情绪影响极其深刻:他们既为自己的性别身份而苦苦挣扎,同时还要面对因为衰老而丧失尊严和即将到来的死亡所带来的困扰。许多人都不会像他们在电视上看到的那些年轻变性人那样美貌。还有许多人的变性结果并不会获得社会“认可”。“After I went on hormones, there was a letdown,” said Barbara, 63, who lives on the Upper East Side and agreed to talk to a reporter on the condition that her last name not be used. “I thought, ‘Where do I go now?’ I’m not going to look like a movie actress in her 20s or 30s. I’m not going to look like Laverne Cox.”“在摄入荷尔蒙后,我有点失望,”63岁的芭芭拉说。芭芭拉住在纽约的上东区,她接受记者采访的条件是不透露姓氏。“我想:‘我现在该怎么办?’我不可能变成像二三十岁的电影演员那样美丽。我不可能变得像拉文·考克斯那样。”Today, she goes to a support group at Sage, the largest organization for older LGBT people. “No one there is dating,” she said.如今,芭芭拉参加了一个名为Sage的互助小组,这是全国最大的老年LGBT人士互助小组。“我们小组里没有一个人在约会,”芭芭拉说。Still, the pull to live as a person wants, even for a short time, even under reduced circumstances, remains powerful. Some people interviewed said they waited to retire before transitioning so as not to disrupt or destroy their careers. Others chose to push forward after the deaths of their parents or after their children had left the nest.尽管如此,能过上自己所渴望的生活——哪怕只是很短的时间,并有各种不尽如人意——这种吸引力还是巨大的。接受采访的一些人说,为了不至于干扰自己的事业,或是使事业毁于一旦,他们等到退休后才开始变性。另一些等到他们父母去世或是子女们成人离家后才开始有所动作。But invariably, they said that they had given enough, pretended enough, and wanted to claim the years remaining as their own. The entirety of their bucket list was to finally become themselves.但是所有的人都说他们已经付出够多,伪装够长。他们想在有生余年过上自己想要的生活。他们现在的人生目标清单只有一项,那就是做回自己。As Ms. Padgett tells it, she lived the first part of her life assuming that the pull to be female would go away. Her father was a Baptist minister in Mississippi. Her mother taught first grade. When she came to New York and became a dancer, she thought that she had found her calling, a world that was more open and tolerant.就像帕吉特女士所讲述的那样。在她人生的上半段,她一直都以为自己想要变成女性的渴求会随时间消逝。她的父亲是密西西比州的一位浸礼会牧师。母亲是小学一年级教师。当她来到纽约成为一名舞者后,她以为自己找到了人生归宿——一个更加开放和宽容的世界。She hung out with Andy Warhol at Indochine and spent late nights at Studio 54 and the Peppermint Lounge.她和安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)一起在印度那(Indochine,纽约著名餐厅——译注)用餐,在54号工作室(Studio 54,纽约一俱乐部——译注)和薄荷舞厅(Peppermint Lounge)寻欢到深夜。And yet during all the years she was a member of one of the world’s most famous ballet companies, she stood off to the side, wanting not to be the prince in “Swan Lake,” but Odette, the female swan.但是置身世界上最有名的芭蕾舞团之一的这些年里,她却一直是一个边缘人物。她不想当《天鹅湖》中的王子,却一直想出演白天鹅奥杰塔。It didn’t happen. Instead, after she turned 50, she found herself increasingly lonely and isolated. Then, in 2007 and 2008, her parents died in quick succession. She began to think of what she characterizes (in stronger language) as the “what the hell” years.她没有如愿。反而,在过了50岁之后,她觉得自己越发孤寂。她的父母于2007年和2008年先后过世。“怎么会这样?”(帕吉特女士的原话语气更为强烈)是她这段时间里的口头禅。生活的不如意促使她思考。There was a small inheritance. A friend who had had gender reassignment surgery more than 20 years before went in for facial feminization surgery. “It was a big success,” Ms. Padgett said. “It completely changed her appearance.” Soon, she began telling people that she was transitioning.她继承了一小笔遗产。一位朋友在20年前做了变性手术,这会儿刚做完了使脸部女性化的手术。“手术很成功,”帕吉特女士说:“她完全变了样。”不久,帕吉特开始告诉周围的人她在变性。Though the reaction to Ms. Padgett’s transition has been largely positive, the process nevertheless has been arduous, and filled with roadblocks that may not have existed had she made the leap earlier.大多数人对帕吉特女士变性消息的反应是正面的。尽管如此,变性的过程相当艰难,充满了许多障碍,而如果帕吉特女士早一点决定变性的话,这些障碍可能并不会存在。