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2019年08月25日 15:47:17 | 作者:龙马共享 | 来源:新华社
They can grow more than two metres long and weigh as much as three men. But the giant tortoises of ice age North America were even larger. Florida does have tortoises today, but on a much smaller scale. This is the gopher tortoise. 他们能够长到3米长,重量可与3个成年人的体重相当。但是在冰河时代的北美洲,巨型陆龟体型甚至更加巨大。佛罗里达现在也有乌龟,但是他们的体型很小。这就是穴居沙龟。Tortoises are cold-blooded animals. They rely on external temperature to keep themselves warm. Although Florida is plenty warm enough for much of the year, during the winter months, it can get cold. So to survive the winter, gopher tortoises must burrow and hibernate underground. The colder it gets, the deeper into their burrow they go. 乌龟是冷血动物。他们依靠外部温度保持自身温暖。尽管佛罗里达一年中的大部分时节都温暖如春,但是在冬天的几个月里,气温还是十分寒冷。因此,为了撑过寒冬,穴居沙龟必须在地下挖掘洞穴来进行冬眠。天气越寒冷,他们挖掘的洞穴越深。Giant tortoises, however, cant burrow. And they sleep above ground. They need relatively warm temperatures all year round. The fact they were in Florida during the ice age means that paradoxically the climate must have been more stable and even milder than it is today. So we know something of the climate, but what about the vegetation and the landscape. How did that look 13,000 years ago? 然而,巨型陆龟却没有挖掘的技能。他们在地上冬眠。他们一年都需要相对温暖的气温。这看起来与现实相驳,而事实上,他们可以在冰河时代的佛罗里达生存正意味着那时的气温一定比今天更加稳定,更加温和。因此我们可以推测出当时佛罗里达的气候,但是13000年前的植被以及地貌又是什么样子呢?Today Florida is one of the wettest parts of the continent, especially the vast swampy area known as the Everglades. Flooded grasslands stretches as far as the eye can see.如今,佛罗里达是北美洲湿度最高的地区之一,尤其是像佛罗里达大沼泽这样的一篇巨大的沼泽地。人们的视线内遍布着在侵泡在水中的草地。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载.201308/254544In physics, pressure depends on the amount of force acting on a surface and on the size of the surface.物理学上,压力大小取决于作用在表面力的大小和表面积大小。The smaller the surface, the greater the pressure.表面积越小,承受的力越大。Lets say that a woman steps on your toe; she weighs 120 pounds.假设一个重120磅的女人踩到你脚趾了。If shes wearing flat shoes, you would feel the force of 120 pounds sp out over the whole heel of the shoe, maybe around 4 square inches.如果她穿的是平底鞋,你会感到120磅的压力分散到鞋子的整个根部,大概4平方英寸。So the pressure would be 120 divided by 4, or 30 pounds per square inch.所以120磅的压力平均分为4份,或者每平方英寸30磅的力。But when she steps on you with a high heel, the whole 120 pounds of force is concentrated on a heel that is maybe one eighth of one square inch in area.但如果她穿的是高跟鞋,整个120磅的力集中在或许只有八分之一英寸大小的鞋跟上。Now the pressure of her step is eight times as much, or 240 pounds per square inch instead of 30 pounds per square inch.她踩下去的压力也是8倍之多,或者说240磅每平方英寸而不是30磅每平方英寸。Of course, it hurts more.当然,这更痛。It works the other way, too.同理,Spiked heels are painful to wear because your weight is all on the spike and the ball of the foot;穿细高跟鞋是痛苦的,因为你的重量全压在在细跟和脚趾球上。therefore, the pressure is much greater on these points than in running shoes, where your weight is sp out over the whole bottom of the foot.因此,压力在这些点上要比重量被分散在整个脚底的跑鞋大很多。 /201310/261769

