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Moral philosophy道德哲学Goodness has nothing to do with it无关善良Utilitarians are not nice people实用主义者并非好人Sep 24th 2011 | from the print edition IN THE grand scheme of things Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill are normally thought of as good guys. Between them, they came up with the ethical theory known as utilitarianism. The goal of this theory is encapsulated in Bentham’s aphorism that “the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation.”大体来看,约翰#8226;穆勒和杰里米#8226;边沁通常是被看做好人,因为这二者设想建立了叫做实用主义的一种道德理论。这一理论的意义就深藏在边沁的一句格言中:道德与法律的根本在于大多数人的最大程度上的幸福。Which all sounds fine and dandy until you start applying it to particular cases. A utilitarian, for example, might approve of the occasional torture of suspected terrorists—for the greater happiness of everyone else, you understand. That type of observation has led Daniel Bartels at Columbia University and David Pizarro at Cornell to ask what sort of people actually do have a utilitarian outlook on life. Their answers, just published in Cognition, are not comfortable.这些听起来真是完美无瑕,但当你开始将其应用在某一特殊案例中,完美理论就瓦解了,比如说,一个实用主义者或许会认可对恐怖主义嫌疑分子做一些拷问折磨,为了每个人最大程度的幸福,当然你会理解。此种观察引起哥伦比亚大学的Daniel Bartels和康纳尔大学的David Pizarro二位学者的疑问:怎样的人群是真正抱有实用主义的人生观?而二人在《认知》杂志上揭晓出的让人不太舒。One of the classic techniques used to measure a person’s willingness to behave in a utilitarian way is known as trolleyology. The subject of the study is challenged with thought experiments involving a runaway railway trolley or train carriage. All involve choices, each of which leads to people’s deaths. For example: there are five railway workmen in the path of a runaway carriage. The men will surely be killed unless the subject of the experiment, a bystander in the story, does something. The subject is told he is on a bridge over the tracks. Next to him is a big, heavy stranger. The subject is informed that his own body would be too light to stop the train, but that if he pushes the stranger onto the tracks, the stranger’s large body will stop the train and save the five lives. That, unfortunately, would kill the stranger.检测人们选择实用主义地办事的意愿如何有一个经典的方法,叫做“电车学”。该研究的主体要受到一些思维实验的考验,是有关一列运行中的有轨电车或是火车。但它们都涉及抉择,而且任选其一都无法避免死亡。举个例子,在火车前方的铁轨上有5个铁路工人,火车正在前进,这些人必死无疑除非实验主体即故事中的旁观者不袖手旁观。设定他站在铁道上的一座桥上,站在他旁边的是一个巨胖的陌生人,而他自己无力阻止列车前行;但是如果他把那个陌生人退下去,此人的巨大身体会阻拦住列车从而就拯救了五条人命。不幸的是,这也会使这个陌生人丧生。201109/155421Transplant Chain Brings New Life A program matches willing kidney donors to strangers in need. The Kindness of StrangersLast year, we reported on a new approach to lifesaving kidney donations, a kind of Pay It Forward idea, pairing those in need with those willing to be donors for people they’ve never met. From that first selfless gift many are now enjoying a new chance at life. Here is A’s Barbara Pinto reports all involved have gathered for the first time. When we last saw Angela Hermione and Ron Berneil, they were heading into surgery. Ron was giving Angie, a total stranger, one of his kidneys. Now 15 months later. “I feel fantastic. He gave me a new life. He gave me my daughter back, for a long time to come.” In return, Angie’s mother then gave one of her kidneys to a woman she’d never met until this past weekend. The concept is called pair donation and allows anyone who needs the lifesaving kidney-transplant to get one as long as they find a willing donor. A computer program finds the best possible match. It started with Matt Jones, the father of five from Michigan who decided to give a stranger an incredible