原标题: 济南军区总医院官网美面诊
Mapo tofu, that aromatic dish of braised tofu with minced pork (sometimes beef) in a deeply savory sauce, is a wildly popular item in many Chinese restaurants. I gladly order it whenever possible. Just a spoonful or two with steamed rice makes a pleasant beginning to a multicourse meal.麻婆豆腐是很多中餐馆里非常受欢迎的一道菜。它是用猪肉末(或牛肉末)在咸辣酱里炖豆腐,特别美味。只要餐馆里有这道菜,我一定会高兴地点它。把一两勺麻婆豆腐浇到蒸米饭上,会是一顿丰盛大餐的美好开始。At home, though, mapo tofu can be a light meal on its own. If you need dinner in a hurry, you’ll find it makes a rapid transition from wok to table. Though the dish is complex in flavor, the preparation is surprisingly simple. And even a novice cook can pull it off. It may take a trip to an Asian grocery to obtain the few required ingredients, but some supermarkets can provide them, too.不过,在家里,单是麻婆豆腐就能做成一道便餐。如果你需要快速做好晚饭,麻婆豆腐是很好的选择,因为它能很快做好上桌。虽然这道菜味道丰富,但是做起来非常简便。甚至连新手也能做好。可能需要去趟亚洲杂货店,买几样必要的原料,不过有些在一般超市里也能买得到。Fermented black beans are necessary, but just a tablespoon. The spicy red fermented broad bean paste from Sichuan Province called doubanjiang is the other key ingredient. (A small jar of each will keep indefinitely in the fridge.) Spring for Sichuan peppercorns, too; their tingly bite complements the hot red pepper and provides roundness.豆豉是必备的,不过只需一汤匙。红色的四川辣豆瓣酱是另一个关键配料(两样各买一小罐,可以在冰箱里放很长时间)。记得买点花椒,它麻麻的口感与红辣椒相得益彰,能融合出完美的滋味。The question is, can mapo tofu be made without meat and still satisfy on every level? Answer: absolutely, positively, yes. This meatless version with fresh shiitake mushrooms is completely satisfying. The chopped shiitake caps stand in nicely (the stems are simmered to make a quick broth). When you taste the finished rust-colored sauce, with ginger, garlic, sesame oil and scallions added to the kicky base, you’ll agree.问题是,不用肉仍能做出从各方面讲都令人满意的麻婆豆腐吗?是,绝对、一定能。用鲜香菇代替肉做出的麻婆豆腐丝毫不逊色。切碎的香菇帽是肉末的绝佳替代品(香菇梗可以马上做成汤)。当你品尝最后做成的放了姜、蒜、香油和大葱的红褐色酱汁时,一定会同意我的看法。Much depends upon the tofu itself (and if you think you’re not a tofu fan, this is a dish that could convert you). Look for the freshest. Buy soft rather than firm tofu for this dish (silken tofu is a bit too delicate). To enhance texture and flavor, give the cubed tofu a brief bath in boiling hot salted water before cooking.这道菜的味道很大程度上取决于豆腐本身(如果你认为自己不爱吃豆腐,这道菜可能会改变你的看法)。寻找最新鲜的豆腐。不要买硬豆腐,要买软豆腐(嫩豆腐又有点太易碎)。炖之前,把切成块的豆腐放在滚烫的热盐水中短时浸泡一下,口感和味道会更好。At the end, when you add the tofu, take care to cook it gently to keep it from crumbling. Shake the pan to help it settle into the sauce, and give it a nudge with a wooden spoon.最后,加入豆腐后,要轻柔翻炒,不要弄碎。晃动炒锅,帮助豆腐融入酱汁,用木勺轻推。Mapo tofu takes less time to cook than rice, so start the rice first. This is one 30-minute meal that won’t have you feeling harried and breathless by the time it’s y. It’s incentive to go meatless any day of the week.做麻婆豆腐需要的时间比蒸米饭要短,所以要先把饭做好。这餐饭总共只需30分钟,做完后,你不会觉得筋疲力竭,气喘吁吁。它是你在一周任何一天实行素食的动力。 /201505/372981#39;Some antibiotic resistance was first detected in India. One of the reasons for this is that many antibiotics are used in India, and often these have been bought by patients and not used under prescription. This means that antibiotics are used very widely, not always to treat bacterial infections and not always at the correct dose.#39;某些抗生素抗药性在印度是首次发现,原因之一是印度滥用抗生素的现象十分普遍,许多病人未经医嘱随意购买抗生素。这意味着抗生素既没有按照正确的计量使用,也并不总用来治疗细菌感染。