佛山市妇保医院治疗包皮包茎多少钱求医面诊

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 佛山市妇保医院治疗包皮包茎多少钱120信息
The British Army英国军队A changing force变化的力量The British Army is taking on a radical new shape英国军队正在发生彻底的改头换面LIEUTENANT Christopher Hill is one of the last of his kind. The 25-year-old chose to join his unit, the fourth battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, because he knew it was earmarked for one of the British Armys final deployments to Afghanistan. “I wanted to get an operational tour while I can,” he explains, standing by a six-wheeled Mastiff armoured vehicle.克里斯托弗赫尔中尉是他所属兵种的最后一个人。这个25岁的年轻人选择加入的部队是苏格兰皇家第四部队,因为他了解到这是英国军队最后一次为阿富汗调度的部队之一。他站在六个轮子的装甲车上解释说:“我想在可以的情况下获得一次实战的经历”。The last British outstation in southern Afghanistan, an observation post called Sterga 2 above the Helmand river, closed in May. Camp Bastion is the only base left. The army will cease combat operations in Afghanistan at the end of 2014—a timetable determined by Barack Obama, but which, as one soldier points out, happily provides a four-month buffer before the 2015 general election. As a 13-year campaign winds down, the army will change dramatically.在阿富汗南部的最后一个边哨所于五月份撤销。该哨所叫做斯特格,位于赫尔曼德河之上。堡垒军营是唯一留下的军事基地。这军队将在2014年末取消在阿富汗的军事行动——该日期是由奥巴马决定的。但是一位士兵也指出,这为2015年的大选提供了四个月的缓冲区。随着13年的军事活动落下帷幕,该部队将迅速转型。Next month Lieutenant-General Sir Nick Carter will take over as chief of the general staff. The armys new boss is also its architect: asked to find savings of 5.3 billion (.9 billion), he devised a plan to cut the number of full-time soldiers from 102,000 to 82,000 by 2018. But some are sceptical. A report by Parliaments defence committee earlier this year doubted whether the plan will meet Britains security needs.下个月,中将尼克卡特爵士将以总参谋长的身份接管。该部队的新上司也是其缔造者:为了节省53亿英镑,他修订了一个计划,在2018年将全职的士兵从10,200削减到82,000人。但是有人也存在质疑。议会的防卫委员会今年早期的一个报告质疑该计划是否满足英国的国防需要。According to a senior British officer in Afghanistan, the army at first wished to restructure the infantry by cutting two Scottish battalions. That suggestion caused a row and is no longer on the table. Instead some battalions will have fewer regular soldiers. During operations numbers will be boosted by paired reservist units providing up to one rifleman in three. Overall, across the army, reservist numbers will increase from 19,000 to 30,000.阿富汗的一位英国高级官员表明,部队首先希望能够通过削减两个苏格兰军营的人数而达到重建步兵团的目的,这一建议引起了人们的愤怒最终没有付诸实施。相反,某些军营的正规士兵少之又少。在军事行动中,加入预备役部队,士兵数量飙升,其中三个人里面就有一个是步兵。总的来说,全军的预备役军人数将从19,000 上升到 30,000。Reservists can work well. Lieutenant Colonel Graham Johnson, commanding officer of a medical regiment in Afghanistan, said part-timers make up 10% of his unit. “The military offer a lot of leadership skills and development at the lower level,” he explains. “And we benefit from their clinical competence.” But with infantry the situation is trickier. There are too few reservists, and many are unable to drop their civilian jobs at short notice. Regular commanders calling on their reservists could receive fewer than they need.预备役军人也能做得很好。阿富汗医疗团的指挥官格雷姆·约翰中尉称,他的单位兼职人员占了10%。他解释道“军队提供了大量的领导技能和低水平的发展,我们从他们完善的医疗能力中获益匪浅。”但是在预备役中,这种情况更为棘手。几乎没有预备军人,许多都无法一得到通知就停止原有的普通工作。正规军的司令认为预备军人拿到的工资可能比所需的更少。