“Your grandmother looks more like your grandfather than she did while they were younger,” said Dr. Jeffrey Spiegel, a plastic surgeon in Boston who works largely on trans women and who treated Ms. Padgett. “The eyebrows drop, the nose changes, cheeks get more flat, the upper lips get longer, the jaw gets wider, skin quality deteriorates.”“你的祖母年岁越大长得就越像你的祖父,”杰弗瑞·史比格尔(Jeffrey Spiegel)——一位波士顿的整容医师说。史比格尔医生的客户大多是跨性女性。他也是帕吉特女士的医生。“女性随着年龄的增长眉毛会下垂,鼻子也会有所改变,面颊变平,上唇变长,下颚变宽,肤质也变差了。”“Dr. Spiegel redid my forehead,” Ms. Padgett said. “I had a very masculine brow bone, so he softened that. He raised my eyebrows so that there’s more space between my eye and my eyebrows. He cut the skin inside my lids to take away the old skin. He did a rhinoplasty to make my nose smaller and more delicate. He raised my upper lip so that there’s less space between my nose and my upper lip. He put in cheek implants and chin implants, and he did a tracheal shave and a lower neck and face-lift.”“史比格尔医生给我的额头做了些改变,”帕吉特女士说:“我之前的眉骨非常男性化,所以他把它变得柔和了一些。他还把我的眉毛提高,这样我的眼睛和眉毛之间距离就大了一些。他割去了我眼皮下的一些老皮。还给我的鼻子做了手术,让它变得小巧玲珑一些。他提升了我的上唇,缩小了我的鼻子和上唇的距离。他还给我的面颊和下巴放入了填充物。他除掉了我的喉结,并给我做了下颈部和脸部的拉皮。”The total cost for Dr. Spiegel’s work was ,000. In addition, Ms. Padgett has had several years of painful electrolysis treatments to stop hair from growing on her face and body. Almost nothing related to Ms. Padgett’s gender transition was covered by her health insurance company, including her gender reassignment surgery and breast implants. With those three things added on, she estimates that the cost of transitioning physically was about 0,000. “I am broke,” she said.史比格尔医生做的这些一共花去了53,000美元。除此之外,帕吉特女士还进行了好几年痛苦的电解治疗,使她脸上和身上的毛发停止生长。所有这些和变性有关的治疗,包括变性手术和乳房填充术,帕吉特女士的医疗保险公司几乎都不受理。帕吉特女士估计在变性上的花销一共有差不多10万美元。“我已经成穷光蛋了,”她说。Many trans people older than Ms. Padgett describe growing up in a time when there was really no vocabulary to even describe what they were.许多比帕吉特女士年长的跨性人士都说,在他们成长的那个年代,甚至没有一个词汇来描述他们这群人。“The only word was ‘transvestism,’ nothing was known of this at all,” said Bobbi Swan, 84, of Clinton, Mich., just north of Detroit. She transitioned at age 72.“唯一的一个词就是‘异装癖’了,人们对此真的是一无所知,”84岁的葆比·斯万(Bobbi Swan)说。斯万来自位于密歇根州紧邻底特律南边的科林顿。她在72岁的时候开始了变性历程。After high school, deeply in the closet, Ms. Swan went to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, got her degree in aeronautical engineering, and then served in the Air Force during the Korean War.高中毕业后,严守自己跨性身份秘密的斯万就读于麻省理工学院,并在那儿拿到了航天工程学位。之后,她参加了朝鲜战争,在空军役。In 1954, she went to work at Ryan Aeronautical, where one of her jobs included flying target drones over China during the Eisenhower administration. She became a member of the National Rifle Association, donated to numerous Republican candidates, married three different women, had two children, ran a hunting preserve and, in the ’90s, secretly edited a magazine for transvestites called “Our Way.”她于1954年加入了赖安航天公司。在那里,她的工作职责之一是在艾森豪威尔执政期间操控无人机在中国上空进行侦查。她是美国全国步协会的成员,给众多共和党候选人捐过款,先后与不同的女性结了三次婚,有两个孩子,管理着一个狩猎场。在九十年代,她秘密地编辑了一本给变装者看的名为《我行我素》(Our Way)的杂志。“I think it’s safe to say that the employment I had would prohibit any sign of cross-dressing or anything like that,” Ms. Swan said. “I would have lost my job. The main customer is the Department of Defense. It was totally out of order.”“我的工作禁止我露出一点易装或是诸如此类的苗头,这么说我想并不为过,”斯万女士说,“我会丢了工作。我们的主要客户是国防部。我根本不敢有任何非分之想。”