gift. “I decide, you know, I’ve got two, only needed one, if somebody else can have it and live a better life and it's a success.” Mat gave his kidney to Barbed Berneil, whose husband Ron was not a good match for her. In turn, Ron gave his kidney to Angie, whose mother Laurie was not a suitable donor. Laurie gave her kidney to Cecelia and the lifesaving chain took off. Dr. Michael Reef has arranged for 16 such transplants so far. “My hope is that we would get 3000 kidney transplants a year someday.”A year ago no one here could have predicted that the number of people associated with the chain of kidney transplants could fill a hotel ballroom. But they did, they’re celebrating an incredible generosity and life. “My hope, a year from now, we have another reunion, we have more chains, and not a single one of mis-broken, And that truly is a never ending chain.”Last week in Huston, Carrie Barrett added another link. “I have a beautiful wife, fabulous kids, you know, a great job, and I have the ability to donate a kidney.” He did for a woman he’d never met. Brander Charpar had grown sicker watching ten potential donors fall through. “Well, he’s not a stranger anymore, he’s definitely gonna be my best friend.” For the Charpar’s, Carrie’s gift is nothing short of a miracle and they will now pass on to another family. Barbara Pinto, A News, Pearisburg, Ohio. Incredible generosity indeed and we’re happy to say we play a small part in this chain. Carrie Barrett, who you saw on Barba’s piece found out about the pair donations when we reported on The First Transplants last year. You can learn more about the Alliance Prepared Donations by logging onto our website ANEWS.COM.200810/53801African Union Rules No Coup In Guinea-Bissau非盟谴责几内亚比绍总统遭暗杀  The African Union has condemned the killings of Guinea-Bissau's President Joao Bernado Vieira and his army chief, calling it a blatant attack on state institutions. But the continental body stopped short of suspending Guinea-Bissau's membership in the organization. 非洲联盟谴责几内亚比绍总统维埃拉和武装部队总参谋长瓦伊将军遭到杀害,称这是对国家制度的悍然攻击。非洲联盟险些中止几内亚比绍非盟成员国的资格。The AU Peace and Security Council met in emergency session Tuesday to determine whether the assassination of President Vieira constituted a military coup, which would have meant automatic suspension from the organization. 非洲联盟和平与安全委员会星期二举行紧急会议,决定几内亚比绍总统维埃拉遭暗杀是否构成军事政变。军事政变意味着自动中止非洲成员国的资格。Two other west African nations, Mauritania and Guinea Conakry have recently been expelled from the continental body after army officers took power through extra-constitutional means.  另外两个西非国家毛里塔尼亚和几内亚-科纳克里最近被驱逐出非盟组织,因为一些军官通过宪法以外的途径夺取了政权。Guinea-Bissau military chiefs say an 'isolated group' of soldiers was responsible for the president's death, and the speaker of parliament will temporarily take power. 几内亚比绍军方领导人说,一个由士兵组成的“孤立的组织”对维埃拉总统被杀负责。几内亚比绍议会议长临时接管了国家政权。Burkina Faso's AU ambassador Bruno Nongoma Zidouemba, who holds the council's rotating chairmanship, said Guinea-Bissau's case does not appear to meet the definition of a coup. 布基纳法索驻非盟大使齐多安巴目前担任非洲联盟和平与安全委员会轮值主席。他说,几内亚比绍事件似乎还不符合军事政变的定义。"The assassination of the president is a very unusual situation and sad situation, but there is a coup when the constitution is suspended or institutions of the country are suspended. It is a very sad step in the evolution of Guinea-Bissau, but from the information we have up to now, it is not considered a coup d'etat," he said.  “几内亚比绍总统被暗杀是一件非同寻常的情况,非常悲惨的情况。但是如果发生政变,宪法会被中止,国家机构会被中止。这是几内亚比绍发展中的一个非常沉痛的一页,但是从我们目前掌握的信息来看,这次事件不是一次军事政变。”