The army has advertised heavily for reservists, and increased the bounties paid to regular soldiers leaving the army who join the part-timers. But Britain lacks the legal and cultural apparatus to sustain a large reserve. In America part-time soldiers who fail to show up face serious sanctions; employers keep reservists jobs open. By contrast the British Territorial Army, recently renamed the “Army Reserve”, has been a more amateur affair, regarded by some as a drinking club. One London-based reservist, who has completed an Afghanistan tour, wryly said his bosses regard him as comparable to a maternity risk.军队强烈宣传预备役招兵,并提高了正规军退役成为兼职军人的奖金金额。但是英国缺乏法律和文化制约来维持大量的预备役。在美国,兼职军人没有按时报到会受到严厉的制裁;雇主也为现役军人大开大门。相比而言,最近被更名为“陆军预备役”的英国的地方自卫队更多的是一种业余的工作,被有些人与酒吧一类的场所相提并论。一位伦敦的预备役军人,刚刚结束了阿富汗之旅,讽刺地说他的老板们对他的重视程度不亚于妇。A recent survey showed that only 42% of regular soldiers who had worked with reservists saw them as professional. Even fewer thought they were well integrated. “The army know they have to be seen to make the arrangement with the reserves work, although privately they doubt that it will”, says Professor Michael Clarke, director-general of the Royal ed Services Institute, a defence think-tank.最近一项研究表明,与预备役军人工作过的正规军,只有42%认为他们是职业军人。几乎没有人认为自己能够融入这个团体。皇家国防联合务研究所的专家迈克尔·克拉克表示,“军队知道自己必须要做得看起来为预备役做得安排有成效,尽管私底下他们也对此很怀疑” 。The reforms could also create fissures among full-time soldiers. Under the plans, the army will be split into “reactive” and “adaptive” forces. The reactive sides job is conventional fighting, though it will have fewer tanks than formerly. The adaptive force will sit at lower iness. It will train foreign troops, something “the British military has done ever since the early days of empire”, says General Sir Peter Wall, the current chief of the general staff.该改革也可能在全职军人中引起纷争。军队按计划将被分为“作战型”和“防御型”两种。反抗性部队的工作是传统的打仗,,尽管其所拥有的坦克与之前比起来没有差别。而适应性部队的准备机能较低。它将训练外国部队,当前的总参谋长皮特·瓦尔称其有点像“英国军队自帝国早期就开始做的那样”。Because the reactive force will be first to deploy to a major crisis, the new system risks creating a two-tier army. The problem is potentially acute in the Royal Armoured Corps, operators of Britains tanks. Regiments there will be permanently streamed to the reactive or adaptive forces, with fewer opportunities to cross-post soldiers than in larger infantry outfits with feet in both camps. Adding this fuel to the existing rivalries between regiments is a risk.因为反抗性军队将会率先部署解决一个主要的危机,新体制创造一个两层的军队结构。潜伏在皇家坦克部队,即英国坦克部队的问题非常尖锐。部队自此将分为作战型部队和防御型部队,而那些夹在中间的士兵的机会就比擅长两种作战方式的少了许多。将这一计划用在军队上无疑会加剧危险。But the most obvious change to the armed forces is a straightforward one: Britain will probably not be engaged in a major foreign war in the near future. That may hamper recruiting. It will also divide those entitled to wear operational-services medals and those who are not. This is why officers are keen to get whatever residual action they can. “There were very competent guys who I went through training with who were just unfortunate, they didnt go to the right place at the right time and they didnt get an operational tour,” says Lieutenant Hill. Still, he knows his billet is more comfortable than his predecessors endured. He regrets the fact that, since he is based in Camp Bastion rather than an austere forward base, he can go to a shop and eat an ice cream.但是军队最明显的改变是非常直截了当的:英国可能在近期不会再加入大型的境外战争。这可能会影响新兵征募。这也会将那些参加过实战的军人和未参加过的分开来。这就是为什么军官非常热衷于参加剩下的战斗的原因。赫尔中尉说,“和我一起训练过的战友都是很有能力的,但是不幸的是,他们不能在合适的时间去到合适的地方,因而无法参加实战”。而且,他认为自己目前的宿舍比之前的人更为舒适。他感到遗憾的是,自从他从严峻的前线基地回到堡垒军营以后,他竟然可以去商店买冰淇淋吃了。 /201408/323654One of the least pleasant things about being human is the appearance at adolescence of pimples. 最恼人的一件事就是青春期脸上长痘痘。 Not only do they make their entrance just at the time when people are most self-conscious, but they come and go for the rest of your life. 