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安庆人民医院治疗龟头炎好吗安庆如何医疗早泄病While many people aren#39;t getting enough calcium, new research cautions that some people may have the opposite problem: They could be getting too much.尽管有很多人钙摄入量不足,但新的研究提醒我们,也有一些人面临的问题可能恰好相反:他们的摄入量太多了。Americans spend more than billion a year on calcium supplements in hopes of staving off osteoporosis, the brittle bone disease that cripples many elderly women and some men.美国人一年花费逾10亿美元购买各类钙补充剂,期望能推迟骨质疏松症的发生。骨质疏松症是一种让骨头变脆的疾病,许多老年女性和部分男性都会因骨质疏松致残。Yet recent studies link calcium supplements to a higher risk of heart attacks and kidney stones. Last month, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force issued a draft recommendation against taking calcium and vitamin D, saying there wasn#39;t enough evidence of benefit to justify the risk.但近期的研究揭示,钙补充剂有可能导致心脏病和肾结石风险升高。美国预防医学工作组(U.S. Preventive Services Task Force)上月发布了一份建议书草案,不主张用钙和维生素D补充剂,称并没有充足的据显示这样做利大于弊。For generations of Americans who grew up exhorted to drink their milk to maintain strong bones, the reports raised troubling questions: Is calcium not so important after all? Are the supplements unsafe? And how much is too much?对从小就被劝说要多喝牛奶以维持强健骨骼的几代美国人来说,这些报告引发了一些麻烦的问题:钙是不是其实并不太重要?钙补充剂是不是不安全?摄入钙量多少算超量?;It#39;s gotten very confusing but it doesn#39;t need to be,; says Ethel Siris, director of the Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center at Columbia University Medical Center in New York.纽约哥伦比亚大学医学中心(Columbia University Medical Center)托尼#8226;斯塔比尔骨质疏松研究中心(Toni Stabile Osteoporosis Center)主任西里斯(Ethel Siris)说,“问题变得令人非常费解,但其实不至于如此。”The links to heart attack and kidney stones involved calcium supplements, not calcium from food sources, Dr. Siris and other experts note. Many other studies have not found such health risks, so more research is needed to understand what levels, if any, might be hazardous.西里斯士和其他专家指出,可能引起心脏病和肾结石的是钙补充剂,而不是从食物中获取的钙。许多其他研究并未发现这类健康风险,因此,若要了解钙摄入量过多是否会有危险以及达到多少可能会有危险,还需要做更多研究。Meanwhile, experts say they are still more concerned that too many Americans aren#39;t getting enough calcium, since the body can#39;t make it on its own.专家们同时也说,他们更担心的仍然是有太多美国人钙摄入量不足,因为人体无法自己制造钙。;Unless you take in enough calcium, by mouth, every day, you have to keep borrowing it from your skeleton, so over your lifetime, you need to get enough,; says Dr. Siris. ;If you have low bone mass, or are at risk for fractures, you want to minimize any need to take calcium from the skeleton.;西里斯士说,“除非每天都能经口摄入充足的钙,否则你不得不一直向骨骼借用钙,所以人一生中必须摄取足够的钙。如果你骨密度低,也就是说有骨折风险的话,你就得尽量避免从骨骼中获取钙。”How much calcium people need varies by age and gender. Adults generally need 1,000 milligrams daily, rising to 1,200 mg for women over 50 and men over 70, according to guidelines issued in 2010 by the Institute of Medicine, an independent advisory group. Children need 1,300 mg daily during the peak growing years of 9 to 18.