If youve ever seen a bicycle race, you might have noticed the riders lining up behind each other instraight columns.如果你看过自行车比赛,你或许注意到自行车手们都一个跟着一个排成一队。Bicycle racers spend much of their energy overcoming wind resistance, so this lining up makesgood sense.自行车手们耗费了很大的能量来克风的阻力,所以这样的排队方式是很合理的。If you ride directly behind your opponent, shell cut through the air resistance for you, letting you save up energy for the finish line.如果你直接骑在对手的后面。他能够为你阻挡空气的阻力,为你冲刺终点保留体力。Whats true for bicycle racers is true for otherthings too.对于自行车手适用的道理也同样适用于其他方面的事情。Going in straight line formation is the best way to overcome wind resistance.以直线的队列行进是克风阻力的最好办法。Which brings us to those silly geese.这让我们想到了那些愚蠢的大雁!Like bicycle racers, geese fly in formation mainly to saveenergy.就如自行车手们那样,大雁们以节省能量的队形飞行。The formation they prefer however is shaped like the letter “V.”然而它们喜欢的队形却是“V”字形。Whats going on? Aregeese just plain dumb?这是怎么回事?难道大雁是傻瓜?Not at all!不是这样的。Remember, geese dont only need to worry about air resistance—they need to stay aloft as well.记住,大雁不仅需要担心空气阻力-他们同样也需要停留在高空。To do this, goose wings are curved and tapered like those of an aircraft.为了做到这一点,大雁的翅膀如弯曲的锥形的飞机机翼一般,The top surface bulges upward while the bottom stays flatter.表面凸起向上,底部保持平整。Air rushes more quickly over the wingsbulging top, and this creates a kind of upward suction.空气很快从其翅膀顶部凸起的部分掠过,这就造成了一种向上的吸力,This phenomenon is called “lift,” and its agooses secret for staying aloft.此现象就叫做“牵引”,这就是大雁能够停留在高空的秘密。Lift, however, is a peculiar thing.然而“牵引”是一种很特殊的东西。While most of it tugs upward on the goose, some of it spills awayfrom the wing tips as a kind of updraft.大多数的引力牵引着大雁向上,一些引力则以上升气流的形式从翼尖流出。This lingering updraft sps out behind the goose in aV-shape like the wake of a boat.这些残留的上升气流像船的尾迹一样在大雁的身后呈V字形伸展开。If another goose puts its wings inside this updraft wake, it gets anadded upward boost itself.如果另一只大雁也在这样的上升气流中展开翅膀,它会获得额外的升力来助推自己。Whats the best formation to take advantage of this?什么样的队形能够最好地利用这个优势?Its not astraight line, its a “V”!不是直线,而是“V”字形。 201408/324483

The scene is set for a daily ice age drama. Only the very largest are safe now.这一场面在冰河时代每一天都在上演。现在,只有大型动物才能自保其身。Patience is the key, the lionesses close in, waiting for their opportunity. 耐心是关键,雌狮们靠近了,等待着机会的来临。The first charge causes chaos, but this is just what the lions want. ln the melee, theyve aly pinpointed their prey.第一扑就引起了猎物们的混乱,但这正是狮子们想要的。在混乱中,他们已经发现了他们的猎物。The leader pounces, and a horse is down. Meanwhile, the spooked herds stampede up the valley. 领头的狮子只身一扑,一匹马便倒下了。与此同时,受到惊吓的兽群争纷逃离山谷。But theyre running straight into another trap, a hidden cave, aly full of ice age victims. And now it claims another. Above ground, the members of the valley pride - mothers, sisters and cubs feast. 但是他们却直接奔向了另一处陷阱——一个隐秘的洞穴,已经有大量的冰河时代的动物丧身于此。现在轮到了这一批。地面上,这些山谷中骄傲的雌狮们,正在和他们的幼兽享受着美餐。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201306/245153