在人们最有自我意识的时候会冒痘痘,而且痘痘可能会在你脸上保留一辈子。It would almost be better to have a hairy face. 也许脸上长满毛会更好。Ironically, the general covering of our bodies in hair---what we call ;fur; on other animals---is at the root of our problem with acne. 讽刺的是,我们身上的体毛,就是我们所说的其他动物的“皮毛”——就是我们脸上长粉刺的根源所在。In the course of evolution human beings lost their entirely hairy faces and now have a lot of exposed skin there: even a bearded man with bushy eyebrows has much of his face bare. 在进化的过程中,人类完全失去了他们毛茸茸的面孔,进而暴露出大部分的皮肤:甚至是浓眉大眼的长满胡须的男人,他的脸都是光滑的。The structures in the facial skin that once gave rise to hair, however, have not disappeared entirely: many still contain tiny vestigial hairs which do not grow. 面部皮肤结构一旦催生出毛发,就不能完全消失:很多还包含着微小残留的长不出来的毛发。That means there is nothing to open up the pore itself; and that means the pore is a great place for oils, dirt and bacteria to get clogged. 那就意味着和毛孔本身无关,而且意味着毛孔能被油脂,污垢和细菌堵塞。You can get zits anywhere vestigial follicles become clogged. 残留毛囊堵塞的地方就会长有青春痘。The big culprit on faces, though, isnt dirt so much as an internally-produced substance called sebum that makes the skin cells shed inside the pores. 不过脸部的罪魁祸首与其说是不干净,倒不如说是一种内部产生的物质,皮脂,使得皮肤毛孔内的细胞脱落。These dead cells, unable to flake away, collect until they become an irritation to the pore. 这些死细胞,无法自动脱落,一直累积直到其对毛孔产生刺激作用。At this point the body reacts in a miniature version of the way it deals with any other invasion: it sends white blood cells to the site to attack the invading body. 此时人体会减弱其他任何形式的入侵,从而它会将白细胞送至机体来抵抗受侵细胞。The result is a mild inflammation at the scene of battle. That inflammation is the zit. 结果就是轻度炎症在作怪。而那炎症就是青春痘。So evolution, while having cleaned our hairy faces, gave us pimply skin instead. 所以进化在清理我们多毛的面孔的同时,也会使我们的皮肤长有粉刺。201308/252859

This may look like a safari through the African savanna. In fact its a theme park in Florida. And it allows people to experience a world outside their own. In some ways, they are visiting a land from another time. 这可能看起来像穿越非洲大草原的远征队。但事实上,这是在佛罗里达的一个主题公园。在这里,人们可以感受他们生活圈子外面的世界。换言之,他们在参观一片异界大陆。 14 thousand years ago, large parts of North Americas landscape and wildlife were just like the savanna of modern Africa. 14000年前,北美大陆的大部分地区和野生生物就想是如今的非洲大草原With the stretch our imagination, we can still put ourselves in the shoes of the first people who explored that vast dramatic landscape and encountered giants never seen before.随着我们移民的扩张,我们还可以继我们先人的路来继续探索大片未发现的大陆,并会发现很多以前没发现的大型动物。 In this series we have seen how fossil bones and other evidence can provide clues to that distant past, and that evidence has helped to recreate a continent no longer exists, a lost wild new world. 在本系列中,我们已经知道了如何用化石等线索探索哦我们遥远的过去,通过这些线索,我们重新创造在了一个早已不复存在的大陆——一个遗失的野生动物世界。And you can find out more about the wild new world and the wildlife of prehistoric North America right now. Put your questions to the programmes producers, live at www.bbc.co.UK/nature.现在,你可以找到更多有关野生动物新世界以及史前北美野生动物的信息。将你的问题发给我们节目的主编,请登录www.bbc.co.UK/nature。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201401/273844Science and technology科学技术Modelling tsunamis模拟海啸The dangers of insularity岛国的危险Islands may amplify the biggest waves, not break them岛屿可能会增强海啸,而不会减弱海啸SURFERS shun beaches shielded by islands off the coast.冲浪者不会去海中的岛屿的沙滩上去冲浪。That, as generations of swarthy, golden-haired hulks will tell you, is because such islands create a natural breakwater.一代又一代的金发肤色黝黑的冲浪者会告诉你,那是因为这类小岛形成天然的防波堤。