#39;This provides a #39;breeding ground#39; for the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.#39;这为抗生素抗药菌提供了发展的‘土壤#39;。 Laura Piddock, who leads Britain#39;s Antibiotic Action, tells Vaihayasi Pande Daniel/Rediff.com how India can defend itself on a war footing against the scourge of superbugs, or bacteria that have become resistant to antiobiotics.劳拉﹒皮多克是英国抗生素运动的领导人,她告诉瓦哈亚西﹒潘迪﹒丹尼尔/Rediff.com印度应如何准备与(对大多数抗菌素产生抗药性的)超级细菌做斗争.A sick child in a hospital in Patna. Hygiene is very crucial to the prevention of the sp of superbugs, says Professor Laura J V Piddock, who heads Antibiotic Action. Photograph: Adnan Abidi/Reuters.上图为巴特那一家医院中的一位病孩。抗生素运动的发起人劳拉﹒JV﹒皮多克教授表示,卫生对于预防超级细菌的传播至关重要。 What exactly are superbugs?超级细菌到底是什么?Do all of us need to be worried about these multidrug-resistant bacteria?我们应该担心这些抗生素抗药菌吗? Is India also bleakly facing the approach of a time when antibiotics will be toothless?印度是否正消极面对抗生素失效的那一天?How can we protect ourselves from superbugs?我们应该如何抵御超级细菌? Laura J V Piddock, professor of microbiology at the University of Birmingham, the ed Kingdom, also heads up Antibiotic Action, an independent UK-led global initiative working to push home the gravity of this problem facing people the world over.劳拉﹒JV﹒皮多克是伯明翰大学的微生物学教授,也是抗生素运动的发起人。抗生素运动是一项英国主导的独立运动,致力于向全球传播抗生素抗药菌问题的严重性。;It is vital to the health of all nations that antibiotics remain the mainstay of modern medicine and are available to all on an equitable basis,; she tells Vaihayasi Pande Daniel/Rediff.com in an e-mail interview.皮多克教授在一封电子邮件中,向Rediff.com网站的哈亚西﹒潘迪﹒丹尼尔:“抗生素仍是现代医学中最重要的发现之一,向所有人一视同仁的提供抗生素对于人类健康至关重要。” About Antibiotic Action, Piddock says, contributes to ;national and international activities and acts as a conduit through which all stakeholders -- from the general public to healthcare professionals to politicians -- are educated on the importance of new ways to treat bacterial infections;.皮多克教授表示,抗生素运动为“普罗大众、医疗从业者和政治家 – 所有利益攸关者了解治疗细菌感染的新途径”做出贡献。How did the phenomenon of superbugs becoming drug-resistant come about? What were the factors that led to the misuse and overuse of antibiotics?超级细菌是如何变得具有耐药性的?是什么因素导致乱用和滥用抗生素? Bacteria evolve to survive in hostile environments.细菌通过进化适应恶劣的环境。Antibiotics can be viewed as making a hostile environment and so put evolutionary pressure on bacteria so this drives the evolution of strains resistant to antibiotics. Whilst many bacterial strains remain susceptible within a population, mutations occur very rarely to give resistance.我们可以把抗生素看作为细菌创建了一个不利的环境,从而促使细菌菌株进化出抗药性。然而在一定数量内,许多细菌菌株对抗生素仍十分敏感,发展出抗性的突变是非常罕见的。However, because antibiotics kill all of the susceptible bacteria in that population, the resistant bacteria remain and are able to grow up.因为抗生素杀死了那些对抗生素敏感的细菌,而具有抗性的细菌活了下来,继续成长。Bacteria grow very quickly and their generation time, such as for E.Coli, is 20 to 30 minutes. This means that many rare mutant bacteria that are antibiotic resistant can grow up and become millions and millions of cells within 24 hours.细菌生长的速度非常快,更新换代的速度,如大肠杆菌,是20至30分钟。这意味着许多发展出抗药性的罕见变异细菌能在24小时内繁殖出数以百万计的细胞。Even for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis, which grow extremely slowly, resistant bacteria can emerge and proliferate within several weeks.即使是导致肺结核的细菌,其生长速度非常缓慢,但抗药菌仍可在数周内出现并扩散。Bacteria are also able to share genes, some of these confer the ability for bacteria to infect their host and other confer antibiotic resistance.