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嘉兴曙光整形美容医院电波拉皮除皱怎么样中华健康

2019年05月25日 23:17:17|来源:国际在线|编辑:普及社区
Chinese people value their family very much because they regard it as a means to keep the family blood stream continuously running. And the running family blood stream maintains the life of the whole nation. That is why children production and breeding in China becomes a focus of all members of families. It is even accepted by them as an essential moral duty. There is a Chinese saying that of all who lack filial piety,the worst is who has no children中国人非常重视家庭,因为他们认为家庭是使家族血脉延续的方式,而只有血脉的延续才能保整个民族的生命力。因此,在中国,所有家庭成员都非常重视孩子的生养,他们甚至认为这是一种道德上的责任。中国有句谚语:“不孝有三,无后为大”,很能说明问题。The fad that Chinese people pay great attention to children production and breeding can be supported by many customary practices. Many traditional customs about production of children are aN based on the idea of children protection.中国人对生养孩子的重视体现在许多传统习俗上。这些习俗都是以保护孩子为出发点的。Pregnancy怀When a wife is found to be pregnant, people will say she“has happiness;and all her family members will feel overjoyed over it. Throughout the whole period of pregnancy,both she and the fetus are well attended,so that the fetus is not hurt in any way and the new generation is born both physically and mentally healthy. To keep the fetus in a good condition,the would-be mother is offered sufficient nutritious foods and some traditional Chinese medicines believed to be helpful to the fetus.如果发现一位妻子怀了,人们会说她“有喜了”。全家人都会因此感到高兴。怀期间,妇和胎儿都会得到悉心照料,以免胎儿受到任何的伤害,影响下一代的身心健康。为了保胎儿发育良好,通常都会给未来的母亲提供充足的富含营养的食品和一些他们认为会对胎儿发育有益的中草药。After Birth出生后When a Chinese baby is born,he/she is aly considered to be one year old:age is calculated from the date of conception not the date of birth.一出生,中国人就会认为他/她已经一岁了。年龄是从怀的日子,而不是出生的日子开始算的。Praise should never be given to or applied to a new-born Chinese baby as this is believed to invite the attention of demons and ghosts:the baby,instead,should be referred to with unfavourable terms and words!初生的中国婴儿是不能夸的,因为人们认为这样可能会引起恶魔或鬼的注意。要用不太好的词语来称呼婴儿。A concave navel is considered a sign of a prosperous life for the baby, while an extruding one is less auspicious. If a baby has more than one hair crown it is thought he/she will be mischievous and disobedient, but if he/she has wide and that it becomes nicely rounded.婴儿肚脐下陷是将来能过上富足生活的标志,肚脐突出就不那么吉利了。婴儿如果有不止一个发冠,人们会认为他/她将来会比较淘气,不听话;如果婴儿的耳朵又大又厚,将来会比较有福气。婴儿的头要经常抚摸,这样头型才能长得比较圆。Babies who continuously cry are thought to have been disturbed by evil spirits and to ward these off, a single pomelo leaf is placed beneath his/her mattress.要是婴儿不停的哭,那说明有邪物来惊扰他/她,可以在婴儿的睡垫下面放上一个袖树的叶子来驱邪。Care is also taken to ensure that the baby#39;s spirit does not leave his/her body permanently:a baby#39;s face should not be powdered with white talcum powder when he/she is sleeping as his/her wandering spirit will not recognise his/her face and not be reunited with the body. When a little older, the baby may be fitted with a black bracelet,talisman or image of the Buddha which iS thought io ensure his/her well being.还应该小心,防范婴儿的灵魂永久离体。婴儿睡觉时,脸上不能擦爽身粉,否则他/她的灵魂在外面游荡时,会认不出自己的脸,不能附体。婴儿大一点后,可能会给他/她戴上黑色的手镯、护符或佛像,人们认为这些东西可以保佑婴儿。Confinement坐月子After birth,the mother is expected to observe a 40-day period of confinement, which is called ;zuoyuezi;,and to stay in bed for a month in order to recover from the fatigue. During this period,she is not allowed to eat food considered“cold; or have cold baths:keeping warm,by the wearing of thick clothes for example,is considered of paramount importance. If it can be afforded,a special helper-responsible for both mother and child- is hired to tend to the new mother for at least two weeks.婴儿出生以后,婴儿的母亲要坐40天的月子,为了从分娩的劳累中恢复过来,她一个月不能下床。在此期间,她不能吃寒性的食物,也不能洗冷水澡。穿着厚衣来保暖被认为是最重要的。如果条件允许,可以雇个保姆来照顾婴儿的母亲和婴儿,时间至少是半个月。