But by 2000, she had retired. Her children were grown. Her parents were no longer alive. It was time, she decided, to make a change she had long dreamed of.到了2000年,斯万女士退了休。她的孩子们也已长大成人,父母也过了世。她决定,梦寐以求的做出改变的时机已到。So three years after Ms. Swan began taking hormones and dressing daily as female, she underwent gender reassignment surgery in Thailand. She paid for it mostly through a ,000 check sent by one her sons that came with a note from him that : “Sometimes the most important thing in life is finding oneself.”就这样,在斯万女士开始每天摄入荷尔蒙并按女性着装的三年后,她在泰国接受了变性手术。她两个儿子中的一个给了她一张5000美元的票,用来付了手术开销的大部分。儿子在票上写道:“有时生活中最重要的事情就是找到自我。”That level of acceptance can be the exception. Stephanie James, a 64-year-old trans woman in St. Louis, said she is pleased that she is no longer living a lie (“It’s been worth every penny,” Ms. James said), but the reaction from her three sons was dispiriting. She told her youngest two sons in 2007. “They were bewildered,” she said. Her oldest son found out a week later and stopped speaking to her.家人的这种接受程度并不常见。斯提芬妮·詹姆斯(Stephanie James)是一位住在圣路易斯的跨性女性,今年64岁。她说她很高兴自己不用再在欺骗中生活。(“能这样花出去的钱都值了,”詹姆斯女士说。)但是她的三个儿子的反应却令人失望。她在2007年向两个小儿子说出了实情。“他们根本不理解我,”詹姆斯女士说。她的大儿子一个星期后知道了真相,从此没有跟她说过话。They remain estranged. “I have not even met my grandbaby,” she said.直到现在他们的关系依旧疏远。“我甚至都没有见过我的儿孙,”詹姆斯女士说。In 2009, she was fired as a strategic account manager at Graybar Electric, where she had worked for five years, during which time she transitioned. (Carrie Johnson, director of corporate and marketing communications at Graybar, said Ms. James’s departure was an “individual personnel matter” and declined further comment, saying, “I’m sure you can understand.”)2009年的时候,她被Graybar Electric公司从战略客户经理的职位上解雇。她在公司工作了五年,并在其间开始变性。(凯莉·约翰逊[Carrie Johnson]是Graybar的企业与营销传播部主任。她说詹姆斯女士由于“个人原因”离开了公司。她拒绝进一步解释,“我想你能理解”,她说。)In her last two years at Graybar, Ms. James said, she earned 5,000 with benefits and bonuses. This year, working as a live-in caregiver to an 86-year-old woman, she earns 0 a week, plus health care. “You do the multiplication,” Ms. James said.在Graybar的最后两年里,詹姆斯女士说她连福利带奖金一共挣了125,000美元。今年,她给一位86岁的老太太做护工,每周的工资加上医保是480美元。“你自己做乘法吧,”詹姆斯女士说。Over time, Ms. James has come to a number of awakenings not just about transphobia, but about sexism in general — dynamics she did not understand during 50-plus years living outwardly as a man.这些年下来,詹姆斯女士不但对人们对跨性者的恐惧有了认识,她还对性别歧视有了新的看法。在之前做为男性生活的50多年里,她并没有觉得性别歧视是个问题。“The loss of a position in a white male society is subtle but omnipresent,” Ms. James said. “I remember, before I was let go, I was in a corporate meeting and one of the V.P.’s said, ‘Who brought the bagels?’ No one had. So the V.P. says, ‘Stephanie, would you mind running out to pick them up?’ It was pouring down rain! We could all see it. There were windows on three sides of the conference room. That kind of stuff never happened before I transitioned. It happened all the time after.”“在白人男性社会失去地位是一件微妙的事,但是你时刻都会感知到这个事实,”詹姆斯女士说,“我记得,在我被解雇前,我们在开一个公司会议。一个副总裁问:‘谁买了面包圈?’没有人买。于是这个副总裁说:‘斯提芬妮,你介意跑出去买一下吗?’外面下着瓢泼大雨。会议室三面都有窗户,我们都能看到。在我变性前,这种事是绝对不会发生的。我变性之后,就屡见不鲜了。”Gretchen Lintner, 58, lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. Shortly before she was laid off from her job at a commercial real estate firm, an executive there said to her, “Don’t you people just go somewhere new and start over?”58岁的格蕾馨·林特纳(Gretchen Lintner)居住在旧金山湾区。