This dampens waves and makes for a boringly calm surf best left to sunbathers.这类岛屿的沙滩海浪较小,海面很平静,最适合晒日光浴的人了。The surfers’ reasoning is sound for the short-wave, wind-generated swells that they ride.较短、由风产生浪比较适合冲浪,对于这种浪来说,这种解释很合理。But Themistoklis Stefanakis, of the Ecole Normale Superieure in Cachan, France, warns it may not be true for the longer wavelengths of tsunamis.但是,来自法国卡尚高等师范学校Themistoklis Stefanakis警告说,对于波浪较长的海啸来说,就不一样了。As he and his colleagues show in a paper posted on arXiv, an online repository, littoral islands may actually exacerbate, rather than diminish, the effects of these waves.如Themistoklis Stefanakis跟他的同事在线数据库arXiv发表的文章中所描述的的那样:实际上沿海的岛屿可能会增强长波浪的强度,而不是减弱。Anecdotal evidence for this counterintuitive assertion comes from episodes where the same tsunami has battered different types of coastal topography.这种违反直觉的判断的轶事据来自很少见的现象—同一海啸会造成不同的海岸地貌。In 2010, for instance, when one hit the Mentawai islands in Indonesia, areas of coastline directly behind islets bore the brunt of the damage, according to Costas Synolakis, a tsunami expert at the University of Southern California who is one of the study’s co-authors.例如,2010年印度尼西亚明达威岛遭遇的海啸,明达威岛后的海岸区域的破坏的最为严重,南加州大学的海啸专家Costas Synolakis这样说道,他是这篇文章的作者之一。Dr Synolakis, Mr Stefanakis and their colleagues decided to try to put numbers on their hunch.士Synolakis Mr Stefanakis及他们的同事,决定验这个设想。Rather than valiantly staking out seafront locales, though, they tested the idea with a computer model.他们想到用电脑模拟的方法来实验,而不是在海岸实验。This is harder than it sounds.实际做起来要比听起来难很多。Simulating the way waves behave as they make landfall means taking account of, literally, oceans of data.要模拟当海浪到大陆地时海浪的运动就意味着要严格地考虑到海洋的信息。To simplify the problem, the researchers looked at what happens when a computerised wave encounters a cone-shaped island on a smoothly sloping seabed in front of a straight cyber-coastline with a beach that continues to rise smoothly as it progresses inland.为了简化问题,在带有海滩的笔直虚拟海岸线可平滑上升的情况下,研究人员观察当模拟的的海浪在平滑的斜海床上与锥形岛屿相遇时,会发生什么。These approximations allow a computer to cope with the problem, yet are sufficiently similar to many real places for the conclusions drawn from them to, as it were, hold water.电脑在处理这类问题时,这种近似可以忽略,然而这跟之前认为得减弱海浪的结论已经很相似了.The team made their virtual islet jut out of the ocean to an altitude of 100 metres, a typical height above sea level for such outcrops.研究组将模拟的岛屿拉高到海平面100米的位置,许多岛屿超出海平面也就是100米。They then looked at 200 combinations of gradients for the sides of the island, the seabed and the beach; the distance between the island and the beach; and the wavelength of the encroaching tsunami.他们将岛屿、海床、沙滩的的倾斜度,岛屿和沙滩的距离,海啸的波长做了200种组合来实验观察。In none of these did an island offer any succour to the coastline behind it. Instead, it acted as a lens, focusing the wave’s destructive power and amplifying its size by between 5% and 70%.没有一类能有助于减弱海啸。实际上,它好比一个透镜,将海浪的破坏力聚集起来,并且扩大5%-70%。The upshot is that, far from shielding a coastline, offshore islands can make things worse—information that should be incorporated into tsunami evacuation plans.结果是。沿海的岛屿不会保护海岸区域不受破坏,反而会让其更糟。这在海啸救援中应当将其考虑在内。For if a big wave is coming, running from it is not enough. You also have to know how far to run before it is safe to stop.如果海啸来临,跑是不够的。还应该知道跑多远才是安全的。 /201311/264580When you think of hair loss you probably think of men, unless that is, you are one of the twenty million women in the U.S. who suffer from hair loss.当想到掉头发你可能认为那是男人的专利,但你可能就是美国二千万遭受脱发之苦女性中的一人。