人体需要的钙量依年龄和性别而有不同。根据独立顾问组织药学研究所(Institute of Medicine)2010年发布的指导原则,成年人一般需要每天摄入1,000毫克钙,50岁以上的女性和70岁以上的男性每天需要摄入的钙量会增加到1,200毫克。孩子在九到18岁的生长高峰期每天需要1,300毫克钙。People also need sufficient levels of vitamin D to absorb the calcium. The IOM recommends 600 international units a day for most adults, and 800 daily after age 70, although many physicians recommend more. It is difficult to take in that much vitamin D from food sources, and prolonged sun exposure, the best source of vitamin D, can lead to skin cancer, so experts say many people should take vitamin D in supplement form.人体要吸收钙,还需要摄取充足的维生素D。药学研究所建议多数成年人每天摄入600国际单位的维生素D,并建议70岁以上的人每天摄入800国际单位,不过许多医生推荐的摄取量要大于这个数。从食物中摄入这么多的维生素D很难,而长时间阳光照射(维生素D的最佳来源)可能导致皮肤癌,因此专家称,许多人都应该用维生素D补充剂。Getting adequate calcium from food is easier. For example, 8 ounces of milk or 6 ounces of yogurt has 300 mg of calcium, and one cup of spinach has 270 mg. But studies show on average, Americans get only about 750 mg of calcium from their diets.从食物中获取充足的钙则比较简单。比方说,八盎司牛奶或六盎司酸奶中含有300毫克钙,半品脱菠菜中含有270毫克钙。但研究显示,美国人平均只能从食物中获得约750毫克钙。Many of the more than 30 million Americans who are lactose intolerant don#39;t get逾3,000万乳糖不耐受的美国人无法获得充足的钙,或者要依赖钙补充剂。;For people who can#39;t or won#39;t get more in their diet, it#39;s better to fill that gap with supplements than to stay on the low side,; says Bess Dawson-Hughes, director of the Bone Metabolism Laboratory at the USDA Nutrition Center at Tufts University. 塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)美国农业部营养中心(USDA Nutrition Center)骨骼新陈代谢实验室(Bone Metabolism Laboratory)主任道森休斯(Bess Dawson-Hughes)说,“对无法或没能通过饮食摄取更多钙的人来说,用营养片剂来补钙比缺钙要好。”Consuming too little calcium can contribute to osteoporosis, a thinning of the bones that causes more than 2 million fractures a year. Once osteoporosis sets in, taking extra calcium and vitamin D won#39;t prevent fractures. But not getting enough of the nutrients can make bone loss worse.摄入钙量过少会引起骨质疏松,骨质疏松症导致每年逾200万例骨折事件发生。一旦得了骨质疏松症,即使摄入额外的钙和维生素D也无助于防范骨折。但如果这些营养物质摄入不足的话,骨耗损会加重。On the other hand, it is easy to consume more than the 2,000 mg a day that the IOM considers the safe upper limit for adults. ;A number of health-care providers say, ; Oh, the requirement is 1,200 mg daily, so take 1,200 mg in supplements,;regardless of what the patient is consuming in food,; says Dr. Dawson-Hughes. ;If you have a bowl of Total in the morning and a yogurt and a glass of milk for lunch, you can get to 2,000 mg easily.; Multivitamins also contain calcium in widely varying amounts. Chewable chocolate, caramel and gummy-bear varieties have made calcium supplements as appealing as candy.从另一方面来说,人一天的钙摄入量很容易超出2,000毫克(被药学研究所视为成年人的安全上限)。道森休斯士说,“许多医疗务机构会说,‘哦,一天必须摄入1,200毫克钙,所以要用1,200毫克补充剂,#39;他们不管患者吃的是什么样的饮食。如果你早晨喝一碗Total牌谷物片,中餐喝一盒酸奶和一杯牛奶的话,很容易就能摄入2,000毫克钙。”复合维生素片中也或多或少地含有钙。钙补充剂能制成可以嚼着吃的巧克力、太妃糖和小熊糖等品种,像糖果一样吸引人。