Guinea Bissau has a history of coups and coup attempts. The most recent came after last November's parliamentary elections, when soldiers attacked the president's office. Two people were killed, but the attempt failed. 几内亚比绍历来有政变和企图政变的传统。最近一次政变是去年11月议会选举之后,当时军人袭击了总统的办公室,两人被打死,但政变失败。In the latest incident, Security Council Chairman Zidouemba says a constitutional transfer of power appears to be in the works. "We have heard a declaration of a group of officers, and this group of officers said they will act through the constitution, and if you the constitution of Guinea-Bissau, normally the transition power should go to president of the national assembly. In the hours to come everything will be clear," he said. 在最新一起事件中,非洲联盟和平与安全委员会主席齐多安巴说,符合宪法的权力转移似乎正在进行之中。“我们听到一群军官发表的宣言,这个军官组织说,他们将遵循宪法的规定。如果你阅读一下几内亚比绍的宪法,就会知道,通常权力应转移给议会议长。在未来几个小时内,一切都会明朗化。”The country's constitution calls for a presidential election to be held within 60 days. 几内亚比绍的宪法要求在60天内举行总统选举。Guinea-Bissau has become notorious as a transit point used by Latin American drug cartels for shipments of cocaine bound for Europe. Government estimates indicate as much as 800 kilograms of cocaine moves through the west African nation each week, making drug trafficking easily the largest foreign exchange earner. 几内亚比绍被拉丁美洲的贩毒集团作为将可卡因运向欧洲的中转站,因此声名狼藉。根据政府的估计,每个星期有多达800公斤可卡因经几内亚比绍进入欧洲,使走私成为几内亚比绍最大的外汇收入来源。03/63778

New Report: Asia Stocks on 'Tentative Recovery'报告:亚洲股市“初步复苏” Stocks in Asia reached a three-month high this week, injecting fresh hopes among investors of an early turnaround in the global financial crisis. A new report by the Asian Development Bank says, although Asia's stock markets are showing signs of stabilizing, the real recovery could be "lengthy". 亚洲股市这个星期攀升到三个月以来的最高峰,让投资者感到全球经济危机可能出现了初步的转机。亚洲开发的一份新报告说,虽然亚洲股市显示出稳定的迹象,但实际的复苏可能是一个漫长的过程。The Asian Development Bank's Asia Capital Markets Monitor report says the outflow of capital from emerging markets in Asia has slowed in the first quarter of , after huge withdrawals in the second half of 2008. 亚洲开发发布的一份题为“亚洲资本市场观察”的报告认为,亚洲新兴市场的资本外流经过2008年下半年大规模撤资,已经在年第一季度放缓。The report say there are signs of a "tentative recovery" in Asia's stock markets, as investors becoming less pessimistic about the region's prospects. 报告说,亚洲股市出现了“初步复苏”的迹象,投资人对于区域经济前景的悲观情绪得到缓解。This week, the Morgan Stanley Composite index, which tracks stocks of some of the biggest companies in the Asia-Pacific region except Japan, reached a three-month high. On Monday, the Shanghai Composite Index reached its highest level since August, as investors were encouraged by Premier Wen Jiabao's recent remarks that the country's massive stimulus spending is beginning to bear results. 这个星期,根士丹利编制的追踪亚太地区除日本之外的一些大公司股票的综合指数达到三个月来的最高峰。星期一,上海券交易所的综合指数攀升到去年8月以来的最高点,中国总理温家宝最近谈到中国庞大的经济刺激方案正在开始收到效果,投资人对此感到鼓舞。Lee Jong-wha, the head of the regional economic integration office of the Asia Development Bank - a Manila-based bank which lends to governments in the region - says continued economic expansion in countries like China and India will help push this recovery. 总部设在马尼拉的亚洲开发为该地区的各国政府提供贷款,这家的区域经济整合办公室主任李钟和说,中国和印度等国家的持续经济扩张应该也有助于这个地区的市场复苏。"The fast-growing economies in the region provide plenty of opportunities for long-term investors. I think these strong development need especially to build infrastructure, and Asia's strong growth momentum should also help local markets recover," said Lee. 他说:“这个地区迅速增长的经济为长期投资者提供了大量的机遇。我认为这些强劲增长尤其需要基础设施建设。亚洲强劲的增长势头应该也有助于区域市场的复苏。”