在她被一家商业地产公司解聘不久前,一位经理问她道:“像你们这样的人是不是都搬到一个新地方重新开始?”On a recent Friday, she was sitting in the lobby of a hotel near Union Square in San Francisco. She arrived wearing a Chanel-inspired blazer from Coldwater Creek, a Jones blouse, Gap jeans and a pair of alligator-patterned pumps. Her hair was long and blond and she wore silver hoop earrings. Nevertheless, as she walked in, the doorman greeted her by saying, “Hello, sir.”不久前的一个周五,她坐在位于旧金山联合广场附近的一个酒店大堂里。她穿着一件Coldwater Creek的仿香奈儿上装,Jones的衬衫,Gap的仔裤和一双鳄鱼皮的高跟鞋。她留着金色的长发,带着银色的大圈耳环。就是这样一幅装扮,在她走进酒店时,门卫对她的问候是:“先生,你好。”“That’s how I go through life,” she said. “It’s the small oppressions that you get that you just have to be able to deal with.”“这就是我的人生,”林特纳女士说:“我不得不应对生活中的这种小小苦闷。”“The hardest thing,” she continued, “is working for less money and being bumped off my career track because of being a woman, because of being a trans woman, because of the 2008 economic dislocation. I don’t blame anyone, but it’s a fact. And I’m over 50 and it’s hard for any individual over 50 to find employment.”她接着说道:“但是最艰难的是工作被减薪以及被迫终止我的职业。这些只不过是因为我是一个女人,一个跨性女性,当然还有2008年经济形势混乱的因素。我不责怪任何人,但这是事实。我已经50多岁。任何一个50多岁的人要想找工作都不容易。”Other things have changed as well. Today, Ms. Lintner dates both men and women. “For me, the parts are negotiable,” she said. “My sexual attraction was always toward women, and then as I transitioned I became more interested in men.”另外还有一些别的改变。现今,林特纳女士的约会对象有男有女。“对我来说,在两性关系里扮演哪个角色是可以商量的,”她说:“我从前一直对女性有性趣,在我变性后,男性对我更有吸引力。”For many, aspects of sexual identities shift. Language fails. There is a contingent of “transbien” relationships, the common term among LGBT types for what happens when two trans women get together. Straight men become straight women. Lesbians become gay men. This is what happened with Eugene Potchen-Webb, 60. He transitioned at 50 from female to male and, after having been a lesbian for many years, discovered he was into guys. “It was a surprise to me,” he said.许多人的性别身份都发生了改变。这些改变很难用语言描述。在同性恋和跨性者群体里,出现了许多所谓的“跨女同性恋”关系,指的是两位跨性女性之间的亲密关系。异性恋男性变性后成了异性恋女性。同性恋女性变性后成了同性恋男性,60岁的尤金·泼特琴·韦(Eugene Potchen-Webb)就是这样。他在50岁的时候从女性变成了男性。这之前他一直是位跨性女同性恋者,变性后却发现自己只对男性有性趣。“这真令我吃惊,”他说。Rachel Sorrow is a 64-year-old San Francisco-based architect and amateur stand-up comedian who remains married to her spouse, though they date other people and sleep in different bedrooms in the apartment they share in the Castro.64岁的蕾切尔·索罗(Rachel Sorrow)是旧金山的一位建筑师和业余滑稽说笑演员。变性后她没有和原配偶离婚。她们在卡斯特罗区共同拥有一处公寓。她们各自约会,睡在不同的卧室里。“When I’m having sex with a man, I feel 100 percent a woman, and when I have sex with women I slip back into male roles,” Ms. Sorrow said. “I always thought if you are a guy and you have a sex-change operation and you’re still dating women, you’re a lesbian, because you look like a woman and you’re dating them. It’s a relatively reasonable assumption unless you know a lot of trans people.“当我和男性做爱时,我觉得我百分百是个女人,而当我和女性做爱时,我就又回到了男性的角色,”索罗女士说:“我之前一直以为,如果你生来是男性,在你做了变性手术后还是和女性交往,那你就是一位女同性恋者。因为你有女性的外表,你也和女性约会。这种想法听上去很合理,但是如果你认识许多跨性者,你就不会这么认为了。”“In our case, I think it just doesn’t apply. I have way more flexibility than that. Trans means to move back and forth, like transportation, and I think that’s just part of it.”“这种观念对我来说就完全不适合。我要有灵活性得多。‘跨’(trans)这个词根的意思就是有进有退,就像‘交通’(transportation)这个词。我认为这是‘跨性’这个词含义的一部分。”But having a progressive attitude about sex and self-expression doesn’t preclude clinging to ideals that are anachronistic and even a little bit sexist. Many older trans women grew up in “Mad Men”-era houses where women were accessories and children were supposed to speak when spoken to. And sometimes these tendencies are absorbed and play out in ways feminists sometimes find disconcerting.