细菌能够分享基因,其中一些传播传染宿主的能力,另一些则传播抗生素抗药性。Again, acquiring resistance gives an evolutionary advantage to those bacteria with the resistance genes over the antibiotic susceptible population. Again, these bacteria survive and grow up very quickly. Any use of antibiotics will select antibiotic resistant bacteria and the more that antibiotics are used (and if there is insufficient dosing to kill any bacteria), then the environment is made to drive and select antibiotic resistant bacteria.再一次,获得抗药性使这些具有抗性基因的细菌保有进化优势。那些对抗生素敏感的细菌被杀死,而这些细菌活了下来,成长的非常快。每一次抗生素的使用是对抗生素抗药菌的筛选,抗生素使用的越多(且如果剂量不足以杀死任何细菌),那么抗生素创造的环境将筛选和保留抗生素抗药菌。In which areas of the world is the risk highest? Why are certain areas at higher risk?世界上哪些地区风险最大?为什么? Selecting antibiotic resistant bacteria can occur anywhere at any time an antibiotic is used, whether it be in people, animals or the environment. Therefore, areas with the highest use of antibiotics, and where dosing is not carefully adhered to, or where antibiotics are freely available, without prescription, means that the risk of selecting antibiotic resistant bacteria is greatest.当使用抗生素时,无论什么时间、什么地点、使用对象是人类、动物还是环境都有可能导致产生抗生素抗药菌。因此,那些频繁使用抗生素,没有掌握正确的使用剂量,或抗生素随处可得,没有按处方使用的地区最有可能产生抗生素抗药菌。Why is this phenomenon so frightening? As this tragedy sps, without being alarmist, what is the worst case scenario we could be looking at globally?为什么这种现象这么可怕?如果抗生素抗药菌四处蔓延,这不是危言耸听,我们所面临的最糟糕情况是怎样的?The phenomenon is frightening because these bacteria cause infections that are so difficult to treat. With so few drugs active against resistant bacteria, patients will now suffer from untreatable infections.这种现象的可怕之处在于抗生素抗药菌造成的感染很难医治。有效治疗抗药菌的药物非常稀少,病人将会饱受无法治愈的感染折磨。This will occur more and more often until we have new ways to prevent and treat bacterial infections.这种现象将变得愈加频繁,直至我们找到预防和治疗细菌感染的新方法。The worst case scenario is that many common place treatments no longer work and people start to die from infections that until recently were fully treatable.最坏的情况是许多常见的治疗方式不起作用,某些直至最近才能彻底治疗的细菌感染将致人死地。What are the key issues that need to be addressed to solve this calamity?解决这个灾难的关键是?The key issues are that we must minimise and prevent the opportunities for bacteria to infect people (and animals) and minimise the use of antibiotics so that they are only used when needed to treat a bacterial infection.解决问题的关键在于我们应该尽可能减少和预防细菌感染人类(和动物)的机会;尽量减少使用抗生素,仅在治疗细菌感染时使用。We need new ways to diagnose bacterial infections quickly so the correct treatment is used, and we need new treatments, including new antibiotics that are active against antibiotic resistant bacteria.我们必须找到快速确诊细菌感染的新方法,对症下药;我们需要新的治疗方式,包括新的抗生素,能有效对抗抗生素抗药菌。To do all of this, new research is required, not least to find the best doses and strategies to minimise the selection of resistant bacteria.为了达到这一目的,我们必须展开新的研究,而不仅仅是找寻最合适的剂量和方案以减少抗生素抗药菌的产生。Why is it that these superbugs evade even the hardest-hitting or last resort antibiotics, like carbapenems (antibiotics which are resistant to most bacteria)? Why are these bugs so super strong?为什么这些超级细菌能够侵入最强力,最顽强的抗生素?比如碳青霉烯(对大部分细菌都有效的抗生素)?为什么这些细菌这么厉害? These bacteria are not super strong. They have just been exposed to many different antibiotics over decades, allowing them to add antibiotic resistances in the same way as trains add carriages.这些细菌并不厉害。他们只是在数十年间历经多种不同的抗生素,使他们能够像火车加车厢一样具备抗生素抗药性。