In general, any vitamins or minerals the body can#39;t absorb are simply excreted. But studies linking calcium supplements to heart attack and kidney stones have made experts more wary of excess calcium than before.总体而言,任何人体无法吸收的维生素或者矿物质都会被排泄出去。但由于研究发现钙补充剂与心脏病和肾结石存在关联,专家们对过量摄入钙这一问题比从前更加警惕。In a 2006 report from the Women#39;s Health Initiative, a large government study, women who took 1,000 mg of calcium daily had 17% more kidney stones than those who got a placebo. But subjects were allowed to eat their usual diet, and take calcium supplements on their own, no matter what group they were in, so their total calcium intake was unknown.大型政府研究项目“妇女健康倡议”(Women#39;s Health Initiative)2006年的一份报告显示,每日用1,000毫克钙补充剂的女性患肾结石的风险比用安慰剂的女性高17%。不过在此项研究中,两个组别的实验对象都被允许按照她们的日常饮食习惯来吃东西,钙补充剂也是自行用,因此她们摄入的钙的总量是未知的。In the 12-year Nurses#39; Health Study of 90,000 women, those who consumed a high level of calcium in food had fewer kidney stones than those who consumed less.为期12年的“护士健康研究”(Nurses#39; Health Study)对九万名女性进行了研究,研究发现,从饮食中摄取大量钙的女性患肾结石的风险要低于钙摄入量较少的女性。Studies linking calcium intake and heart-attack risk are similarly confusing. A study of 24,000 Germans published in the journal Heart last month, found that those who consumed about 820 mg of calcium a day had a 31% lower risk of heart attack than those who consumed much less. But those who got their calcium exclusively from supplements were more than twice as likely to have a heart attack as those who took no supplements.揭示钙摄入量与心脏病风险之间关联的研究也令人感到有些困惑。《心脏医学期刊》(Heart)上月刊登了一项针对24,000名德国人的研究,研究发现,每日摄入约820毫克钙的人患心脏病的风险比摄入量少得多的人低31%。但仅从补充剂中摄取钙的人患心脏病的风险则比不用任何补充剂的人高出一倍以上。In 2010, researchers in New Zealand analyzed 11 clinical trials involving 12,000 people, and found that those taking calcium supplements had a 30% higher risk of heart attack than those who didn#39;t. However, the studies didn#39;t include people taking vitamin D, which some researchers believe is protective for the heart.2010年,新西兰的研究人员对涉及12,000名试验对象的11项临床试验进行了分析,发现用钙补充剂的人患心脏病的风险比不用钙补充剂的人高30%。然而,相关研究未将用维生素D的人包括在内,一些研究人员认为,维生素D可保护心脏。Exactly how calcium supplements might contribute to heart attacks baffles cardiologists. ;Nobody has associated the calcium in your bloodstream with calcification in your arteries,; says Nieca Goldberg, medical director of the Joan H. Tisch Center for Women#39;s Health at New York University Langone Medical Center. Still, she says she now urges patients get their recommended calcium from food than from supplements to avoid possible problems.钙补充剂究竟是怎么导致心脏病呢?这个问题令心脏病学家疑惑不解。纽约大学朗格尼医学中心(New York University Langone Medical Center)琼#8226;H#8226;蒂施女性健康中心(Joan H. Tisch Center for Women#39;s Health)的医学主任戈德堡(Nieca Goldberg)说,“没有人发现血液中的钙与动脉血管钙化有什么联系。”不过,她说她现在会敦促患者通过膳食而非补充剂来摄取推荐量的钙,以避免潜在风险。