对于性别身份问题,跨性人士的观念颇为进步,但这并不意味着那些老套甚至有点性别歧视的观点被完全摒弃。许多年长的跨性女性成长于《广告狂人》那个年代。在那个年代里的家庭里,女性是附属品,孩子们不能随便讲话。有时这些观念根深蒂固,并被带到了跨性者的日常行为中,这让女权主义者时常感到不安。“I do feel like sometimes I have to be more feminine than anyone else,” said Ms. Padgett, the onetime New York City Ballet dancer. “There have been so many times when I’ve been on the street and I realize I’m the only one in a dress and heels. I reach for those things that are more feminine than a genetic girl would go for. The stakes are higher for me because I wasn’t born female so I don’t take it for granted.”“确实,我有时觉得我必须得比别的女性更加有女人味儿一些,”曾经是纽约市芭蕾舞团成员的帕吉特女士说:“有好多次,我意识到我是街上唯一穿裙子和高跟鞋的。和普通的女性相比,我会选择那些更女性化的东西。我生来不是女性,现在的身份来之不易,所以我要比别人付出更多。”Ms. James of St. Louis agrees: “I feel naked if I don’t have eye makeup on. I’ve worked hard to get this far.”圣路易斯的詹姆斯女士也这么认为:“如果我不上眼妆的话,我就会觉得像没穿衣一样。能到今天这样,我付出了太多努力。”Nearly all older trans men have experienced oppression, but they had the advantage of growing up in an era when coveting manhood was somewhat understandable and tomboyishness was at least forgiven.几乎所有年长的跨性男性都受到过歧视和压制。但是他们却有一项优势——在他们成长的年代里,女孩子渴望做男生情有可原,而假小子的行为也至少会被原谅。Jeffrey Dickemann, an 85-year-old retired anthropology professor from Sonoma State University in California who transitioned in his 60s, recalls that when he was in college, there were rules against women wearing trousers. But he also had a dad who bonded with him over sports and clothes. “In high school, my father gave me his military boots, which I wore,” he said. “I didn’t even realize how much I stuck out.”85岁的杰弗瑞·迪克曼(Jeffrey Dickemann)是加州索诺玛州立大学的一位退休人类学教授。他在60多岁的时候开始变性。他回忆起当他上大学时,学校有规定不许女生穿裤子。但是他却有一位关系亲密的父亲,带他进行体育活动,并指导他着装。“高中时,父亲把他的军用靴子给了我,我穿上了它们,”迪克曼先生说,“我那会儿甚至都没有意识到我是多么与众不同。”Katherine Rachlin, a therapist who counsels trans people, said these themes come up frequently. “It’s much more difficult if you’re a woman that is 6-foot-3 than a man who is 5-foot-3,” she said. “We look at women differently.”凯瑟琳·拉切林(Katherine Rachlin)是一位给跨性人士做咨询的心理医师。她说她时常能在治疗中听到这类话题。“一位一米九的女性比一位一米五的男性相比,前者作为变性者要艰难得多,”她说,“人们看女人有另外的一套标准。”This also resonates with Vanessa Fabbre, an assistant professor at the Brown School of Social Work at Washington University in St. Louis, and one of the few experts on the subject of late transitioners. “I hear a lot of older trans men say that they were tomboys and that it was acceptable,” she said. “But we don’t have an equivalent term for tomboy with people who are born male. We have yet to create a real option for young boys wanting to express an aspect of their female selves.”拉切林的观点和凡妮莎·法的看法一致。法是圣路易斯的华盛顿大学布朗社会工作学院的副教授,也是研究高龄变性人士为数不多的专家之一。“我听到许多年长的变性男性说他们年轻时是假小子,人们并没觉得这有什么,”她说,“但是对于那些生为男性却身份认同是女性的人群来说,并没有一个和‘假小子’相应的词来形容他们。我们必须给那些想表达他们女性一面的男孩们一个真正的选择。”Three years ago, Ms. Fabbre was studying for a doctoral degree in social sciences at the University of Chicago, when she decided to write her thesis on late-age transitioners. With Jess T. Dugan, 28, a photographer who is also her life partner, Ms. Fabbre has been documenting the lives of many of these people on a website called To Survive on This Shore. However ostracized and exoticized they are, perhaps the most shocking thing about their pictures on the site is how ordinary the people in them seem.三年前,法女士在芝加哥大学攻读社会科学士学位。她把她的士论文选题定为了高龄变性人士。