Where does India connect in all this? How much of a problem is this in India? Are there any diseases in particular that India needs to be worried about?印度和这些有什么关系?这些问题在印度常见吗?哪些疾病是印度需要特别关注的?Some antibiotic resistances were first detected in India.一些抗生素抗药性在印度是首次发现。One of the reasons for this is that many antibiotics are used in India, and often these have been bought by patients and not used under prescription. This means that antibiotics are used very widely, not always to treat bacterial infections and not always at the correct dose. 原因之一是印度滥用抗生素的现象十分普遍,许多病人未经医嘱随意购买抗生素。这意味着抗生素既没有按照正确的计量使用,也并不总用来治疗细菌感染。This therefore provides a #39;breeding ground#39; for the development of antibiotic resistant bacteria.这为抗生素抗药菌提供了发展的‘土壤#39;。In what manner does India need to join the fight?印度该如何对抗抗生素抗药菌?India, via the Chennai Declaration (external link,) is aly starting to address the issues of over-prescription of antibiotics by hospital doctors. In addition, with increased awareness it is hoped that use of antibiotics in all sectors will be reduced.金奈宣言(印度医疗界解决抗生素抗药性问题的宣言)说明印度已经开始解决医院医生滥开抗生素的问题,除此之外,随着认识的提高,使用抗生素治疗所有疾病的现象将有所缓和。 What is the most basic advice and precautions you can offer the Indian public, including those who may be illiterate? And what is the most important advice you can offer Indian doctors?皮多克教授,您能向印度大众,特别是那些不识字的人给予一些基本的建议和提醒吗?至于印度医生,您觉得最重要的意见是?The best advice is to have as good hygiene as possible and so prevent infection.最好的建议是尽可能保持卫生,预防感染。Secondly, if an individual gets an infection, to do their best not to pass on the infection to other members of their household, school or workplace.第二,如果有人被感染,尽可能不要传染给家人、学校师生或同事。To also help this, people should not share washcloths, towels or clothes until they have been washed and any bacteria removed. The same goes for preventing transmission of viral infections.还有一点可能有所帮助的是,除非经过清洗和消毒,人们不应该共用面巾、毛巾或衣物。这一点对于预防病毒传播也非常有效。For Indian doctors, they should only use antibiotics to treat infections that are likely to be caused by bacteria. They should be aware of local antibiotic resistance patterns so that they can make the best choice of effective antibiotics.至于印度医生,他们应该对疑似细菌引起的感染使用抗生素。印度医生应该了解当地抗生素的抗药模式,这样他们能选择最有效果的抗生素用于治疗。They need to make sure that they use the correct dose and for the appropriate duration and encourage their patients to take the antibiotics properly.印度医生应该确保使用正确的剂量,适当的用药时限并鼓励病人按需使用抗生素。What does the Indian government need to do on a war footing?在与抗生素抗药性作斗争时,印度政府需要做哪些工作?The Indian government should sign up to the WHO Global Action Plan and do their best to implement it to meet the needs of India and address the current resistance concerns specific to India.印度政府应该签署世界卫生组织全球行动计划,尽全力实施这项计划以满足印度的需要。解决印度特有的抗生素抗药性问题。Is it a race to find better antibiotics? Or a matter of looking at other creative options too and what could they be?我们应该就寻找更好的抗生素展开竞赛吗?还是应该寻找其他更有创造力的解决方案?What are the key issues hampering the bringing of new antibiotics to the global markets quickly and in more variety?是什么在阻碍新抗生素以各种形式快速出现在全球市场上?There are numerous key issues hampering bringing new antibiotics to market, not least regulatory hurdles and that the business model for antibiotics needs to be different to that for drugs for other therapeutic areas.阻碍新抗生素上市的原因太多了,不仅仅是监督障碍,还有抗生素的商业模式必须与其他领域的药物有所区别。All options, including new antibiotics, should be explored.