Bank of America was reported to have reached a settlement with American regulators to pay around 17 billion for mis-selling mortgage-backed securities in the run-up to the 2008 financial crisis. It is by far the biggest penalty levied on a single company. A significant chunk of the fine relates to toxic mortgage products handled by Countrywide Financial and Merrill Lynch, which BofA bought when both were teetering on the edge of bankruptcy.据报道美国已于美国监管部门已就其在2008金融危机前期不合格的抵押债权问题达成协议,将付约170亿美元罚款。这是截至目前对单个公司收取的最高罚款金额。其中大部分金额与美国金融公司和美林券公司所售卖的次级抵押品有关,而美国在这两家公司濒临破产时进行了收购。Benjamin Lawsky, New York states financial regulator, slapped a 300m fine on Standard Chartered for failing to comply with anti-money-laundering procedures it had agreed to as part of a previous settlement in 2012. He also imposed a 25m penalty onPricewaterhouseCoopers for softening a report about payments from Iran and other sanctioned countries made through Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi in the face of pressure from the banks executives.纽约金融监管员本杰明·罗斯基对渣打处以3亿美元罚款,因其未能遵守在2012年同意签署的反洗钱协议。同时他还强迫普永华道会计师事务所向其付2500万美元的罚款,因其不顾高管的压力,执意软处理关于伊朗和其他被制裁国家通过东京付款的报道。The minutes of the August meeting of the Bank of Englands Monetary Policy Committee revealed a split among its members on interest rates, with two voting to raise rates and seven against. It was the first split in the MPC for more than three years and refuelled speculation that the bank might lift rates towards the end of this year. The minutes from the Federal Reserves July meeting showed a lively debate about the timing of a rate rise, but suggested officials wanted to see more evidence that the American economy has fully recovered.据悉英国货币政策委员会在八月的会议上就的利率问题未能达成一致意见,其中2名委员认为应该提升利率,而7名委员提出异议。这是英国货币政策委员会首次在长达三年多的时间里还未能达成一致,同时也增加了将于今年年底提高利率这一推测的可能性。美联储七月份会议也就何时升息展开了激烈的辩论,但最终决定需要看到美国经济已完全复苏的进一步据才能下定论。Thats a lot of dollars好多美元A bidding war broke out among Americas biggest discount retailers when Dollar General offered to buy Family Dollar in a 9.7 billion offer that trumped an earlier tender from Dollar Tree.The combined revenue of Dollar General and Family Dollar is 28 billion.在达乐公司向家庭美元商店提出比美元树公司更高的97亿美元的收购要约美国后,最大的几家折扣零售商之间爆发了一场投标大战。达乐公司与家庭美元公司合并后将获得280亿美元的利润。Mad about Modi对莫迪的迷恋Indias benchmark stockmarket index, the Sensex, reached another record high, as investors cheered a speech by Narendra Modi, the reform-minded prime minister, outlining the things he would like to do to boost exports and manufacturing. But the bullish sentiment sparked by Mr Modis election could soon fizzle if his government does not deliver on its promises to liberalise the economy.在改革派首相纳伦德拉·莫迪发表演说鼓励投资者进行投资后,印度股市的基准敏感指数又创历史新高,莫迪在演说中表示他将大力促进商品出口和制造业的发展。但他如果未能实现其承诺的自由经济将使莫迪总统大选时带来的牛市化为泡沫。Hewlett-Packard reported that its total revenue had grown in the latest quarter for the first time in 11 quarters, to 27.6 billion. The increase was 1%. It achieved this by a 12% rise in computer sales, a market that has wilted as people switch to wireless devices but which may have been boosted by the phasing out of support for Windows XP, prompting companies to invest in new computers.惠普的最新报告显示:上季度惠普的营业利润实现了近11个季度以来的首次增长,达到276亿美元,增长了1个百分点,而该营业额的增长是由电脑销售数量增长12%带动的。在计算机销售市场上,伴随着无线设备的兴起XP系统逐渐被人们淘汰,这将促使计算机公司开发新的机型。Chinas powerful National Development and Reform Commission levied fines on 12 Japanese manufacturers of car parts or ball bearings. They are the first penalties to be reported in an investigation into price-fixing for spare parts and services among foreign car companies in China.