她和她的伴侣、28岁的摄影师杰斯·T·杜根一起创建了一个名叫“此岸生存”的网站,记录了许多高龄变性人士的生活。这些人受到社会排斥,并被视为异类,网站上的照片可能最让人震惊的地方就是他们在其中看上去跟普通人并没有区别。A fair number of them have been following the news of Bruce Jenner with interest. So has Ms. Padgett, who said it was obvious to her what was going on well before People Magazine reported it had confirmed that Mr. Jenner was in transition.他们中的许多人都在密切地关注布鲁斯·詹纳的新闻。帕吉特女士也是。她说早在《人物》杂志核实詹纳先生确实在变性之前,她就知道是怎么回事了。“I could just tell,” she said. “I kept saying, ‘I think he’s transitioning.’ He was taking all the actions I took. But I can’t imagine what it must be like to be him. People have said to me over and over ‘What you’re doing is so brave.’ But I never felt it had anything to do with braveness. It was a need and a hunger, and when I saw the solution it was like a truckload of food coming at a starving person. Someone like Bruce Jenner has to do it in front of the entire world. That is brave.”“我一眼就看出来了,”她说,“我一直在说,‘我认为他在变性。’他经历的过程我都经历过。但是我不能想像如果我是他的话会是怎么样。人们反复跟我说‘你所做的真是太勇敢了’,但是我从来不觉得这和勇敢什么关系。这就像一种渴求,当我看到满足这种渴求的办法时,就好像一个挨饿的人看到一卡车食物冲他而来。像布鲁斯·詹纳这样的人却要在全世界面前做这件事,这才是勇敢。”Occasionally, she has noticed the sneering tone of some of the tabloid coverage, the incredulity that someone could have hidden this for so long and decided so late to take action. But that’s exactly why she thinks it will be a watershed moment.偶尔,她注意到一些小报报道采用了一种讥讽的口吻,质疑竟然会有人隐藏了这么多年,直到这么大年纪了才采取行动。但正因为如此,帕吉特女士认为詹纳出柜这件事会成为一个转折点。“It’s going to spotlight these issues to millions of Americans,” Ms. Padgett said. “It shows that whatever body you’re born into, being transgender doesn’t go away. I thought it wasn’t going to last, the desire to be female would go away. If anything, at 50 it got stronger. And then it was like ‘what the hell.’ I’ve only got a few more years. Why not do what I’ve always wanted to do?”“这件事让上百万的美国人注意到了这些问题,”她说:“这件事说明,不论你出生时的性别是什么,你是跨性者这个事实是不会改变的。我从前以为自己想变成女性的渴望不会持续,会随着时间的流逝而消失。但是,当我50岁时,这种愿望更加强烈。那时,我想:‘我就豁出去了。’我的余生之年屈指可数,是该做些自己一直想做的事了。” /201504/368568

  

  1. The Early Period of the Movie1、中国早期电影的发展At the move of the 19th century, the movie was introduced into China. In 1896, a Western movie was shown in Shanghai, which was the first movie showing in China. In 1905,a photo studio in Beijing made the first Chinese movie , which was only a collection of scenes from a Beijing opera based on the classical novel The Romance of the Three Kingdoms. In the early thirties, many revolutionary movies were produced, such as Spring Silkworms, Plunder of Peach and Plum , Three Modem Women , The Great Road,Song of the Fishermen,and Crossroads. These movies reflect the realities of society and the wishes of the people.19世纪末期,电影引人中国。中国第一部引进的西方电影于1脱年在上海上映。 1905年,北京一家照相室选取京剧传统曲目《三国演义》的一些简单场景制作了中国第一部电影。在中国电影事业发展的最初30年中,创作了许多革命电影,例如:《春蚕》、《桃李劫机《三个登女性》、《大路》、《温光曲》、《十字街头},集中反映了当时社会的现状和人民的愿望。 During the Anti-Japanese War, many progressive movies were made, such as Defend Our Land, The March of Victory, The North is Ours, Sons and Daughters of China,and The Snowy Taihang Mountains. The movies reflected the people#39;s requirement for resistance against Japan.抗战期间,许多进步电影诞生了,例如《保卫我们的土地》、《胜利进行曲》、《华北是我们的》、《中华儿女》、《风雪太行山》。这些电影都反映了人民要求坚持抗战的强烈愿望。After the victory of the Anti-Japanese War,a great number of excellent movies were produced , Such as Remote Love , Along the Songhua River,Eight Thousand Li of Cloud and Moon, and The Spring River Flows East. All of them areαbout the people#39;s life or struggles during the War of Resistance against Japan.