Osteoporosis experts also urge patients not to take more than the recommended amount of calcium. ;Women should definitely stop taking two big calcium supplements a day,; says Dr. Dawson-Hughes. Even if the risks remain unclear, taking more than the body can absorb doesn#39;t benefit bones, ;so it#39;s not worth any risk - real, imaginary, uncertain, possible or probably,; she adds.骨质疏松症专家也敦促患者不要摄取超过推荐量的钙。道森休斯士说,“女性肯定不应该再一天用两大片钙补充剂了。”即使相关风险我们还不清楚,但摄入超过身体吸收能力的钙对骨骼没有好处,她还说,“所以不值得去冒险──不管是真正的、想象的、不确定的、有一定可能的还是可能性很大的风险。” /201207/191276安庆宜秀区看泌尿科怎么样 Italy has the history of making prosciutto for more than 2,000 years, and the prosciutto of Parma is among the world's top-quality products and protected by European Union Law. So what does it taste like? Is it really that delicious? How to eat it?意大利制作火腿的历史可以追溯到几千年前的罗马时期。意大利人颇为他们的火腿工艺而骄傲,而帕玛火腿更是高品质火腿的代表。那么,意大利火腿的味道到底是怎样的?又是怎么个吃法?One of the favorite treats of northern and central Italian cuisine is prosciutto, a raw, salt-cured, dried ham. There's a saying in Italy which goes that a person who doesn't like raw prosciutto is not an Italian. Prosciutto can be found in ordinary people's plate as well as on the table of an Italian state banquet. 意大利北部和中部地区的人们做喜爱的厨艺之一就是用盐胭脂且风干的生火腿。在意大利流传一句这样的俗语,不喜欢吃火腿的人不是意大利人。火腿出现在普通家庭的饭桌上,也能在意大利国宴上找到。How to eat raw prosciutto? It can be used in salads. Try wrapping a slice of prosciutto around a slice of sweet fresh fruit -- with soft cantaloupes it's amazing. It may sound a little bit strange, since prosciutto is salty and the cantaloupe is sweet. But the sweetness of fresh fruit will balance the saltiness of prosciutto. It's a famous appetizer around the world, and it's very tasty. Prosciutto can be cooked. In Northern Italy, people use prosciutto as dumpling fillings, and in Central Italy it's boiled with vegetables.生火腿如何个吃法呢?它可以用在沙拉中,在新鲜的甜味水果片表面附上一片薄薄的生火腿,特别是和哈密瓜配在一起,绝对美味。火腿是咸的,而哈密瓜是甜的,配在一起听起来会有点奇快。其实不然,哈密瓜的甜味可以中和火腿里的咸味。这样搭配以来就是一道美味的开胃菜,而且世界有名哟。火腿还可以煮,意大利北部的人们习惯用火腿做饺子馅。中部的人们用它和蔬菜放在一起煮。how to make raw prosciutto? Italian prosciutto is made by first cleaning and salting a ham. The salt prevents the meat from turning an unattractive gray color as it ages, slows the fat from spoiling and inhibits bacteria from forming. Afterwards, Italian prosciutto is hung to air dry, first at warm temperatures until moisture in the meat evaporates, and then in cooler temperatures. The length of drying depends upon the climate and size of the ham, which can take from six months to a year or more.如何制作生火腿呢?首先是清洗,腌制。盐能防止肉变成灰色,看上去不鲜艳,防止脂肪变质,抑制细菌生成。之后,把火腿挂起来风干。首先放在暖和的温度中,直到肉中的水汽全部蒸发掉,然后放进低温度中。因温度的高低和火腿的大小不同,风干的时间短为半年,长到一年,甚至更长。Italian people are really proud of century-old prosciutto production. Next time when you have dinner in an Italian restaurant, order yourself prosciutto with cantaloupe to start the meal. Sit back and relax. You will be delightfully surprised, since all the compliments are true.意大利颇为他们的火腿工艺而骄傲。下次去意大利餐厅时,点一份火腿哈密瓜开胃菜。坐下来放松些,你会惊奇地发现意大利火腿果然名不虚传。 /201103/129762望江县治疗龟头炎哪家医院最好

