乌鲁木齐米东区去红血丝价格美丽卫生

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 乌鲁木齐米东区去红血丝价格同城乐园
German macroprudential reforms德国的宏观审慎改革Beware Teutonic caution谨防日耳曼式谨小慎微The Bundesbank should not exert its new clout too zealously德国央行新令牌在握,切莫肆意呼风唤雨THE European Central Bank (ECB) decided a year ago to hold this week’s monetary-policy meeting in Barcelona, but the timing turned out to be perfect. Spain is in the crosshairs of the markets, not least because of budgetary overruns by regional governments such as Catalonia’s. And the contrasting economic fortunes of beaten-up Spain, where the jobless rate has reached 24%, and resilient Germany, where it is below 6%, exemplify the difficulty of finding the right monetary policy in a currency union of 17 members.欧洲中央(ECB)早在一年前就决定了将于本周在巴塞罗那召开货币政策会议,现今看来,会议召开的恰是时候。现在的西班牙正处在市场的风口浪尖,特别是因为加泰罗尼亚等自治区政府的预算超才导致了西班牙到了这般田地。同德国相比,西班牙经济死气沉沉,失业率飙升至24%;德国经济稳步反弹,失业率则低于6%。如此鲜明的对比恰也印了,在这个由17名成员组成的货币区内制定出一项正确的货币政策确实不易。The ECB’s meeting on May 3rd (after The Economist went to press) was not expected to change its monetary stance. Behind the scenes, however, there are acute tensions within its 23-strong governing council, made up of six board members and the heads of the 17 national central banks. In particular Jens Weidmann, the president of the powerful German Bundesbank, opposed the decision to cut interest rates to 1% in December, and frets about the adequacy of the collateral against which the ECB has lent so much money to banks in recent months.货币政策会议在本期《经济学人》付梓之际尚未召开。预计欧洲央行不会在5月3日召开的会议上改变其货币政策。然而在幕后,各委员的意见却是针锋相对;欧洲央行管理委员会共由6名欧洲中央执行委员会成员和17名欧元区成员国央行行长组成,在这23人的委员会中,唯独德国联邦行长权利较大,而最为不满的人也正是他。早在去年12月,他就曾反对欧洲央行将利率下调至1%的决议,近几个月来,频频以抵押物换取欧洲央行贷款,更是引起了魏德曼对欧洲央行所持巨额资金抵押品的堪忧。Among other things Germany’s top central banker wants to avoid a home replay of the credit and property boom whose excesses have been so harmful in Spain. Loose monetary policy makes him nervous about the possibility of a property bubble in Germany. After a long period when house prices fell and then stagnated, they have picked up in the past couple of years (see chart). Homebuilding orders are up by a fifth on a year ago.超额的信贷和过度繁荣房地产已经令西班牙元气大伤,德国央行行长也是极力避免在这两个领域步入其后尘。宽松的货币政策令魏德曼惴惴不安,唯恐低息环境滋生德国房地产泡沫。德国房价曾一度下跌,经过了漫长的萧条期后,终于在过去的几年里开始攀升(见上图)。房地产开发订单在一年前更是提升了五分之一。Such anxiety looks premature: house-price rises represent a thawing in the property permafrost rather than a market on fire. But if Mr Weidmann is minded to take pre-emptive action, he will soon have the means to do so. At present the Bundesbank can preach about risks to financial stability but it cannot impose counter-measures such as setting higher capital requirements for banks or putting constraints on specific types of lending such as mortgages. The authority for implementing these steps lies with BaFin, Germany’s bank supervisor (which is assisted on the ground by Bundesbank staff).魏德曼的焦躁之态未免有点操之过急:房价攀升仅表示冰冻的房地产市场正逐步回暖,而非过热。但是,若魏德曼先生有先发制人之意,他不久就会拿到行事之器。联邦目前尚可大肆鼓吹金融稳定性的危险,但却不能将对抗措施强加于人——如调高的资本要求,或限制抵押贷款等特定贷款项目。上述措施能否顺利实施,取决于德国联邦金融监管局(BaFin)。而在实际操作中,这个德国的监管机构却是由联邦员工协助运转。This will change under new proposals to set up a joint committee, which will have representatives from the finance ministry and BaFin, but which will give the Bundesbank the leading role and enable it to push through binding directives. The legislation won’t come into force until next year, but since it is designed to strengthen his hand, Mr Weidmann would probably be able to get his own way before then.然而,建议成立联合委员会的新提案一经提出,形势又将大有不同。要成立联合委员会,须有财政部和监管局(BaFin)的代表参与;监管局(BaFin)代表加入委员会后必定会将大权递交至联邦手中,让提案突破约束指令顺利通过。可立法明年才会生效,但鉴于立法旨在坚固魏德曼的权力,魏先生也有可能在立法生效前为所欲为。