中国能源促进和改革委员会对日本12家汽车零件或滚珠轴承制造商进行罚款。他们是中国对零部件及务定价调查中第一批被公布受罚的外国公司。Hertzs share price fell sharply, after the car-rental company forecast that annual profit would come in “well below” expectations. It said business had suffered in part when it was left with a shortage of cars because of a large number of safety recalls from carmakers. General Motors supplies Hertz with 28% of its fleet in the US. Carl Icahn, an activist investor, has started circling; he disclosed an 8.5% stake in Hertz.在赫兹汽车租赁公司预测其年收益将远低于预期后,其股价急剧下降。该公司表示此次问题一定程度上是由于大量安全设备被汽车制造商召回从而导致赫兹公司车辆短缺。赫兹公司在美国28%的车辆由通用汽车公司提供。投资者卡尔·伊坎开始回收资金,他将出售赫兹公司8.5%的股份。Mining for profit矿业经营BHP Billiton confirmed that it will spin off its less-profitable assets into a separately traded company in order to focus on its core ventures in iron ore, copper, coal, petroleum and potash. The move unravels much of the merger in 2001 between BHP and Billiton. The company has been under pressure from investors, and left many disappointed by not also announcing a share buy-back scheme.必和必拓公司宣布为了集中精力经营其核心的铁矿石产业,将分离其获利较低的资产,成立一个单独的贸易公司。此举将解决自2001年必和必拓公司和比利顿公司合并以来出现的许多问题。该公司在投资者的施压下也没有公布股份回收计划,这令投资者们非常失望。Glencore, on the other hand, said it would return 1 billion to shareholders through buy-backs, as it reaps the benefits from selling a Peruvian copper mine for 6.5 billion and a vigorous commodities-trading business. Mining companies are having to cope with slow growth, but Ivan Glasenberg, Glencores boss, contends that “the supercycle aint over.”另一方面,嘉能可国际公司宣布将通过股份回购计划向其股票持有者发放10亿美元的收益,因其在销售秘鲁铜矿时获得65亿美元的盈利并且商品贸易势头强劲。在其他矿产公司不得不应对盈利缓慢增长的问题时,嘉能可国际公司的总裁伊凡·格拉森格认为“此超周期现象不是结束”。Steve Ballmer stepped down from Microsofts board, having handed over the reins as chief executive to Satya Nadella last February. Mr Ballmer recently bought the Los Angeles Clippers basketball team for an estimated 2 billion.微软董事史蒂夫·鲍尔默期满卸任,并于去年2月将董事长职位传予萨蒂亚·纳德拉。最近,鲍尔默预计以20亿美元的价格收购洛杉矶快船队。Acknowledging the regulatory challenges it faces, Uber hired David Plouffe, Barack Obamas former campaign manager, to direct its strategy. The car-sharing business now operates in 170 cities around the world but faces stiff resistance from entrenched interests, much like Mr Plouffes old boss.尤伯公司承认自身存在监管问题,并聘请了曾担任奥巴马竞选经理的大卫·普罗非,指导其未来战略规划。此次汽车共享的商业活动分布在世界各地的170个城市,但却受到既得利益者的顽强抵制,其中也包括普罗非的那个前老板。 201409/325397

Science and technology科学技术Nanotechnology纳米技术A fab result生物工厂A novel way of making computer memories, using bacteria制造计算机存储器的新奇方法:使用细菌FOR half a century, the essence of progress in the computer industry has been to do more with less.半个世纪以来,计算机产业发展的本质就是花钱更少,成事更多。Moores law famously observes that the number of transistors which can be crammed into a given space doubles every 18 months.尔定律的著名论断是:能够放入某空间内的晶体管数量每18个月翻一番。The amount of data that can be stored has grown at a similar rate.储存的数据也有着类似的增长速率,Yet as components get smaller, making them gets harder and more expensive.但是随着部件越来越小,它们的制造难度和成本也逐渐增加。On May 10th Paul Otellini, the boss of Intel, a big American chipmaker, put the price of a new chip factory at around billion.5月10日,美国芯片巨头因特尔总裁兼CEOPaul Otellini宣布将花费上百亿美元建设新工厂。