安庆前列腺炎症有哪些症状安庆尿频尿急尿分叉 1. SUCCESS 从对成功的定义看……A successful man is one who makes more money than his wife can spend.成功的男人就是挣得比老婆花得多。A successful woman is one who can find such a man.成功的女人就是能找到上述那样的老公。 /201005/104313安庆大观区割包皮哪家医院最好

安庆第二人民医院治疗龟头炎多少钱ONE of the oddest things about Homo sapiens is that he is alone. Though storytellers have filled the world with imaginary hominids-from woodland pixies to mountain giants-no sign of the real thing has ever been seen. But that was not true in the past. As recently as 40,000 years ago there were three other species of human on Earth: Neanderthals in Europe, the ;hobbits; of Flores, in Indonesia, and a recently discovered and still mysterious group of creatures called the Denisovans, who lived in Central Asia. And now there is evidence that similar diversity existed earlier in human history, a little under 2m years ago, in Africa.有关智人的最奇怪的事情之一就是他们在人类的进化史上十分孤独。尽管故事家们想象出了许多人种来丰富这个世界,从森林里的小精灵到山上的巨人等等,但人们却从未找到能明这些人种真实存在的迹象。但从过去来看,这样的说法并不正确。早在4万年前,地球上还存在另外三个人种:欧洲的尼安德塔人,印度尼西亚佛洛里斯岛上的;霍比特人;,以及最近才发现的一个叫丹尼索瓦人的神秘人种,该人种曾居住在亚洲中部。而现在,人们在非洲又找到了另一个人种存在的据,该人种在人类进化史上出现的时间更早,距今约不到200万年。This evidence, just published in Nature, has been provided by a team led by Meave Leakey of the Turkana Basin Institute in Nairobi, Kenya. Dr Leakey is a member of an illustrious palaeontological clan. Her husband, Richard, discovered in 1967 that the area around Lake Turkana is a good place to look for human fossils and made many important finds there; Richard#39;s parents, Louis and Mary, had earlier been responsible for showing the same was true of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania; and in 1999 Dr Leakey herself found a new species of hominid, called Kenyanthropus platyops. At 3.5m years old Kenyanthropus predates Homo, the genus to which modern humans belong. Her latest discoveries, however, add to that genus, too.这些发表在《自然》杂志上的据是由肯尼亚首都内罗毕的图尔卡纳盆地研究所的一个研究小组提供的。该研究小组的领导人米芙#8226;利基来自一个著名的古生物学研究家族,1967年,她的丈夫理查德发现图尔卡纳湖附近区域是一块寻找人类化石的好地方,并在那里取得了许多重要发现。理查德的父母路易斯和玛丽曾在早些时候负责坦桑尼亚奥杜瓦伊峡谷的人类化石发掘工作。米芙#8226;利基士本人曾在1999年发现了一个叫肯尼亚平脸人的新人种,该人种距今已有350万年,其出现时间比现代人所属的智人还早。而她最新取得的发现成果又给这一人种增添了新成员。The problem with studying humanity#39;s fossil record is that it is so sparse: a jawbone here; a braincase there. Often, it is difficult to know if different bones have come from the same species or not. Even multiple examples of the same type of bone can mislead. What looks like two species might actually be the male and the female of one.研究人类化石记录最大的问题是资源稀缺,总是这儿一块颚骨,那儿一块头骨。而且研究者通常很难分辨它们是否来自同一人种。即便是同一人种,不同样本也会给人带来误导,两块看起来像是来自不同人种的骨头实际上可能分属于同一人种的男性和女性。Such confusion has bedevilled the interpretation of the human fossils found near Lake Turkana. Some palaeontologists see a single, variable species called Homo habilis. Others add a second, Homo rudolfensis. The new fossils found by Dr Leakey and her team (which includes a third Leakey generation in the form of her daughter, Louise) may, however, help clear up what is going on.