Though hair loss in men is a common subject for television commercials as well as fodder for television sitcoms, womens hair loss is so stigmatized its hardly talked about at all. 虽然男性脱发是电视广告中常见的宣传主题以及电视情景喜剧的笑料,但女性的脱发是如此受指责以致于很少有谈论的机会。The most common form of hair loss in women is Androgenetic Alopecia or what is known as female pattern baldness.最常见的女性掉头发是雄激素性脱发或所谓的女性秃头。It accounts for over ninety-five percent of incidents of hair loss in women.它是超过百分之九十五女性掉头发的主要原因。And like male pattern baldness it has a large genetic predisposition, and it involves androgen and DHT.就像男性秃头一样在很大程度上取决于遗传因素,涉及雄激素和二氢睾酮在内。Androgen is a male hormone that all men and women produce.睾酮是一种所有男人和女人都会产生的雄性激素。Androgen in turn produces a chemical called dihydrotestosterone, more easily remembered as DHT.相应地雄激素会产生一种叫做二氢睾酮的化学物质,为了方便,它被称为DHT。DHT in excess causes hair follicles to make thinner and thinner hair until they eventually stop making hair altogether.过剩DHT导致毛囊的头发越来越薄,直到头发最终完全停止生长。A significant difference between womens and mens hair loss though is that women dont typically get bald spots or receding hairlines, but they more often experience a general thinning of their hair.女性和男性掉头发的明显区别是虽然女性通常不会有秃头斑或发际线后退,但她们则会更经常感到头发稀疏。Some women do lose hair, but at the top of the heads and at the sides.一些女性掉头发是从头的顶部及两边开始。Another difference is that male pattern baldness can begin at puberty whereas female pattern baldness usually begins around the age of thirty, and it often gets worse with the onset of menopause.另一个区别是男性脱发可以开始在青春期而女性通常是在30岁的时候,常常会伴随更年期的开始而加剧。There are treatments out there, but one should be wary of phonies and of products that work for men, but can be harmful to women.的确有治疗的方法,但女性应该想到对男性有效的产品往往对自己则不利。As usual, its wise to consult a physician about treatment.像往常一样,咨询医生才是最明智的方法。 201310/262186

Commerzbank德国商业Das slog步履维艰The second-biggest bank in Europes strongest economy still faces an uphill task欧洲最强经济体的第二大仍然面对提高业绩任务。Jul 27th 2013 | Berlin |From the print editionCOMMERZBANKS marketing materials show a woman running in a grey, hooded jumper, headphones in her ears. Her eyes are locked on the path ahead in determination to finish her workout. This is probably meant to flatter the banks customers as gritty and hard-working. But it is a better metaphor for the bank itself. It is on a long, hard road back to health, a journey that exemplifies the painful reshaping of Europes troubled banking system to be smaller, safer and more domestic.德国商业的营销材料上画着一名女子,身穿灰色衣跑步,带着连衣帽,耳朵里塞着耳机。眼神坚毅,死死盯着前方的路,志在完成自己的锻炼计划。这可能是在讨好自己的客户,暗指他们都是坚韧不拔,工作勤奋。但是这个隐喻或许更贴合自身的实际。德国商业离回到良性发展还有很长的路。这是欧洲陷入危机的体系转向更小,更安全和更本土化的痛苦转型的很好的例。Commerzbanks initial trajectory through the crisis resembles that of another European lender, Britains Lloyds Banking Group (LBG). Like LBG, it was a big bank but not the biggest in the country—Deutsche Bank is Germanys colossus. Like Lloyds, it undertook a disastrous domestic transaction at the worst possible time, buying Dresdner Bank in the summer of 2008 just weeks before LBG gobbled up HBOS. And like the British bank, it quickly ended up tapping state coffers to survive.德国商业度过危机的初始轨迹很想另一家欧洲,英国的劳埃德斯集团。跟劳埃德斯一样,德国商业是本国的一家大型,但却不是最大的,德国最大的是德意志。德国商业同样经历了一次灾难性的国内收购。它在2008年夏天买下了德累斯顿,这是在劳埃德斯吞并苏格兰哈利法斯克几周之后。同样的,很快以向国库求救自保结束。