我们应探索所有的解决方案,包括发明新抗生素。How are superbugs different from regular bugs apart from their ability to resist bacteria?除了抗药能力之外,超级细菌与普通细菌还有什么区别吗? Superbugs only differ from #39;regular#39; bugs in that they are antibiotic resistant. Very few antibiotic resistance mechanisms make bacteria fitter.超级细菌和‘普通#39;细菌的区别只是抗生素抗药性。很少有抗生素抗药机制能把细菌变得更强。When AIDS came on the scene people quickly got to know about the disease and its causes although prevention took longer. Why has awareness about superbugs, which is as scary, taken longer?当AIDS出现时,人们很快就了解了这种疾病及其病因,虽然理解AIDS预防措施的时间长了些。为什么超级细菌这么可怕,人们却并不很了解它?People become very frightened of AIDS because it was a terminal disease for which there is no cure.人们非常害怕AIDS,因为这是一种不治之症。For antibiotic-resistant bacteria, we still have some cures although these are diminishing in number day by day.尽管治疗抗生素抗药菌的方法日渐稀少,但仍是可以治愈的。 AIDS also affected particular demographic groups, who were extremely vocal in bringing this to public awareness. Unfortunately, people are used to getting infections and used to being able to treat them with antibiotics.AIDS还对特定人群产生影响,这对唤醒大众的认知非常有说力。不幸的是,印度人已经习惯了被感染和依赖抗生素进行治疗. /201501/354095TAURUS and ARIES:金牛-白羊:This union is better as a hot passionate affair. Your possessiveness will cramp the Aries#39; free-loving nature.金牛座的你占有欲极强,这很容易伤害到崇尚自由的白羊座爱侣。TAURUS and TAURUS:金牛-金牛:This union is somewhat dull in other areas of life. You will have a tendency to grow fat together. Visualize two couch potatoes eating in front of the television.这对情侣档在生活的某些方面有些无聊。金牛座的你有急增脂肪的趋势,可以想像2个电视迷坐在电视前狠吃猛喝是多么的可怕吧。TAURUS and GEMINI:金牛-双子:Gemini#39;s lack of respect for possessions and stability will drive you up a wall. You aren#39;t spontaneous enough for the versatile Twin. Not really a likely combination.挥霍无度、缺乏安全感的双子座让你很不放心;你对多才多艺的他/她也并不感冒。这真的不是一个好的组合。TAURUS and CANCER:金牛-巨蟹:Good partnership. You will enhance one another. You offer the Crab the necessary security and, in return, you receive the affection and loyalty you desire.你们是好的伙伴关系。你俩在一起可以相互促进,共同提高。你能给蟹子需要的安全感,同样地,你也能从巨蟹座那里得到渴望的和忠诚。TAURUS and LEO:金牛-狮子:This is not only an unlikely connection but one that is built on deception. If your financial position is good you will attract the Lion; however, this partner will want the freedom to roam.你们不但不太可能在一起,而且即便在一起也是建立在欺骗的基础上的。如果你经济实力雄厚,当然能吸引狮子。然而,这个家伙却是个花心大萝卜。TAURUS and VIRGO:金牛-处女:Problems usually arise in the bedroom, but in all other areas, you and your Virgoan will do remarkably well. You are both practical and hard working.除了在卧室里会经常发生矛盾外,在其它的任何地方,你俩都能相处地很好。金牛座的你是个脚踏实地且工作努力的人。TAURUS and LIBRA:金牛-天秤:Compromise is a necessity if you want this union to work. Your Libran mate will be far too indecisive for you, and you lack the sophistication that the Scales demand in a partner.如果你想让彼此的关系持久,必须学会让步。在深沉老练的天秤座面前,你还嫩了点,还远远达不到他/她理想的标准。TAURUS and SCORPIO:金牛-天蝎:Polarity attraction, but you are both fixed signs that can cause difficulties. Your stubbornness and the Scorpion#39;s jealousy will result in a no win situation.彼此都有着巨大的吸引力,但双方都是固定星座,这也势必会产生矛盾。牛儿的固执加上蝎子的嫉妒心让这段恋情无果而终。TAURUS and SITTARIUS:金牛-射手:This combo is better left as friends. The archer likes to gamble, be free-spirited and take each day as it comes.You, on the other hand, could never live without routine and would frown upon the Sagittarians irresponsibility.这对组合最好还是做朋友比较好。