Month-Old Celebration满月The first important event for the newly born baby is the one-month celebration.In Buddhist or Taoist families,on the morning of the baby#39;s 30th day,sacrifices are offered to the gods so that the gods will protect the baby in his subsequent life. Ancestors are also virtually informed of the arrival of the new member in the family.According to the customs,relatives and friends receive gifts from the child#39;s parents. Types of gifts vary from place to place,but eggs dyed red are usually a must both in town and the countryside. Red eggs are chosen as gifts probably because they are the symbol of changing process of life and their round shape is the symbol of harmonious and happy life. They are made red because red color is a sign of happiness in Chinese culture. Besides eggs,food like cakes,chicken and hams are often used as gifts. As people do in the Spring Festival,gifts given are always in even number孩子出生后第一件重要的事就是庆祝孩子满月。信奉佛教或道教的家庭会在孩子出生后的第三十个早晨给神佛上供,祈求神佛保佑孩子,同时也告知祖先:家里又添了口人。根据传统,亲戚和朋友会收到孩子父母送的礼物。不同的地方礼物不尽相同,然而不管在农村还是在城市,红壳蛋是必备的。这是因为,红壳蛋是生活过程改变的象征,圆形则象征着和谐幸福的生活。蛋壳被染成红色,因为红色在中国文化中代表幸福。除了鸡蛋,孩子的父母还会送蛋糕,鸡肉火腿等礼物。跟春节礼物一样,满月礼物也必须是双数的。During the celebration,relatives and friends of the family will also return some presents. The presents indude those which the child may use,like foods,daily materials,gold or silver wares. But the commonest are some money wrapped in a piece of red paper. Grandparents usually give their grandchild a gold or silver ware to show their deep love for the child. In the evening,the child#39;s parents give a grand teast at home or in a restaurant to the guests at the celebration.在庆祝满月期间,亲朋好友也会回礼。回礼可以是孩子能吃能用的东西,也可以是金银器物。但是最常见的礼物还是红包。孩子的爷爷奶奶通常会给自己的孙子或孙女一件金或银的东西来表达他们对孩子的疼爱。当天晚上,孩子的父母会在家或饭店设宴招待客人。The day after the feast, the baby#39;s hair is shaved off; the baby#39;s hair is regarded as“interim; hair and its removal facilitates the growth of“permanent; hair.满月第二天,孩子要理“满月头”,剃掉被认为是“过渡性”的胎毛。人们认为这样会有助于真正的头发长出来。Naming a child给孩子起名In Chinese culture, a person#39;s name has an important role to play in determining his/ her destiny. Because of this,Chinese parents will often spend a long time choosing their child#39;s name and all possible factors must be taken into account when they are naming their children.A typical Chinese name has three characters, in principle these are the family name,a name indicating the child#39;s generation and a personal name .though often the second;principle; is not followed. The generation indicating characters in the names are usually given by the forefathers,who chose them from a line of a poem or found their own and put them in the genealogy for their descendents to use.For this reason,it is possible to know the relationships between the family relatives by just looking at their names.中国文化认为,名字非常重要,可能会决定一个人的命运。因此,父母在给自己的孩子起名时常常要花很长时间,必须要考虑到所有可能的因素。中国人的名字原则上讲通常有三个字:姓,表示辈分的字和自己的名。然而,表示辈分的字常常会不取。姓名里表示辈分的字通常都是祖辈们的,他们把要用的字从诗句里选出来,放在族谱中供子孙们使用。因此,只看一个人的名字,就可以知道家族里亲戚之间的关系。Naming a child must take into consideration five principles:the name must have a favourable meaning(particularly favoured are meanings reflecting wealth or well-being ) and names with negative possibilities should be avoided,the name must sound pleasant when spoken,the name must reflect favourable mathematical calculations,it must be harmonious with regard to yin and yang,and it must possess one of the five elements of metal,wood,water,fire,and earth.It is a common practice to find the newborn baby#39;s Eight Charocters(in four pairs,indicating the year, month,day and hour of a person#39;s birth,each pair consisting of one Heavenly Stem and one Earthly Branch,formerly used in fortune-telling ) and the element.。