Happily for those that lack Intels resources, there may be a cheaper option—namely to mimic Mother Nature, who has been building tiny devices,对于不像因特尔那么有钱的厂家的好消息是,他们或许可以选择更便宜的方式—模拟大自然。in the form of living cells and their components, for billions of years, and has thus got rather good at it.对于大自然来说,她建造微小设备已经有数十亿年了,所以自然是信手拈来,当然,这些设备都是以活细胞和其组份的形式呈现。A paper published in Small, a nanotechnology journal, sets out the latest example of the technique.发表在纳米技术期刊《微小》的一篇论文描述了这一新技术的示例,In it, a group of researchers led by Sarah Staniland at the University of Leeds, in Britain, describe using naturally occurring proteins to make arrays of tiny magnets, similar to those employed to store information in disk drives.该技术团队由英国利兹大学的Sarah Staniland领导,他们用自然生成的蛋白质让微型磁性材料进行排列,这与磁盘驱动器上储存信息的磁性材料排序是类似的。The researchers took their inspiration from Magnetospirillum magneticum, a bacterium that is sensitive to the Earths magnetic field thanks to the presence within its cells of flecks of magnetite, a form of iron oxide.研究人员从趋磁细菌上获得了灵感,由于该细菌内部存在磁性颗粒,所以对地球磁场非常敏感。Previous work has isolated the protein that makes these miniature compasses. Using genetic engineering, the team managed to persuade a different bacterium—Escherichia coli, a ubiquitous critter that is a workhorse of biotechnology—to manufacture this protein in bulk.他们先要把制造这种微型罗盘的蛋白质分离出来,并采用基因工程技术设法让另一种细菌—大肠杆菌来批量生产这种蛋白质,而大肠杆菌在生物体内普遍存在,是生物工程中的常用苦力。Next, they imprinted a block of gold with a microscopic chessboard pattern of chemicals.然后他们用化学方法绘制微小的棋盘图案,并把图案的每一块染成金黄色,Half the squares contained anchoring points for the protein.每块区域的一半用该蛋白质做固定点,The other half were left untreated as controls.另一半不做任何处理作为对照,They then dipped the gold into a solution containing the protein, allowing it to bind to the treated squares, and dunked the whole lot into a heated solution of iron salts.再把这些金黄色的棋盘浸入含蛋白质的溶液中,并允许溶液中的蛋白质与棋盘上的固定蛋白质结合,最后把该棋盘全部浸入加热的铁盐溶液中。After that, they examined the results with an electron microscope.他们再用电子显微镜观察实验结果,Sure enough, groups of magnetite grains had materialised on the treated squares, shepherded into place by the bacterial protein.果然,棋盘上的固定蛋白质区域产生了成群的磁铁颗粒,并由细菌蛋白质控制在相应位置。In principle, each of these magnetic domains could store the one or the zero of a bit of information, according to how it was polarised.基本上每个磁域都能按极化的方式存储一个字节信息的1或0。Getting from there to a real computer memory would be a long road.但是要制成真正的计算机存储器还有很长的路要走,For a start, the grains of magnetite are not strong enough magnets to make a useful memory, and the size of each domain is huge by modern computing standards.首先对于可用的存储器来说,那些磁铁颗粒的磁性还不够强大,并且每个区域的尺寸对现在计算机标准来说太大了。But Dr Staniland reckons that, with enough tweaking, both of these objections could be dealt with.但Staniland认为,只要做些足够的调整,那些困难都将不是问题。The advantage of this approach is that it might not be so capital-intensive as building a fab.这种方法的好处就是不用像因特尔那样如此资源密集地去建造新工厂,在制造不断发展的产品时也不需要同样多的设备,Growing things does not need as much kit as making them. If the tweaking could be done, therefore, the result might give the word biotechnology a whole new meaning.所以,如果这种调整可以成功的话,生物技术将会有一个全新的定义。 /201310/259135

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