射手座的人喜欢冒险,热爱自由;而你从不打没把握的仗,一切事情都依计划实施。你是很难忍受射手座的缺乏负责感的。TAURUS and CAPRICORN:金牛-羯:This is not a bad alliance, as you both have the same interests where money, possessions and security are concerned.The biggest drawback is the old ;all work and no play; syndrome.这对搭档看上去不错,你俩志同道合,无论在经济、财产还是安全感上的看法都非常一致。但“全是工作没有”却是存在于双方间的最大的隐患。TAURUS and AQUARIUS:金牛-水瓶:You are both fixed signs with a totally different concept of life. The Water-bearer is too much of a loner and you always want to own or possess your partner.都是固定星座的你俩有着完全不同的生活理念。水瓶座的一方太过孤僻,而你占有性过强,真有点水火不容的驾势。TAURUS and PISCES:金牛-双鱼:This combination can work; however, the Fish lacks practicality, which can be a deterrent for you. On the other hand, your Pisces mate may leave if you become too domineering.这一组合还凑合。然而,成日沉溺于幻想中的鱼儿不免让你有些招驾不住;另一方面,如果你太专制,鱼儿肯定就游走了哦。 /201507/386439

Han Seol-hyang blushes as she recounts her memories of teenage dating in Pyongyang.韩雪香(Han Seol-hyang,音)讲述起自己十几岁时在平壤约会的往事,她的脸红了。“Everything was in secret. It wasn’t all out in the open like in South Korea,” says the 30-year-old daughter of a North Korean government official. “It wasn’t that we were scared of being punished; that was just the culture.”韩雪香今年30岁,是一位朝鲜政府官员的女儿,她说:“一切都得保密,不像在韩国这么开放。倒不是说害怕受处罚,而是文化使然。”South Korea’s brash dating scene is one of a bewildering range of cultural differences confronting more than 25,000 North Koreans who have made their way south over the past 20 years, with many struggling to integrate socially and economically.过去20年逃往韩国的朝鲜人超过2.5万人,他们面临着各种令人无所适从的文化差异,令许多人无论从经济上还是从社会上都难以融入韩国,大胆的约会场面便是其中之一。But Ms Han and 51-year-old Kim Min-jeong, her business partner, have turned the situation to their advantage by establishing Eve, a matchmaking agency aimed at helping fellow North Korean refugees find husbands.但韩雪香和她的生意伙伴——51岁的金敏贞(Kim Min-jeong,音)将这一文化差异化作她们的优势,俩人合作创建了婚介机构Eve,旨在帮助朝鲜难民同胞找到如意郎君。On the wall of their office in a western district of Seoul is a whiteboard listing a dozen meetings arranged for the next few days between women born in North Korea and South Korean men. The dates of two imminent marriages and an expected birth are noted in red.Eve位于首尔西部某区,办公室的墙上挂着一面白板,上面列出了未来数日安排好的十几场约会,女方都是朝鲜人,而男方都是韩国人。其中有三个标红的日期,分别是马上要举行的两场婚礼,以及一个预产期。Next to a large framed photograph of one of the weddings they have helped to bring about — there were 29 last year alone — one of their 10 employees is explaining the service to a shy-looking man on the threshold of middle age.这家婚介所有10名员工,其中一个员工正向一位面露羞色、即将迈入中年的男士介绍务项目。他们身边的墙上挂着一个大相框,里面是Eve促成的一场婚礼的照片,仅去年这家婚介所就促成了29桩婚事。Eve promises to arrange up to six introductions for each man within the first year, with further dates to follow if he remains single after that time. About 200 men paid Won2-3m (,788-2,667) last year to register at Eve; more than double that number of female North Korean defectors signed up at no cost.Eve承诺每位男士在第一年内最多可相亲6次,如果一年后该男士仍为单身,还可为他安排更多约会。去年约有200名男士在Eve注册,注册费在200万韩元到300万韩元之间(约合1788美元到2667美元),女性会员都是脱北者,去年她们的注册人数是男性会员的两倍以上,无须缴纳注册费用。Seated on adjacent leather armchairs, both sporting white shirts, miniskirts and auburn-tinted hair, Ms Han and Ms Kim explain how they help clients to bridge the inter-Korean cultural divide.韩雪香和金敏贞挨着坐在皮革扶手椅上,两人都穿着白衬衫,迷你裙,头发染成茶褐色。她们介绍了自己如何帮助客户跨越朝韩之间的文化鸿沟。