the Eight Characters. It.traditionally believed in China that the world is made up of five principal elements; metal, wood,water, fire, and earth. A person#39;s name is to include an element that he lacks in his Eight Characters. If he lacks water, for example,then his name is supposed to contain a word like river, lake,tide,sea,stream,rain,or any word associated with water. If he lacks metal,then he is to be given a word like gold,silver, iron,or steel.给孩子起名要考虑五个原则:名字的意思要好(跟“财富”或“福气”有关的意思最好),要避免不太好的可能性;名字念起来必须要好听;笔画上必须要好;必须符合阴阳的理论;必须具备金木水火土中一个要素。起名时,往往会找出孩子的生辰八字(分为四组,分别表示一个出生的年、月、日、时;每组包括一天干一地,过去用于算命),算出八字中缺金木水火土五要素中的哪一种。算出缺哪种后,起的名字里要包含那一要素。比如说,如果缺水,那起的名字里就要包括河、湖、潮、海、雨或者其他跟水有关系的字眼。如果缺金,给他起个带金、银、铁或钢的名字。Some people even believe that the number of strokes of a name has a lot to do with the owner#39;s fate. So when they name a child,the number of strokes of the name is taken into account. When written,each Chinese name has a certain number of strokes,and the number of brush strokes of each character corresponds to a certain element. A two-stroke character is associated with wood,three and four strokes fire, five and six strokes earth and nine and ten strokes water. The total number of strokes in a name can determine a person#39;s fortune:for example twelve strokes bespeaks a life of illness and failure,while 81 strokes presages prosperity and a happy future.有人甚至认为,名字的笔画也跟命运有很大关系。所以给孩子起名时,还要考虑名字的笔画。每个人的名字写起来时笔画都是一定的,每个汉字的笔画对应金木水火土中的一个元素。两画的字对应水,三画四画对应火,五画六画对应土,九画十画对应水。名字的总笔画数可以决定一个人的命运。例如,十二画预示着一个人会多灾多病,生活失败,而八十一画则表明这个人生活富足,未来幸福。Some parents prefer to use a character from an eminent person#39;s name, hoping that their child inherits that person#39;s nobility and greatness. Characters with noble and encouraging connotations are also among the first choices. Some parents inject their own wishes into their children#39;s names. When they want to have aboy,they may name their girl Zhaodi meaning ;expecting a brother;.有些父母喜欢用伟人名字中的字给自己的孩子起名,他们希望自己的孩子能继承那个人的高贵和伟大。有好的意思的字也在首选之列。还有一些父母通过孩子的名字表达他们的愿望。比如如果他们想要个男孩,就可能给自己女儿起名为“招弟”。One-Hundred-Day Celebration百天It is another important occasion to mark when the child is one hundred days old. In ancient times there used to be a grand ceremony, which was called “baisui;,Or“one hundred years old;.By this name,the Chinese are in fad expressing their wish that their beloved child will enjoy a life of longevity. This celebration is not so common now, so we will not go to details.孩子一百天的时候也要庆祝。在古代,会举行一个叫“百岁”的盛大仪式。通过这个名字可以看出,中国人事实上在表明:他们希望自己心爱的孩子能长命百岁。如今庆祝百天已经不太常见了,所以此处不再赘述。One-Year-Old Birthday周岁生日When the child is one year old,there is an interesting custom called“zhua-zhou;.Zhuazhou is regarded as one of the most important customs on a child#39;s first birthday.孩子一岁时有个非常有趣的风俗叫“抓周”。抓周被认为是孩子周岁生日最重要的组成部分之一。The earliest written record of this custom can be traced back to the Song Dynasty ( 960一1279).In the late Qing Dynasty(1644一1911),this custom prevailedin Beijing. Zhuazhou is not an occasion for grand feasts and elaborate gifts:thehosts do not even send out invitations. The idea is that relatives will show up spon taneously to celebrate the child#39;s first birthday. Gifts from relatives on this day are usually not costly,and do not include such items as gold or silver jewellery. Instead,dimsum or toys are presented to the child. Seniors meeting the child for the first time usually offer a coin to be fastened around the child#39;s neck with th.This custom is not only applicable to birthdays,but many other occasions,as well.关于“抓周”的最早的记载可以追溯到宋朝(960一1279 )。清朝(1644一1911)后期,在北京地区尤其流行。抓周时并不需要举行盛大的宴会,不需要精美的礼品,甚至不需要请帖。亲戚们会自发地出席,来庆祝孩子的周岁生日。虽然也会给孩子礼物,但往往不会很贵,不会有金银首饰,通常都是零花钱或玩具。第一次见到孩子的长辈会把一个硬币用线系到孩子的颈上。当然这一风俗不仅适用于生日,也适用于其他场合。