The parallels between the two are less obvious now. LBGs shares have risen by 33% in the past three months, and by 133% in the past year. The banks share price hovers just below the price the British government paid to buy its 39% stake, which will soon be sold. Things look far less fizzy at Commerzbank. At the time of the rescue deal the banks boss, Martin Blessing, declared that state ownership should last a maximum of 36 months. More than four years on, its shares still lag the broader index of European banks; its price-to-book ratio is one of the lowest on the continent (see chart). Its 2012 net profit came in at a mere 6m euros(7.7m dollars).两者现在的处境有所不同。劳埃德斯的股价在过去的三个月中上涨了33%,在去年上涨了133%。该的股价稍稍低于英国政府购买其39%股份时的价格,英国政府很快就会将这笔股份卖掉。德国商业的处境则要惨得多。德国政府救助与其交易的时候,老板Martin Blessing说,国有权最多持续36个月。而现在,四年过去了,其股价仍旧低于欧洲的大盘指数。其市净率在欧洲处于最低水平。而在2012年的净利润也只有600万欧(770万美元)。Rumours that the German government might sell its 17% stake to a foreign bank were scotched this week. Newspapers speculate whether the bank might exit the DAX, the countrys benchmark stockmarket index, leaving Deutsche as the only member bank. Deutsche itself still labours to plump up its own thin capital cushion.本周,德国政府出售其控股的17%给一家外国的谣言四起。媒体纷纷推测德国商业会不会退出德国DAX指数,这样该指数就只剩德意志一家股了。德意志也忙着增加其缓冲资金。Commerzbank can point to several forces beyond its control. The euro-zone crisis weighs heavily. The restructuring of Greek government debt handed it a big loss. Historically low interest rates have depressed income. Competition from Germanys many small savings banks and co-operatives puts pressure on fees; online banks are adding to the pressure. A downturn in shipbuilding has hit Commerzbanks big portfolio of loans in that industry. The Basel 3 rules have prompted the bank to retain capital rather than dole it out to shareholders. (The bank estimates that its Tier-1 core capital ratio under Basel 3 is 8.4% after a May capital-raising.)德国商业能将原因归咎于几个它无法控制的因素。欧元区危机无疑是最大的因素。希腊政府债务重组给其造成了重大损失。史上最低的利率也减少了其收入。来自德国的许多小型储蓄的竞争也使其降低自身费用,网上也增加了其压力。造船业的衰退也使得其在造船业德组合贷款业务受到沉重打击。巴塞尔3资本规定使得德国商业只能保留资本,而不能发放给股东。(估计,在巴塞尔3规定下,其一级核心资本比率在五月融资之后达到8.4%)For one bank to have had so much bad luck prompts the question of just how much carelessness, not misfortune, is to blame. Like many European banks, both Commerzbank and Dresdner invested in subprime-mortgage-backed assets before the crisis. And like many of its continental peers, the bank was also a big international lender against chunky assets in areas like shipping, aviation and property. About a quarter of its 18.3 billion euros shipping portfolio is non-performing; it is expected to take a charge against lending in Detroit when it next reports results.对于一家来说,这么多倒霉事儿遇到一起,只能怪其太粗心,而不能说太不幸了。跟许多其他欧洲一样,德国商业和德累斯顿在危机之前都投资了次贷资产。这个也借贷给船舶业,航空业和房地产业。其在船舶业投资达183亿欧,其中有四分之一毫无收益,等下次报告出来该行有可能向底特律的借贷提起指控。Analysts want Commerzbank to keep shedding these “non-core” assets, which stood at 151 billion euros at the end of 2012. Some are easier to offload than others. Holdings of peripheral euro-zone government bonds can be gently unwound by letting them run off. But shipping and property loans are longer-term and less liquid, which is why they are now being treated more harshly under the Basel 3 rules. Commerzbank did this month at last manage to sell the British operations of EuroHypo, its commercial-property arm.分析员希望德国商业能放弃非核心资产,这些在2012年底占到1510亿欧。有些很容易脱手。所持欧元区其他国家政府的债券会轻微受损。但是船舶业和房地产业的贷款是长期的,流动性也差,这也是在巴塞尔3规则下更严厉的原因。德国商业这个月末最终准备卖掉欧洲抵押的英国公司,其商业地产分。