The report says as much as billion in private capital is expected to come to the region this year, although that number is sharply lower than previous years. Emerging Asia includes China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea. 报告显示,今年预计将有650亿美元的私人资本流入这个地区,尽管这个数字和前几年相比大为降低。But Lee warns that the immediate economic outlook for the region remains "cloudy." The ADB report says that, even if the markets may have reached bottom, the eventual recovery could still be drawn-out. 但是李钟和警告说,这个地区的近期经济前景仍然“阴云密布”。亚洲开发的报告指出,即使市场可能已经触底,最终的复苏可能也要拖很长时间。New York University economics professor Nouriel Roubini, also known as "Dr. Doom" for his predictions of financial crises, agrees. 曾经预见到目前这场金融危机的纽约大学经济学教授努里埃尔.鲁比尼同意这种看法。"I do agree that we are closer right now to the bottom of this stock market, U.S. and globally than we were, say, a year ago. But I think, even the latest rally is a bear market rally, and there will be more contraction," said Roubini. 他说:“我同意目前美国和全球股市比从前,比如说一年前,更接近谷底的说法。但是我认为,即使是最近的反弹也只是熊市反弹,还会出现更多的反复。”In Hong Kong Monday, Roubini said bad earnings from American companies and poor results from the "stress tests" being conducted by authorities on U.S. financial institutions, will scare investors.  鲁比尼在香港表示,美国公司糟糕的赢利报告以及当局对金融机构进行的“压力测试”所产生的不良结果将吓走投资者。Indeed, some of Asia's major markets fell Tuesday, on what analysts say is reaction to news of rising bad loans in American banks. Japan's Nikkei 225 index fell two-point-four percent. Hong Kong's Hang Seng index dropped nearly three percent, while Shanghai was down nearly one percent. South Korea's KOSPI was up nearly half a percent. Taiwan's stock index also rose one-point-seven percent. 的确,亚洲一些主要股市星期二纷纷下跌,分析人士说,这是对美国坏帐上升消息的反应。日本日经指数下降2.4%,香港恒升指数下跌近3%,上指数下跌了近1%。04/67741

Zambian Opposition Candidate Leads in Early Returns from Presidential Vote赞总统选举初步点票 反对党领先 Early returns from the presidential election in Zambia indicate opposition leader Michael Sata is ahead with 44 percent of the vote while Acting President Rupiah Banda trails with 34 percent. But observers say that with results in from nearly one-half of the constituencies, the lead could change. 初步清点赞比亚总统选举选票结果显示,反对党领袖萨塔以44%的得票率领先,而代理总统班达以34%的得票率落后。但是观察家表示,等到另外一半的选区投票结果出炉,萨塔的领先地位可能会有所改变。Zambian election officials said vote tabulation was going normally and Thursday's elections had been quiet and orderly.  赞比亚选举官员表示,选民登记造册进行正常,星期四的选举也相当平静以及有秩序。The head of a monitoring delegation from the Electoral Institute for Southern Africa, Leshele Thoahlane, said voter turnout, however, appeared to have been low, possibly less than 50 percent. 但是来自南部非洲选举研究所的监督代表团的首席代表托赫兰恩表示,投票率看起来很低,可能低于50%。"Generally there was a pretty low turnout and we really were not able to establish what could have been [the cause of] that," he said. 他说:“大致上说来,投票率很低,而我们真的不知道为什么这样。”The elections were called two years early after the sudden death of the late President Levy Mwanawasa from a stroke. 这次选举由于前总统姆瓦纳瓦萨中风突然死亡而提前两年举行。By law the vote had to be organized within 90 days. Analysts say as a result there may not have been enough time to raise voter interest among the general public. 法律规定必须在90天内进行选举。分析家说,由于这样的规定,所以没有足够的时间来引起大众的投票兴趣。Observer Thoahlane also notes that this was a by-election. "And normally in by-elections you really don't get that kind of degree of enthusiasm that you find when you're at the beginning of the normal polling or general elections," he said. 观察家托赫兰恩还注意到这次选举本身是递补选举。举办递补选举是为了填补原来就空缺的政治职位。他说:“正常来讲,你在递补选举里找不到那种在一般选举刚开始会出现的热忱。”In addition, the winner will serve only two years, the time remaining in Mr. Mwanawasa's term. 