抗战胜利后,中国电影发行了如《遥远的爱》、《松花江上》、《八千里路云和月》和《一江春水向东流》等大批反映抗战时期人民生活和斗争的杰出电影。In the liberated areas, the founding of the Ya#39;ann Movie Group marks the starting point of the people#39;s movie industry. This group shot valuable documentaries which included yan#39;an and the Eighth Route Army, Dr. Norman Bethune, and Nanniwan. In 1946, the Yan#39;an Movie Studio was founded and recorded part of the Liberation War. In October, the Northeast Movie Studio was established. Its main productions were seventeen newsreels entitled The Democratic Northeast.在解放区,延安电影团的成立标志着人民电影事业的开始。先后拍摄了《延安与八路军》、《白求恩大夫》和《南泥湾》等一些价值很高的纪录片。1946年,延安电影制片厂成立,出品了一些解放战争的影片。10月,东北电影制片厂成立,主要作品为《民主东北》17部系列新闻片。Many old progressive movies made before the founding of the People#39;s Republic of China adopted the realistic style; therefore they reflect Chinese society and the lives of the people and show sympathy for the poor. Early movie-makers owned clear purpose of their work: to make movies which could entertain the ordinary people so that they managed to make the plot development, customs and habits , language and acting of their movies conform to the tastes of the audience. Obviously, the pioneers of China#39;s progressive movies made great contributions to the development of China#39;s movie industry.建国前很多进步影片采用了现实主义形式,对中国社会、民生都有很大的影响力,这些影片都表达了对穷苦大众的同情。为了实现电影的创作目标一一一愉悦普通老百姓,早期电影工作者努力使情节发展、风俗习惯、语言、表演都能符合观众品位。中国进步电影的先驱们为中国电影事业的发展做出了巨大贡献。 /201505/373199。

  

  

  3.One Baby Shower Per Mom3.迎婴派对Mimosas, cake and teeny-tiny outfits – what#39;s not to love about baby showers? With having and raising kids becoming more expensive than ever, most parents-to-be appreciate the spoils a shower has to offer. In the past, the party could only be thrown by someone unrelated to the expectant couple, because a shower given by a family member would imply that the couple was pandering for gifts.每次都是蛋糕、婴儿的小衣,对迎婴派对真是累觉不爱。相比过去,虽然养育一个孩子的成本要高出很多,许多准爸妈们还是希望用这派对好好庆祝。在过去,参加派对的都是准爸妈们的同事密友好闺蜜,如果是亲属张罗派对就有点悖理,明摆着请人来给自家送礼嘛。In the early days of baby showers it might not have been obvious or mandatory to bring a present for the wee one, but let#39;s be real here: Today, no one would dare show up empty-handed to a shower, so does it really matter who purchases the punch and sends out the invitations?早先参加迎婴派对并无明文规定要求朋友们带礼物。但现在情况有所不同,没人会空着手参加派对,因此活动开始变得正式起来,为表诚意,准爸妈们办派对前要发出请柬,买好潘趣酒。Another emerging trend that some people find irksome is multiple showers for subsequent babies. I completely understand where these people are coming from. Showers are time-consuming and gifts are pricey, so unless you have limitless funds it can seem like overkill to gift the same mother three or four times. On the other hand, my third boy is no less special than my first, and I once somewhere that every baby deserves to be celebrated.另一个趋势就是现在人们对二胎,三胎等的孩子的迎婴派对越来越冷淡,甚至心有抱怨了。我完全理解他们为什么有此感觉,参加派对很占时间,送出的礼物往往也价格不菲,所以除非你是钱多多,否则给同一个妈妈送三次甚至四次礼物,这还真是给人无底洞的恐惧。但是换句话说,作为爸妈,我的第三个小儿子出生时同第一胎一样那么让人激动。我曾在哪里读过这样一句话:每个生命都值得庆祝。One way to strike a balance for subsequent pregnancies is to opt for a more low-key shindig. Skip the custom invitations, fondant cake and 50-person guest list for an intimate lunch with your nearest and dearest because they#39;re probably going to be the ones involved in your child#39;s life, anyway!改善这一问题的一种办法就是让又怀的准妈妈们把派对办得简单低调些,跳过发请柬环节,做一个方旦糖蛋糕,办一个五十人左右规模的密友派对。不管怎样,这些与你关系紧密的人日后很可能会成为孩子成长发展的重要角色。