The zhuazhou ceremony usually takes place before the longevity noodle at lunchtime. A wealthy family will install a table on the bed(or“kang”-a heated brick bed used in Northern China ) where stamps,dassic Confucian,Buddhist and Taoist books,a Chinese brush pen,ink, paper, an ink stone,abacus,coins, an accounting book, jewellery,flowers,rouge,food and toys are placed. If the baby is female, the following items are added:a scoop,scissors,ruler, th,etc.The practice, however, is much more simplified in a common family. Usually a bronze tray instead of a table is placed on the“kang; and a book from old-style private schools,like the Three-Character Primer, is put on top. Other things include a Chinese brush pen,abacus and a cake. Scissors,and a ruler are added for a girl.抓周仪式通常会在午饭吃长寿面之前举行。富庶的家庭会在床或炕上摆个桌子,放上印、经典儒佛道家典籍、笔墨纸砚、算盘、硬币、账本、珠宝、花、粉、食物和玩具。如果是女孩,除了这些再加上勺子、剪子、尺子、线等物。平常人家的抓周仪式要简单多了。通常会在炕上放上一个铜盘,而不是桌子,在盘上放本私塾用书,比如《三字经》。再放上毛笔、算盘和蛋糕。如果是女孩,就加上剪刀和尺子。The parents then seat the baby in front of the table or the tray. Without help or guidance from anyone,the baby is then free to choose anything in front of them. The selected items he or she chooses are used to foretell the child#39;s interests, carear and indinafion in the future.父母把自己的孩子放到桌子或盘子前面。不给任何帮助和指导,让孩子自由地选择前面的东西。孩子选的东西会预言孩子的兴趣、事业和未来的倾向。Selecting the stamp means the child will be an officer in the future; if he or she chooses the stationery first,the baby will be industrious and endowed with great literary talents; the abacus suggests a penchant for statistics and financing. A girl baby who first grabs a sewing item or cooking utensil will be a good housewife. On the other hand,when the child picks a cake or a toy,he or she will know how to enjoy the pleasures in life. In the great Chinese literary classis, Hong Lou Meng,or the Dreary of the Red Mansion,Jia Baoyu,the hero,actually grabbed powder and other girls#39; stuff at the ceremony when he was a child. As a result, he likes mingling with girls very much. It is said that Qian Zhongshu,a very famous scholar in China,took a book at the ceremony. His father gladly named him Zhongshu,which literally means“book lover;,and he proved his penchant for studies later in his life.选了官印,孩子将来会做官;选了文具,孩子会勤奋学习,有很高的文学天赋;选了算盘,说明孩子将来会很喜欢统计和金融。选了缝纫或烹饪用品的女孩将来会成为很好的家庭主妇。反之,如果孩子选了蛋糕或者玩具,将来就会享受生活的乐趣。在中国古典名著《红楼梦》里,贾宝玉在抓周时抓了脂粉和其他一些女孩的东西,他后来非常喜欢在女孩堆里厮混。据说中国著名学者钱钟书在一岁抓周的仪式上抓了本书。他的父亲因此非常开心,给他取名为“钟书”。后来,他的成就也明了这一点。The custom of Zhuazhou influences how the parents,grandparents and other relatives will encourage the child,and how they will conduct enlightenment education. Therefore,even though some parents may not be superstitious,they will still carry out the custom. This is also why the custom has been passed on through so many generations and is still practiced to this day.抓周的习俗会影响家长和亲友将来怎样鼓励孩子,怎样对孩子进行启蒙教育。所以,虽然有些父母并不迷信,他们也会举行抓周仪式。这就是这一习俗历经数代仍然延续不息的原因了。 /201505/376697I will arise and go now. …我就要动身走了……Surprisingly often, when I get up from a chair to leave a room, those six melodramatic words will unfurl in my mind. Somehow William Butler Yeats’s poem “The Lake Isle of Innisfree,” which, like millions of other people, I first in college, stays rooted in me:每当我从椅子上站起来,准备离开房间时,这几个字常会格外频繁地浮现在我的脑海中。不知怎么地,威廉·巴特勒·叶芝(William Butler Yeats)的诗作《茵纳斯弗利岛》(The Lake Isle of Innisfree)就像在我脑子里生了根一样,和其他数以百万计的人一样,我第一次读到这首诗是在念大学的时候:I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree. …我就要动身走了,去茵纳斯弗利岛……And I’m off, not to the dentist or the shopping mall but, mentally, striding emerald slopes, making for a place of myth.然后我便真的走了,并不是去牙医诊所或者商场,而是我的思绪,大步跨越着翠绿的山坡,走向一处神话之地。Yeats named the poem after an actual place, an island in the middle of Lough Gill, a lake that sps itself languidly across five miles of furiously green landscape in County Sligo in northwest Ireland. A few years ago, I found myself in Dublin and decided to do it for real: go to Innisfree. It would be a four-hour detour from the research I was doing for an article, but I had not the slightest doubt the journey would be worthwhile.