“The North Korean women are like 60-somethings in South Korea; they’re very conservative,” Ms Kim says. “So I tell the men to take things slow. If you grab her hand on the first date, it will scare her.”金敏贞说:“朝鲜女性的思想相当于韩国60多岁的人,她们非常保守。因此我告诉男士们要慢慢来。如果你第一次约会时就牵她的手,会吓到她的。”Ms Kim plays down the difficulties of becoming an entrepreneur in a dynamic capitalist economy after spending her first four decades in one of the last socialist states. She thinks she gained useful skills from working for 20 years in a regional accounts department of a state-owned restaurant company, before emigrating in 2005.金敏贞人生的头四十年是在社会主义国家度过的,之后她又在这个充满活力的资本主义国家里成了一名企业家,她并不认为这有多不容易。2005年金敏贞从朝鲜来到韩国,此前她在一家国有餐饮公司的分区会计部工作了20年,她认为自己从中获得了有用的技能。Ms Han had left North Korea two years before at the age of 18, having felt isolated, like “a frog in a pond”, after spending hours watching television footage of the outside world. They met in 2007, when both were working at a Seoul matchmaking agency. But in 2008 the two women decided to go it alone. They used their modest savings to put down a Won10m deposit for a rented office and lured a few male clients from their previous employer.韩雪香比她早两年离开朝鲜,当时18岁,在连续看了几个小时外面世界的电视后,她觉得自己与世隔绝,像只“池塘里的青蛙”。她与金敏贞相识于2007年,当时她们在首尔一家婚介所工作。2008年两位女性决定出来单干。她们用微薄的积蓄缴纳了1000万韩元定金,租下一间办公室,还从前雇主那儿挖走了几个男客户。Eve has attracted only one male North Korean client and no South Korean women. The lopsided gender mix reflects the fact that North Korean refugees earn a third less than the South Korean average. In one 2013 survey, all the women polled said they disliked the idea of marrying a defector. But 69 per cent of the men said they would, reflecting North Korean women’s reputation for being “docile and submissive”, according to Ms Han.Eve的客户里只有一位朝鲜男性,没有韩国女性。这种极不平衡的性别结构反应出一个事实,朝鲜难民的收入不抵韩国人平均收入的三分之一。在2013年一份调查中,所有女性受访者均表示她们无法接受嫁给一个叛逃者。但69%的男性受访者表示他们愿意娶一名叛逃者,据韩雪香说,这反映了朝鲜女性“温顺”的美名在外。This has led critics to accuse Eve and similar agencies of exploitation. Ms Han counters that the service can help female defectors integrate in the face of prejudice, recalling how she nervously pretended as a student to be from the north of South Korea.批评者因此指责Eve之类的机构利用脱北女性。韩雪香反驳说,她们的务可以帮助女性脱北者在面对偏见的情况下融入当地社会。她回想起自己当初如何紧张地装成一个来自韩国北部的学生。The troubles faced by North Korean defectors are an ominous sign of the challenge that Seoul will face in dealing with a greater influx, should Korea reunify. In the meantime, Ms Han adds, “we are doing our own version of unification”.脱北者面临的麻烦预示着首尔可能面临的挑战,如果朝鲜半岛真的统一,那么韩国将迎来更庞大的移民潮。与此同时,韩雪香说,“我们正在进行我们自己的统一事业”。 /201507/383868

Two social workers were walking through a rough part of the city in the evening.有两名社会工作者在晚上的时候 走过市区的简陋地方。They heard moans and muted cries for help from a back lane.Upon investigation,他们听到从后巷传来的求救呻吟声和很小的哭喊声。they found a semiconscious man in a pool of blood.他们发现有一个意识不清的人躺在血泊之中。;Help me,I#39;ve been mugged and viciously beaten ; he pleaded.他在恳求说:“救救我吧,我被人行凶抢劫,还遭到恶意痛打一顿。”The two social workers turned and walked away .这两名社会工作者转身离去。One remarked to her colleague: ; You know the person that did this really needs help.;其中一位向她的同事说:“你知道吧,于下这挡事的火才真 的需要协助呀。” /201503/361472