As Commerzbank slims down these parts of its balance-sheet, a more Germanic lender is slowly emerging. The strategy is plausible. The combination with Dresdner gave Commerzbank an enviably big retail-branch network and customer base in Europes strongest economy. The Mittelstandsbank, the division lending to Germanys small and medium-sized, mostly family-owned businesses, is in decent health: 30% of Mittelstand companies are customers, and the pre-tax return on equity in this unit was 28.6% in 2012, against 3.1% for the group overall. As these firms go into global markets, where savings banks cannot follow, Commerzbank has a shot at boosting its business with them. Expansion in Poland looks sensible.随着德国商业将这些从资产负债表中除去,一个更德国的借贷者出现了。这个战略看起来是有效的。跟德累斯顿的合并会使得德国商业在欧洲最强经济体拥有一个令人羡慕的大型零售网络和顾客基础。中小企业掌管德国的中小企业贷款业务,这些中小企业中很多都是家族企业,2012年,这一业务的税前回报为28.6%,整体业务只有3.1%的回报。随着这些企业的国际化,储蓄就无能为力了。德国商业有意拓展跟他们的业务。在波兰的扩张看起来很有用。Yet the bank is still some way from turning this vision into reality. A banking consultant quips that the maths of the Dresdner deal amount to “one plus one equals one”. And a domestic focus has its downsides. Fierce local competition from the savings banks and co-operatives will not go away. Nor will the drag from the euro zones economic prospects: interest rates will remain low as long as inflation stays subdued.然而,德国商业还是应该回到现实。一个业顾问指出,这次的德累斯顿交易是一次亏本买卖。国内的重点业务呈下降趋势。来自储蓄的激烈的本地竞争不会停止。欧元区的经济预期是只要通货膨胀得到抑制,利率将会持续走低。这也会拖累复兴。So Mr Blessing and his team have little choice but to concentrate on the nuts and bolts. That includes making more cuts in branches and staff (branches have aly fallen from about 1,500 to 1,200), controlling their tempo so that the bank can reap savings without battering its franchise. One part of this is greater flexibility in the offerings at each branch. Not every location needs an expert in everything; more advice can be given online or over the phone. Another is growth in its online division, comdirect. Commerzbank has the scale to build a sophisticated offering; savings banks and co-operatives may not.因此,Blessing先生跟他的团队没有多大选择,只能是集中精力做好细节工作。包括减少分机构,裁员(分机构已经从1500个减少到1200个了),控制好节奏,只有这样才能从存款中获利,并且不影响其经营。这在各分有很大的灵活性。不是每个地方都需要专家,可以通过电话或者网络提供建议。还有一个是网上分的增加。德国商业能提供各种复杂的务,但是储蓄则不能。Such strengths should eventually return Commerzbank to fitness. But the miserable share price suggests that investors expect a period of plodding before it is back to running at full tilt.这些措施应该最终能使得德国商业回到正轨。但是其可怜的股价意味着投资者期望其走出困境之前有一段时间的辛勤工作。 /201308/250788Science and technology科学技术Marine biology海洋生物Flea market跳蚤市场A newly discovered virus may be the most abundant organism on the planet一种新发现的病毒可能是地球上最丰富的物种。WHAT is the commonest living thing on Earth?地球上最常见的生物是什么?Until now, those in the know would probably have answered Pelagibacter ubique, the most successful member of a group of bacteria, called SAR11, that jointly constitute about a third of the single-celled organisms in the ocean.直到现在,那些很专业的人可能会说是遍在远洋杆菌—细菌群中最成功的细菌,称为大洋微小细菌,占了海洋单细胞有机体的三分之一。But this is not P. ubiques only claim to fame, for unlike almost every other known cellular creature, it and its relatives have seemed to be untroubled by viruses.但是,这不是它成名的原因,因为它和它的亲戚不像其它大部分已知的细胞生物,它们似乎是些不会给你造成麻烦的一族。As Jonathan Swift put it in a much-mised poem, So, naturalists observe, a flea/Hath smaller fleas that on him prey.就像乔纳森-斯威福特的一首诗表达的一样—虽然这里引用很不贴切,所以,物学家们观察,正在捕食的跳蚤/小跳蚤们。Parasites, in other words, are everywhere.换句话说,寄生虫无所不在。They are also, usually, more abundant than their hosts.通常,它们的数量也远远多于它们的寄主。An astute observer might therefore have suspected that the actual most-common species on Earth would be a flea that parasitised P. ubique, rather than the bacterium itself.