在这首诗篇中,叶芝以一处真实存在的地点,一座位于吉尔湖中央的岛屿为题。这片湖泊懒洋洋地卧在北爱尔兰斯莱戈郡的苍翠之地上,纵情延绵五英里。几年前的时候,我恰好人在都柏林,便决定化心动为行动:前往茵湖岛。从我当时为写作取材的地方到那里,足足需要绕道四个小时,但这趟旅程一定值得这番奔波,对此我毫无半分犹疑。Thanks to the popularity of the poem (voted by ers of The Irish Times in 1999 as their all-time favorite work of Irish poetry), “Innisfree” is a bit of a brand. There are Innisfree cosmetics, an Innisfree Eau de Parfum, an Innisfree Bamp;B, an Innisfree Hotel and a Rose of Innisfree tour boat that does the lake.得益于这首诗的流行(在1999年时被《爱尔兰时报》(Irish Times)的读者票选为他们素来喜爱的爱尔兰诗作),“茵湖岛”多少形成了某种品牌效应。有以此为名的护肤品品牌“悦诗风吟”,有以此为名的淡香水,有以此为名的早餐旅馆,有以此为名的酒店,还有巡游于吉尔湖上的游船“茵湖岛玫瑰号”(Rose of Innisfree)。But I know these things only from Google. Thankfully, none of it was evident on my drive. I didn’t use a GPS; I just relied on a couple of tiny handmade-looking road signs that popped up as I entered the region, which pointed the way to “Lake Isle of Innisfree.” The last stage of the journey involved no tourism bric-a-brac, only small, twisty, increasingly difficult to navigate roads, mossy tree trunks, wind, willows, heather, cloud knuckles and gray rock.但是我对这些事物的认知,全部来自于谷歌搜索的结果。幸好,它们一个都没有在我的自驾之旅中出现。我当时并没有使用全球定位系统(GPS),只是凭借我驶入当地后所看到的几处路标行驶,这些指示着前往“茵湖岛”道路的路标小得可怜,看上去似乎出自手工制作。这段旅程的最后一段看不到任何旅游纪念品商店,只有又小又绕越来越难分辨方向的小路、长满苔藓的树干、一路上的大风、袅然的杨柳、丛生的石南花、天空中的云脊和灰色的岩石。When I reached the lakeshore, I found the opposite of a tourist site. I could barely make my way out to the water to get a view, so thick was the shoreline with trees and brush. A farmhouse with a couple of S.U.V.s parked outside stood nearby, and there was a little concrete dock jutting out into the lake, pointed almost directly at Innisfree a few hundred yards away. I got out on the dock, sat cross-legged facing the island, and let the wind say what it had to say. For decades, this place had reverberated in my mind; now I was actually there.当我抵达湖岸时,发现自己完全不像是到了旅游景点。湖畔沿岸种满了密集的树木与灌木,我很难有办法穿过它们走近湖水,纵览全湖风光。附近矗立着一座农庄,门外停着几辆SUV,还有几座小型的混凝土船坞探入湖中,几乎直指着就在几百码开外的茵湖岛。我走到船坞外侧,面朝着茵湖岛盘腿坐下,任由清风自在倾诉。几十年来,这处地方一直在我的脑海中萦绕;而此刻,我终于真真切切地置身于此。Yeats, born in 1865, the son of an artist, was a childlike intellectual. He would forget to eat, or put food in the oven and let it burn. He was devoted to mysticism and séances. He spent decades in love with the Irish nationalist and proto-feminist Maud Gonne; after she rejected his marriage proposal for a final time, he shifted his attention to her daughter.叶芝生于1865年,乃是艺术家之子,他自己则是一名天真烂漫的知识分子。他会忘记吃东西,或是忘记已把食物放进炉子里,任其糊掉。他投身于神秘主义和降神会。他爱慕着爱尔兰独立运动成员、原始的女性主义者茅德·冈(Maud Gonne),数十年如一日;在她最后一次拒绝了他的求婚后,他便将自己的心力转移到了她的女儿身上。A few weeks after she, in turn, spurned his marriage offer, he proposed to another woman, Georgie Hyde-Lees, who, despite knowing where she ranked, became his devoted life partner. As she essentially said after his death, she saw the shimmer of his soul. “For him, every day he lived was a new adventure,” she once told the Yeats scholar Curtis B. Bradford. “He woke every morning certain that in the new day before him something would happen that had never happened before.”他的求婚一次次地遭到了她的唾弃,于是数周后,他转而向另一名女性乔吉·海德―李斯(Georgie Hyde-Lees)求了婚。她明知自己在他心目中并非首选,却依然成为了对他满怀深情的终身伴侣。就像她在叶芝去世后的精辟之言,她看到了他灵魂中的闪光点。“在他而言,他所过的每一天都是一趟新的历险,”她曾经如此对叶芝学者柯蒂斯·布拉德福德(Curtis B. Bradford)讲述道,“他每天早上醒来时,内心都十分确信,自己面前这新的一天里,一定会发生一些以前没有发生过的事。”Yeats was in his 50s when he married. “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” is a young man’s poem, written when he was 23. It is filled with a romantic longing for the past: the Irish past, the mythic past and also Yeats’s own. He had spent his childhood in County Sligo before moving to Dublin and then London. This countryside, the lake and its islands, this composition of greens and grays and blues, was fused within him.