2.Personal Contact on Special Occasions2.出席朋友的重要时刻When someone I love calls or visits to say ;Happy Birthday; I get a completely different vibe than when the same person sends a text bearing the sentiment. No matter how many cutesy emoticons you include, it#39;s simply impossible to convey the same joy over electronics that personal contact achieves so easily.深爱的亲朋好友在我生日那天打来电话或是亲自登门对我说“生日快乐”,我会高兴到睡不着,然而假如同样是他们,在我生日的时候只是发送了一条包含深情的短信,不管其内容多么讨人喜欢,我感受到的也只是失落。通过电子设备传达的喜悦完全不能与亲自交流联系相媲美。Today, texting and social media have all but replaced birthday cards and other types of personal contact on special occasions. Although some might maintain that these avenues allow us to keep in touch with more people at once, others point out that such interactions are superficial in nature and rude to fall back on. ;Too many people take the lazy route on birthdays, holidays and other special occasions,; says Desiree J. ;Not being on social media forces me to really connect with people on a regular basis, rather than resorting to some canned wall post.;我们身处的这个时代里,短信和各种大众媒体已经几乎代替了传统的生日贺卡及亲自出席好友生命中一些特别的时刻。虽然这种方式可以让我们在同一时间与更多的人保持联系,但有人指出这种联系实际上是肤浅的,也是不礼貌的。“现在的人大多选择慵懒的方式来庆祝生日、节日和其他的特殊时刻了,”德西蕾(Desiree J)说,“无法接触大众媒体才能逼迫我们正常地与他人交流,而不是诉诸于各种网站上的留言。”Etiquette experts are rolling with the times to fold tech advancements in with birthday and special occasion etiquette. Acquaintances or old friends you primarily connect with via Facebook can get by with merely a wall post, but folks you text regularly warrant a minimum of a text or phone call. The extra-special people in your life, like siblings, significant others and close family should be acknowledged in person whenever possible, or by phone, Skype or other personal avenue .随着时代的改变,礼仪专家认为我们需要将当今的科技成果融入生日及其他特殊时刻的礼仪中。那些平时只通过QQ、微信、微等联系的朋友可以通过留言来表达自己的问候,而亲朋好友必须至少要有短信或是电话的问候才较为妥当。那些特别亲密的亲戚朋友更是应当尽量当面表达自己的祝福,实在没办法出席的情况下则要用电话、视频或其他互动方式来送上祝福。1.Not Celebrating Yourself1.不要独自庆祝Sometimes, if you want something done right (or even done at all), you have to do it yourself. It#39;s becoming extremely common for people to throw their own birthday, housewarming, engagement and other parties, sometimes because they just enjoy playing the host, but often because no one else offers to do it for them!每当我们希望某件事情能够被处理妥当的时候,通常需要亲力亲为。现在亲自举办自己的生日派对、乔迁喜宴以及订婚仪式等的宴会都十分常见了。有些人或许是觉得自己做东设计和策划活动很好玩,不过,大多数的情况通常是没有其他人来帮忙做这些事。Although considered fairly tacky in the past, some etiquette experts can handle the trend of self-celebration, as long as it#39;s done with style. For example, inviting guests to a birthday party where they have to provide or pay for food, drinks and the implied gift is placing the burden squarely on their shoulders, despite the fact that you planned the soiree. By contrast, hosting a party with all the trimmings on a date that just happens to be on or near your birthday relieves the attendees from responsibility. There#39;s no sense in moping around, wishing for a fete you#39;re physically and financially capable of throwing yourself, so do it up right and toast yourself quietly for bucking a pretty benign tradition!虽然在过去,独自筹备庆典是有些失礼的,然而现在请礼仪专家来帮忙做出自己个性的宴会已经逐渐成为趋势。举例来说,以前举办生日派对,受邀请的客人需要提供食物或是为自己的食物买单,另外还要送上生日礼物,虽然说你已经筹划了整个聚会,可这些对客人来说仍然是一种负担。相比之下,在临近生日或者生日这天,自己举办一场规模齐全的派对,便巧妙地把朋友们从这种负担中解放出来了。没有必要因为没有人为自己举办派对而闷闷不乐,你完全有能力独自承办聚会,所以自己默默地举杯庆祝打破了这一传统吧!审校:浅芷湄 Freya然 /201507/385682

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