这种极易混淆的情况一直困扰着那些想要解读图尔卡纳湖附近人类化石的研究者们。有一些古生物学家认为人种是单一的,即只有能人一种,其他人种都是能人的变异体。而另外一些古生物学家则认为除能人之外还有第二个人种,即卢尔多夫人。而利基士与她的团队(该团队成员还包括利基家族的第三代人,即利基的女儿路易斯)最新发现的人类化石或许可以帮忙理清这些人种之间的关系。One of the new specimens, known as KMN-ER 62000, has a face like the type specimen of Homo rudolfensis (the fossil that defines the species, if species it turns out to be), though it seems to be from an adolescent, whereas the type specimen is an adult. Crucially, 62000 has a reasonably well-preserved upper jaw, which the type specimen lacks. A computer reconstruction (see diagram) suggests this upper jaw meshes well with the second of Dr Leakey#39;s discoveries, a lower jaw (KMN-ER 60000). She is not suggesting they are from the same individual, since they are of different ages, but they seem to come from the same species, namely Homo rudolfensis.这些新发现的样本中有一个被标为KMN-ER 62000的新样本,其脸型与卢尔多夫人样本(该化石是用来鉴别卢尔多夫人人种的一个样本,如果研究者能用此种方式辨认出样本属于卢尔多夫人种)的脸型相似,尽管62000样本看起来像是来自一个青少年,而卢尔多夫人化石样本则属于一个成年人。关键是,62000样本拥有一个保存相当完好的上颌,而这正是这一类型的样本所缺少的。一张电脑重建图(见上图)显示这一上颌与利基士发现的第二个人种的一个下颌样本(KMN-ER 60000)十分吻合。由于两块骨头分属两个年龄不同的人,因此利基士并不认为这两块骨头是来自同一个人的,但看起来这两块骨头的主人属于同一人种,即卢尔多夫人。Equally significantly, a different computer reconstruction shows that the upper jaw of 62000 does not match another famous fossil from the area, known as KMN-ER 1802. This was found in 1973 and had previously been thought likely to be the lower jaw of rudolfensis.同样重要的是,另一张电脑重建图显示,62000样本的上颌与KMN-ER 1802样本并不吻合。KMN-ER 1802这块有名的样本化石同样来自这个地区,1973年人们发现它时曾认为这块下颌骨可能属于卢尔多夫人种。What 1802 actually is, is now obscure. It is too different from what this chain of reasoning suggests was the shape of Homo rudolfensis to be explained by sexual dimorphism, unless the sexes differed in this species in ways not seen in any other primate. But its previous attribution was made because it does not look much like Homo habilis either.现在人们仍旧无法弄清1802样本到底属于哪个人种。这一推理链认为它是卢尔多夫人,并以人种的两性差异来解释其外形差异;但这一差异实在太大,除非这一人种的两性差异在其他灵长类动物中见所未见方能自圆其说。但之前人们之所以将其归为卢尔多夫人种是因为它看起来也并不像是能人的下颌。It seems then that at least two, and possibly three species of Homo were stalking the east-African savannah a little under 2m years ago: habilis, rudolfensis and something as yet unnamed. The intertwining history of the human family and the Leakey family has just become even more complicated.这样看起,在距今不到200万年前,曾有三个人种在东非大草原上生活过:能人,卢尔多夫人,以及一个尚未被命名的人种。利基家族一直都致力于研究人类大家族的历史,现在二者之间的关系交织在一起,使历史更加复杂了。 /201208/195397 A frog telephones the Psychic Hotline and is told, "You are going to meet a beautiful young girl who will want to know everything about you . "  The frog says, "This is great! Will I meet her at a party, or what?"  "No," says the psychic. "Next semester in her biology class. 青蛙的电话  青蛙拨打通灵热线。电话中说:“你将遇到一位美丽的年轻女子,她要了解你的一切。”  青蛙说:“这太棒了!我会在舞会上遇见她,还是……?”  “不,”通灵者说,“是在下个学期她的生物课上。”内容来自: /201107/145543安庆市第二人民医院男科岳西县妇幼保健人民中心医院男科挂号



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