叶芝结婚时已50多岁。《茵纳斯弗利岛》则是一首青年的诗篇,是他在23岁的时候写就。诗中充满了对过去的浪漫向往――爱尔兰的过去,神秘的过去,还有叶芝自己的过去。他在斯莱戈郡度过了童年时期,其后迁往了都柏林,后来又去了伦敦。这处乡郊,这片湖泊和湖中的岛屿,这道由绿色、灰色、蓝色共同组成的风景,全部牢牢地烙印在他的血脉中。When he was a boy, his father had him Thoreau’s “Walden,” and its pastoral message resonated with the landscape of his childhood. As a young man living in London, trying to make a go of it amid the industrial throb, Yeats reached back to his youth and crafted the poem. The first line signals the self-consciously antiquated style he chose. (Even back in 1888, when the poem was written, people didn’t “arise.”) He filled it with rhyme, pumped it with unapologetically forceful rhythm. He made it, for all its romance, compact, athletic. This is the entire poem.在他年纪尚幼时,他的父亲曾经为他念过梭罗(Thoreau)的《瓦尔登湖》(Walden),其中所描绘的田园风光与他童年所看到的这道风景交相辉映。作为一名在伦敦生活,努力想要在工业浪潮中出人头地的青年,叶芝对自己的童年念念不忘,于是创作出了这首诗篇。诗文的第一行便昭示出,叶芝有意识地选择了一种旧派的表达手法。(即使是在该诗成文的1888年,也没有人是“动身”的。)他在整首诗中大量押韵,并在其中注入了一种不容置辩的有力节奏。他在尽情挥洒浪漫的同时,也保持着诗章的简短和动感。以下便是完整的全诗:I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,我就要动身走了,去茵纳斯弗利岛,And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made:搭起一个小屋子,筑起泥笆房;Nine bean-rows will I have there, a hive for the honey-bee;起九行云豆架,一排蜜蜂巢,And live alone in the bee-loud glade.独个儿住着,荫阴下听蜂群歌唱。And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,我就会得到安宁,它徐徐下降,Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;从朝雾落到蟋蟀歌唱的地方;There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,午夜是一片闪亮,正午是一片紫光,And evening full of the linnet’s wings.傍晚到处飞舞着红雀的翅膀。I will arise and go now, for always night and day我就要动身走了,因为我听到I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;那水声日日夜夜轻拍着湖滨;While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey,不管我站在车行道或灰暗的人行道,I hear it in the deep heart’s core.都在我心灵的深处听见这声音。Of course, as I approached the lake, the poem was reverberating in my mind, and at first the imagery seemed to live up to it. The lake is five miles long, fringed with greenery; moody hills rise on the opposite shore. The furrowed water was dotted with little islands, some of them very atmospheric. As it happens, though, Innisfree is not one of the atmospheric ones. It’s tiny, and looks like a bur, a bristling seed pod, almost angrily sprouting trees and brush from its humpy back.不消说,当我一步步地接近吉尔湖时,这首诗也在我脑海中不断回荡,诗中所传达的意象,第一次在我的眼前鲜活了起来。吉尔湖全长5英里,沿岸一篇郁葱;起伏不定的山丘在对岸拔地而起。湖有波纹,其间点缀着几处小岛,其中几座别有一番朦胧的美感。只是茵湖岛偏巧不是当中很有氛围的一座。它面积很小,看上去就像一根钻头,一只竖立的豆荚,在它隆起的岛脊上,树木与灌木的长势冲天。Some have speculated that Yeats chose it because of the poetry in the syllables of its name, and the last syllable’s suggestion of freedom. You’d have a hard time building a cabin on it, and it’s too lumpen for a glade.曾经有人猜测,叶芝之所以选择这里,全因其岛名发音中的诗意,最后一个音节“free”更是象征着“自由”之意。要想在这座岛上建一间小屋实属难事,而若以林间空地的标准而言,这岛又嫌太过破败。But to leave it at that — to say that Yeats picked a dud — would be like declaring that you had no music in your soul. The whole landscape echoes the poem. You realize, sitting there, identifying the sound of the lake water with the deep heart’s core, that the Yeats who wrote the poem does not actually intend to retreat from the world and move to this spot. He is reaching for something. He is aware, at 23, of death and the inexorability of change. He is searching, trying to find his balance, his center. He knows he left it somewhere in his past, as we all have done.但若是在这个话题上就此打住――承认叶芝就是选了一处不毛之地――又好像宣告着,自己的灵魂中没有乐章流淌一样。整道风景都在应和着这首诗歌。你坐在那里,在心灵的深处分辨着湖水的声音,便会领悟到,写下这首诗的叶芝,并不是真的想要搬到这座小岛,避世隐居。他是在求索某样东西。他在年仅23岁的年纪,就意识到了死亡和世事变迁的无情。他在寻找,试图找到自己的平衡,自己的中心点。他知道自己将这种平衡遗落在了过去的某处,就像我们所有人一样。The poem is a mental exercise, a meditation. You could perform the exercise in a parking garage. It isn’t meant to be enacted.这首诗就是一次脑力游戏,一次神游。你可以在停车场里玩玩这个游戏。它并不需要受到任何限制。