精明的观察者可能因此会猜测,地球上真正最常见的特种是一种跳蚤—寄生的遍生远洋杆菌,而不是细菌本身。The absence of such fleas has puzzled virologists since 1990, when the SAR11 group was identified.自从1990年研究SAR11组群以来,病毒学家对没有发现这种跳蚤—即以所谓攻击细菌的噬菌体的形式存在—而感到很困惑。Some thought the advantage this absence conferred explained the groups abundance. But no.一些人认为没有发现这种组群的好处解释了它们之所以大量存在的原因。但是,事实不是这样的。As they report in this weeks Nature, Stephen Giovannoni of Oregon State University and his colleagues have discovered the elusive phages.正如本周自然杂志上刊登的一样,俄勒冈州立大学的斯蒂芬尼-乔凡诺尼和他的同事们发现了这种难以发现的噬菌体。Swifts wisdom, it seems, still holds good.看起来,斯威福特的智慧仍旧闪闪发光。Tracking down a particular virus in the ocean makes finding a needle in a haystack look a trivial task.与在海洋中跟踪一种特定的细菌相比,大海捞针简直是小菜一碟了。A litre of seawater has billions of viruses in it.一公升的海水中有数十亿的细菌。Modern genetic techniques can obtain DNA sequences from these viruses, but that cannot tie a particular virus to a particular host.现代基因技术可以猎取这些细菌的DAN序列,但是却不能把一种特定的细菌固定在一个特定的寄主身上。To do so, Dr Giovannoni borrowed a technique from homeopathy: he diluted some seawater to such an extent that, statistically speaking, he expected a 100-microlitre-sized ali to contain only one or two viruses.为了实现这个目标,乔凡诺尼士借用了顺势医疗论的一项技术:他把一些海水的浓度稀释到,从统计学角度上讲,即稀释后的100微升海水中只含有一种或两种病毒。The difference between his approach and a homeopaths was that what homeopathy dilutes almost to nothing are chemicals, and thus cannot breed. A virus can, given a suitable host.他的方法和顺势疗法的区别是,后者将药液稀释后几乎没有什么合成物了,因此也无法培育繁殖。而提供一个合适的寄主的话,病菌就可以继续繁殖。So he mixed each of several hundred alis into tubes of water containing P. ubique.因此,他把稀释后的海水分成几百份,再把每一份混合到含有遍在海洋杆菌的水里。Then he waited.然后他就等待着。After 60 hours, he looked to see what had happened.六十小时后,他看到了结果。In most cases the bacteria had thrived.在大部分试验品中,病菌都繁殖得很好。In a few, though, they had been killed by what looked like viral infection.但是,在少数的试验品中,病菌似乎由于某种病毒感染而消失了。It was these samples that he ran through the DNA-sequencing machine, in the knowledge that the only viral DNA present would be from whatever it was had killed the bacteria.这些少数试验品就是他用DNA测序仪检测,想知道仅有的病毒DNA,无论是不是它杀了病菌,为什么会出现的原因。His reward was to find not one, but four viruses that parasitise P. ubique.他最终发现了不只一种病菌,而是四种寄生的遍海洋杆菌。He then compared their DNA with databases of DNA found in seawater from around the world, to find out how abundant each is.后来,他把发现病菌的DNA与世界海洋的DNA数据库相对比,发现:The upshot was that a virus dubbed HTVC010P was the commonest.四种中的每一个的存在数量都非常多。It thus displaces its host as the likely winner of the most-common-living-thing prize.结果是,一种称为HTVC010P人病菌是最常见的。因此,它便取代了它的寄主,成为可能最常见的生物。That does depend, of course, on your definition of living thing.当然,这不是你们所定义的那种生物。Some biologists count viruses as organisms.一些生物学家认为病菌是微生物。Some do not.一些则不这么认为。The reason is that a virus relies for its growth and reproduction on the metabolic processes of the cell it infects.原因是,病菌依靠它所感染细胞的新陈代谢来生长和繁殖。This means viruses themselves are hard to parasitise, since they do no work on which another organism can free-ride.这就意味着病毒本身很难寄生,因为在其它可以免费寄生的微生物上它们无法正常生存。Which is why the next two lines of Swifts poem, And these have smaller fleas to bite em/And so proceed ad infinitum, are wrong—and why, because HTVC010P itself can have no parasites, it probably really is the commonest organism on the planet.这也解释了为什么斯威失特接下来的两句这些更小的跳蚤在咬它们,因此这些进程循环往复着是错误的,也是HTVC010P为什么是地球上最常见的微生物,因为它本身没有寄生虫。 /201312/269447

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