况且,这次选举的赢家只能担任前总统姆瓦纳瓦萨原本任期剩下的两年。Acting President Rupiah Banda, who was Mr. Mwanawasa's vice-president, was the candidate of the ruling Movement for Multiparty Democracy. He ran against veteran opposition leader Michael Sata of the Patriotic Front and candidates from two smaller parties. 代理总统班达原来是姆瓦纳瓦萨的副总统,是执政党多党民主运动的候选人。他的竞争对手是反对党爱国阵线的卸任领导人萨塔,以及另外两个较小政党的候选人。Opposition leaders ahead of the vote accused the ruling party of seeking to rig the election. But the electoral commission pledged it would be free and fair. 反对党领导人在投票前指责执政党试图操纵选举,但是选举委员会保选举会是自由而公正的。Protests followed the previous elections but the results eventually were upheld. 先前的选举后发生了抗议活动,但是最终选举结果还是维持原样。Security officials said Zambian forces were on alert to prevent any post-election violence. 保安官员表示,赞比亚的军队作好准备,以防止大选后发生任何暴力活动。200811/54688

US Envoy Meets With Palestinian President in West Bank美特使在约旦河西岸会晤阿巴斯  President Barack Obama's Middle East envoy George Mitchell met Palestinian leaders Friday as he continues his third peace mission to the region. It has been tough going for the diplomatic mission. 美国总统奥巴马的中东特使乔治.米切尔在这一地区继续进行他第三次和平使命,星期五他会见了巴勒斯坦领导人。这次外交使命一直非常艰难。U.S. envoy George Mitchell met with Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas in the West Bank town of Ramallah. Mr. Abbas urged the ed States to pressure Israel's hawkish new government to uphold previous peace agreements and agree to the creation of a Palestinian state. 美国特使米切尔在约旦河西岸城市拉马拉会见了巴勒斯坦民族权力机构主席阿巴斯。阿巴斯敦促美国向以色列鹰派新政府施压,遵守先前双方签定的和平协议,同意建立一个巴勒斯坦国。Palestinian negotiator Saeb Erekat told reporters that if Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu continues to reject the two-state solution it would weaken Palestinian moderates, strengthen the extremists and push the region toward chaos and violence.  巴勒斯坦谈判代表埃雷卡特对新闻媒体说,如果以色列总理内塔尼亚胡继续拒绝两国并存的解决方案,就会削弱巴勒斯坦温和派,加强极端分子的力量,将这一地区推向混乱和暴力。Mr. Netanyahu took a hard line on Palestinian statehood when he met with Mitchell on Thursday. He demanded that first, the Palestinians must recognize Israel as a Jewish state, something they refuse to do. Mr. Netanyahu also warned that the Islamic militant group Hamas could seize control of a Palestinian state in the West Bank, just as it ousted Mr. Abbas from the Gaza Strip in 2007. Hamas refuses to renounce violence or recognize Israel.  内塔尼亚胡星期四会见米切尔时,对巴勒斯坦建国问题保持了强硬路线。他要求巴勒斯坦人必须首先承认以色列是一个犹太国家,而巴勒斯坦人对此拒绝承认。内塔尼亚胡还警告说,伊斯兰激进组织哈马斯可能会夺取在约旦河西岸建立的巴勒斯坦国的控制权,就像该组织2007年从加沙地带赶走阿巴斯一样。哈马斯拒绝放弃暴力或承认以色列。Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon says times have changed since Israel agreed to the land-for-peace formula under the Oslo Accords in 1993. 以色列副外长丹尼.阿亚隆说,自从以色列1993年同意根据奥斯陆协议以土地换和平的方式以来,情况已经发生了变化。"It's not going to be the old policy as usual, first of all because old policies didn't work," he said. "We have 16 years to show what Israel has been doing with the most dovish approach and the most dovish governments, without really resolving the conflict; on the contrary." 他说:“不会像过去一样维持老政策了。首先因为老政策没有见效。我们用了16年的时间来展现以色列最温和的政府以最温和的方式采取的措施,但是并没有真正解决冲突,结果恰恰相反。”The new government believes territorial concessions only led to terrorism and wars and that it is time for a new approach. Mitchell responded that the U.S. sees a Palestinian state as the only way to peace. So there could be trouble ahead for the peace process and U.S.-Israel relations. 以色列新政府认为在领土上的让步只是导致了恐怖主义和战争,现在应该采取新的方式了。米切尔回答说,美国认为建立巴勒斯坦国是实现和平的唯一出路。因此,未来的和平进程和美国和以色列的关系可能会出现麻烦。04/67629

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