Then I realized that my meditation was different from Yeats’s. If he was using his mind to find his center, I was using him — using history, poetry, travel — to get to the same place.然后我意识到,我的神游与叶芝的并不相同。如果他是在利用自己的思想定位自己的中心,那么我就是在利用他――利用历史、诗歌与旅行――来达到同样的目的。And there I was. All of County Sligo is “Yeats Country.” He mined it, traced its contours, translated them to verse: “black wind,” “wet winds,” “noisy clouds,” “thorn-trees,” “the clinging air.” He did it so thoroughly, it’s almost as if the craggy loveliness of the countryside were carved to suit his poetry, rather than the other way around.而且我确实做到了。整个斯莱戈郡都是“叶芝郡”。是他发掘了它,勾勒出了它的轮廓,将它们一一化为了诗句:“黑色的风”,“潮湿的风”,“嘈杂的云”,“荆棘树”,“粘滞的空气”。他将一切做得如此彻底,简直仿若这处乡郊令人神往的重峦叠嶂本就是为了成就他的诗作而生,而不是他的诗在应和这些风景。“Where the wandering water gushes / From the hills above Glen-Car,” from Yeats’s poem “The Stolen Child,” describes a misty waterfall to the north that seems like something out of Peter Jackson’s “Hobbit.”叶芝另一首诗《被偷走的孩子》(The Stolen Child)中有一句“那儿,溪流曲折/从葛兰卡的山坡上坠泻”,描绘的是一处流向北方、雾气缭绕的飞瀑,看上去很有彼得·杰克逊(Peter Jackson)执导的电影《霍比特人》(Hobbit)中的世界的感觉。A few miles away from the lake, the stupendous mountain slab called Ben Bulben rises like a natural acropolis, the home of some ancient race of Irish gods, a height whose purpose can only be to evoke awe. It became another geographic touchstone for Yeats — so much so that in his poem “Under Ben Bulben,” he eerily directs the er to his own grave, in the nearby cemetery of Drumcliffe. Actually it’s the grave of another Yeats he refers to, an ancestor. But after his own death, in France, his body was transferred there, as if people treated his poem as a last will and testament.距离吉尔湖几英里开外的地方,一座体型庞大的厚片状山丘有如一道天然屏障般矗立于此,它名唤本布尔本山(Ben Bulben),是爱尔兰上古时期某些神祇的家园,那般高耸的身姿唯一的作用必定就是唤起人们的敬畏之心。它成了叶芝的另一处试金石地标――在他的诗作《本布尔本山下》(Under Ben Bulben)中,他很诡异地引导着读者造访了他自己的墓地,就在此山附近的鼓崖公墓(cemetery of Drumcliffe)内。实际上,此处乃是他提到的另一位叶芝,一位先祖的墓穴所在。但是在他本人于法国过世后,他的遗体也被转送到了这里,就好像人们将他的这首诗作视为了他的遗愿,他的遗嘱。It’s only a four-mile drive from the shore of Lough Gill to Sligo town, and civilization. Sligo is an ancient and lively enough little center, dominated by its cathedral and ringed with pubs where there’s nonstop rugby and soccer on the telly and you can order not just Irish stew and Guinness, but also chicken curry and New Zealand sauvignon blanc. For a tourist, it’s the practical base. But pleasant as this is, it was the antithesis of why I had come. Yeats’s meditations weren’t urban, and neither was mine.吉尔湖畔距离斯莱戈郡以及文明世界,仅有四英里的车程。斯莱戈郡是一处历史悠久、生机盎然的中心小郡,受本地的大教堂管辖,四周遍布着大小酒馆,里面没有没完没了地播着橄榄球和足球节目的电视,而你可以点的菜品和酒水不仅有爱尔兰炖菜和健力士黑啤酒(Guinness),还有咖喱鸡和新西兰白苏维翁葡萄酒。对于游客而言,这里就是你的活动基地。不过尽管这一切令人心生愉悦,却与我造访此地的用意截然相反。叶芝的神游无关都市,我的也不是。I am told that there are enormous salmon lurking beneath the waters of Lough Gill, and that otters make the lake their home, and that the lush forest along the banks called Slish Wood, which Yeats in “The Stolen Child” calls Sleuth Wood, harbors rare orchids, ivies and thistles, and that, yes, the evening can be full of the linnet’s wings. I saw none of these remarkable things.有人告诉我说,在吉尔湖的水面之下,潜伏着大量的鲑鱼;也有人说,水獭们也在吉尔湖安了家;还有人说,湖畔沿岸那片名唤斯利什森林(Slish Wood),但在叶芝的诗作《被偷走的孩子》中被写成斯留斯森林(Sleuth Wood)的茂密树丛里,生长着珍稀的兰花、常春藤和蒺藜;更有人说,没错,这里的黄昏时刻真的会有红雀羽翼四处拍打。可这些壮观的美景,我一样也没有见着。But I saw others.但是我看到了另一番风景。(文中所涉叶芝诗作译文出自袁可嘉译本) /201505/376840The custom of Dragon Boat Festival端午节的习俗1.Dragon Boat Racing赛龙舟Because Chuese don’t want virtuous minister Qu Yuan died at that time, so there are a lot of people boating to save him after he jumping into river.当时楚人因舍不得贤臣屈原死去,于是有许多人划船追赶拯救。2.Eating zongzi on Dragon Boat Festival端午节吃粽子People boiled sticky rice or steamed reed on May 5 and then jumped it into the river, to sacrifice to Qu Yuan, with bamboo tube array sticky rice rolls for fear of fish to eat, gradually reed leaves maize replacing bamboo tube.人们在五月五日煮糯米饭或蒸粽糕投入江中,以祭祀屈原,为恐鱼吃掉,故用竹筒盛装糯米饭掷下,以后渐用粽叶包米代替竹筒。