A:You know what?A:你知道什么?B:What?B:什么?A:The world is getting nuts.A:这个世界正在发狂。B:Yeah...and you know what else?B:是,你还知道什么?A:What?A:什么?B:We be the nuts they getting!B:他们也这么说我们。 /201505/373716If you are looking for a loan, serving your bank manager breakfast might just do the trick.如果你想要贷款,请经理吃个早餐说不定能帮你忙。A compound found in eggs makes people much more generous, new research suggests.最新研究表明,鸡蛋里含有的某种复合物会使人们变得更加慷慨大方。Scientists say that tryptophan, an amino acid found in some foods, can change our behaviour.科学家称,一些食物中所含的一种叫做色氨酸的氨基酸能够改变人们的行为。In experiments they found that consuming a small portion of tryptophan - the equivalent of that found in three eggs -doubled the sum volunteers gave to charity.研究者们通过实验发现,摄入少量色氨酸(大概是三个鸡蛋中所含该物质的含量)能够使被试捐款人的捐款数目增加一倍。Eggs and other foods such as fish and milk are rich in tryptophan, an amino acid that is converted in the body into the feel-good chemical serotonin.鸡蛋、鱼、牛奶等都富含色氨酸,色氨酸能在人体内转化为让人感到愉快的化学物质5-羟色胺。Psychologists from Leiden University in the Netherlands, writing in the Frontiers in Psychology journal, said:‘For the first time, we investigated whether the administration of a compound contained in food such as fish, eggs, soy, and milk can promote charitable donating.荷兰莱顿大学的心理学家在发表于《心理学前沿》期刊里的文章中写道:“这是我们第一次研究如鱼、鸡蛋、豆和牛奶等食物中含有的化合物是否会对慷慨捐赠行为产生促进作用。”‘Our study is the first demonstration that charitable donating can be enhanced by serotonin-related food supplements.’“我们的研究首次明了,通过增加包含色氨酸的食物摄入量能够促进人们的慈善捐赠行为。”The authors carried out an experiment on 32 men and women, in which half were given a powder containing 0.8 grams of TRP,and the others were given a harmless placebo powder.该实验包括男性、女性被试共32名,其中一半被试食用的是含有0.8克的色氨酸粉末,另外一半则食用一种无害的安慰剂粉末。Each participant was given #163;7.50 (.25)for taking part in the research and asked whether they were willing to donate part of their financial reward to charity.每个参与实验的被试都被给予7.5英镑,并被询问是否愿意把这些钱捐给慈善机构。Four boxes for Unicef, Amnesty International, Greenpeace, and World Wildlife Fund were left on a table.桌子上摆放着四个慈善机构的盒子,这四个慈善机构分别是联合国儿童基金会,大赦国际,绿色和平组织和世界野生动物基金会。When the psychologists counted the takings,they found that those given the TRP powder donated an average of 75p (.15),while those who received the placebo donated half as much.心理学家计算捐款数额后发现,摄入色氨酸粉末的被试平均捐出了75便士,而食用安慰剂的被试则只捐出了一半的数额Just how a food supplement could have such an effect is not clear, but the scientists suggest the involvement of oxytocin,the so-called ‘cuddle’ hormone produced by women during breastfeeding and lovemaking.为什么一种食品添加剂可以产生这样效果目前还不清楚,但科学家们认为这可能与后叶催产素有关,后叶催产素是女性在哺乳和性交期间会产生的一种所谓的“拥抱”荷尔蒙。They wrote: ‘It may be likely that the willingness to donate money to a charity is modulated by the effect that serotonin exerts on oxytocin levels.他们写道:“捐款的意愿可能受5-羟色胺对后叶催产素水平影响的调控。”‘Our results support the materialist approach that “you are what you eat”.“我们的研究结果持了唯物主义者的说法即‘吃什么东西就会产生什么行为’。”‘The idea [is]that the food one eats has a bearing on one’s state of mind. The food we eat may thus act as a cognitive enhancer that modulates the way we deal with the“social” world.#39;“人们所吃的食物会影响到大脑的状态。就这样食物扮演了认知促进者的角色,调控着人们应对‘社交’世界的方式。”Commenting on the research, Dr AdamPerkins, neurobiologist at King’s College London, said the study could be useful in prisons to encourage harmony among inmates.伦敦国王学院的神经生物学家亚当·帕金斯认为这项研究结果可以运用于监狱,对促进犯人间的和谐会非常有效。He said: ‘These results are interesting because they raise the possibility that dietary supplements containing TRP could be used to assist with boosting charitable attitudes and behaviour in the population.’他说:“这个研究的结果非常有趣,只要增加含有色氨酸的食物摄入量,就能很好地促进全民行善的意愿和行为。” /201504/369053

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