3.Wearing perfume satchel佩香囊Children wear perfume satchel on the Dragon Boat Festival can avoid devil.端午节小孩佩香囊,避邪驱瘟之意。4.Eating eggs吃蛋Some areas will boil tea eggs and brine eggs to eat on the Dragon Boat Festival. Eggs are henapple, duck eggs, goose egg. Painted red on eggshell, with colorful net bags, hanging in a child#39;s neck, for blessing children, and hopping them are safe.一些地区,端午节要煮茶蛋和盐水蛋吃。蛋有鸡蛋、鸭蛋、鹅蛋。蛋壳涂上红色,用五颜六色的网袋装着,挂在小孩子的脖子上,意为祝福孩子逢凶化吉,平安无事。5.Drinking Realgar Wine饮雄黄酒This custom is very popular in the Yangtze river area.此种习俗,在长江流域地区的人家很盛行。6.Wash all diseases游百病This custom is prevalent in part of Guizhou province on Dragon-Boat festival custom. Some people will go to swim as well.此种习俗,盛行于贵州地区的端午习俗有些人也会去游泳。7.Eat twelve red吃十二红Gaoyou and other places have the tradition of eating ;twelve red;. Twelve red refers to oil shrimp, Fried amaranth, salted duck egg yellow, cinnabar tofu and so on.高邮等地有吃“十二红”的习俗。十二红指油爆虾、炒红苋菜、咸鸭蛋黄、朱砂豆腐等。 /201506/381347

Beijing (AFP) - A former Chinese journalist has admitted falling for an April Fool joke which sparked a decades-long myth in his country -- that US officer cadets learnt from the example of Communist military hero Lei Feng.北京(法新社)——一名退休的中国记者承认自己愚人节的一个玩笑成就了中国几十年来的一个虚构神话——即美国军校学员向中国的军队英雄雷锋学习。Li Zhurun, a former reporter for China#39;s official Xinhua news agency who is now a university professor, made the confession on his Sina Weibo microblog.李竹润,新华社之前的一名记者,现在则是一名大学教授,在自己的新浪微上承认了这一点。Ever since Communist China#39;s supreme leader Mao Zedong recognised Lei Feng for his humble heroism, said to include washinghis comrades#39; uniforms and giving his pay to the needy, authorities have encouraged citizens to do good and follow his example.自从中共领导人毛泽东赞扬雷锋谦逊的英雄主义以来——据说他为自己的同志洗制,还把自己工资给那些需要的人——当局就一直鼓励人们向他学习。While China#39;s increasingly media-savvy population has come to question the authenticity of the Lei Feng story, the folk hero remains popular in some quarters. Pictures of him wearing his trademark earflap army hat have become a pop icon emblazoned on everything frombags to cups.虽然有越来越多的中国网名开始质疑雷锋故事的真实性,但是这位大众英雄在某些地方还是很受人们待见。他穿护耳军帽的形象被印在了很多事物上,从包包到杯子。In his posting, Li said he had been duped by an unspecified Western news outlet, which reported on April Fool#39;s Day 1981 that the West Point military academy in New York Statehad held up the People#39;s Liberation Army (PLA) soldier as an example for all students.在他的文中,李说他当时被一个未具名的西方媒体机构所误导,该媒体机构在1981年的愚人节那天报道说纽约州的西点军校将这名解放军战士作为学生们的榜样。;I was young at the time, and I didn#39;t know that Western media of ten invent #39;news#39; on April Fool#39;s Day,; Liwrote.“我当时还年轻,我根本不知道西方媒体经常会在愚人节这天‘创造#39;新闻,”他写道。The state-run China Daily newspaper on Tuesday identified the Western outlet as the ed Press International news agency. But it was not clear where Li was based at the time, or who he wrote the story for.《中国日报》周二确认说这家西方媒体正是美国合众国际新闻社。但不清楚李当时派驻在哪里以及他为谁写这篇报道。Over the past three decades, the West Point myth has become so entrenched in Chinathat even a member of the country#39;s advisory discussion body, the Chinese People#39;s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), cited it in a 2009 proposalurging Beijingto apply for UNESCO recognition of the ;Lei Feng Spirit;.过去三十年来,西点军校的这个神话深扎在中国,以至于一名中国政协委员在2009年的时候还敦促北京让联合国教科文组织承认“雷锋精神”。;At America#39;s famous West Point, Lei Feng#39;s portrait is among five hanging in the hall, and the academy#39;s code of student conduct includes his famous e: #39;Human life is limited, but servingthe people is limitless,#39;; CPPCC member Liu Jianglong said, according to the Chongqing Morning Post.《重庆晨报》报道说,当时的政协委员刘江龙说:“在美国著名的西点军校,雷锋的形象是挂在大厅中的五幅之一,而该学院的学生行为准则中就包括了他的名言:‘人的生命是有限的,但是务人民的这份事业是无限的。#39;” /201501/353044

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