The reform is part of a general move to add “macroprudential” instruments to the toolkit of central banks, allowing them to choke off credit excesses while monetary policy is set for the economy as a whole. If anything, Germany is ting less far down this path than some other countries—in Britain, for example, the Bank of England will call the shots through a powerful new Financial Policy Committee, which has aly started work. Such powers should be particularly useful in the euro area, providing countries with a national lever to pull if their banks are getting too festive (though Spain’s pre-crisis policy of “dynamic provisioning”, designed to get local banks to set aside more provisions in the good times, cautions against investing too much hope in macroprudential tools).欧元区各大央行欲将“宏观审慎”工具纳入自己的政策工具包,上述改革不过是扩充工具包大行动的一部分而已。这样一来,一旦欧洲央行制定的货币政策适合于整个欧元区,各成员国央行便可用它来抑制信贷超额。德国的改革远不如其他国家进行的彻底,举英国为例,英国央行就已借助强大的新金融政策委员会开始宏观审慎监管。西班牙对过多寄希望于宏观审慎手段持谨慎态度,特意制定了一项“动态准备金”预防制度,该制度要求地方在经济形势大好时大量计提准备金。尽管如此,在欧元区使用“宏观审慎”还是尤为有效,欧元区国家可在信贷过热时,利用这一操纵杠杆对进行控制。But in the current climate there is also the danger that such regulations may be used in bigger economies to grab back power from the ECB. By reducing credit availability national central banks can contravene the euro zone’s wider monetary stance. Speaking in New York in late April Mr Weidmann said that if monetary policy becomes too expansionary for his home country, “Germany has to deal with this using other, national instruments.” If Mr Weidmann does use his new powers overzealously that could dash one of the few remaining hopes for the hard-hit peripheral economies: a strong recovery in the euro area, led by Germany.然而就目前形势而言,更大的经济体为了从欧洲央行手中夺回更多权力,可能会采用“动态准备金”政策。而削减各成员国央行的信贷可获量又有违欧元区的整体货币政策。魏德曼先生上个月在纽约表示,如果欧洲央行的货币政策对德国而言过于宽松,“德国将不得不运用其他国家政策工具来抵消影响。” 欧元区边缘经济体饱受摧残,寄希冀于德国,期待德国能领导欧元区强势反弹。如果魏德曼真用新权力呼风唤雨,则会将这些经济体推向绝望深渊。 翻译:王葭苇译文属译生译世 /201606/450296The Lycaenids are a group of butterflies known commonly as blues, coppers and hairstreaks. 灰蝴蝶是一群被认为有着蓝色,紫铜色,并且翅膀上有细纹的蝴蝶,Most species of Lycaenidbutterflies have evolved close, mutually- beneficial relationshipswith different species of ants.其大部分品种的进化与许多蚂蚁有着亲密无间并且互惠互利的关系。The caterpillars of these butterflies develop special glands that secrete a nectar-like substance toattract ants. 蝴蝶幼虫拥有一种特殊的腺体,The ants swarm all over the caterpillars, drinking the secretion. 它能够分泌如花蜜的甘甜物质来吸引蚂蚁。The ants “milk”secretions from the caterpillars by tickling special glands on the caterpillars with their antennas.蚂蚁将幼虫包围,吮吸这甜美的“蜜”,同时也用自己的触须挠蝴蝶幼虫的腺体。In some Australian species, the attending ants even build thatched or earthen corrals to containthe caterpillars. 澳大利亚有些种类的蚂蚁甚至修建起“茅草屋”或者是“土畜栏”将幼虫圈起来。By day the caterpillars are protected from predators by the corral and the ants.白天的时候,蚂蚁和畜栏保护幼虫不受食肉动物的侵犯,At night the ants herd the caterpillars up a nearby tree to feed on leaves.夜晚时,蚂蚁将幼虫搬离到离树近的地方,幼虫便能用树叶充饥。The ants are like a private army of bodyguards. 蚂蚁就像是私人贴身保镖,Colonies of ants are quite fierce—swarming, bitingor even consuming potentialpredators.并且是十分凶猛的保镖,他们成群结队撕咬甚至是消灭掉潜在的捕食者。In fact, the caterpillars’ sweet secretions are not only nutritious, but also contain chemicals thatsubdue the ants. 事实上,幼虫的分泌物不仅仅是营养丰富,同时也含有一种能够制蚂蚁的化学物质,Otherwise the ants might kill the caterpillars themselves! 不然的话,蚂蚁也会让幼虫致命。Some caterpillars alsomake drumming sounds to keep their attendant ants alert.有些幼虫甚至发出鼓声用以警示蚂蚁。Unprotected caterpillars would make a tasty treat for insect-eaters like birds, frogs or larger insects.未受保护的蝴蝶幼虫对于如鸟类,蛙或者是大一点的昆虫这些食用昆虫的物种来说是一顿美餐。But ants taste bitter or even toxic when eaten. 但如果是吃蚂蚁的话,不仅味道苦涩,甚至还是有毒的。To most predators, a caterpillar covered in ants isabout as appetizing as a candy bar covered in thumbtacks.在食肉动物看来,被蚂蚁包裹着的蝴蝶幼虫就像是包满图钉的糖果。So, the ants benefit from the energy-rich secretions produced by the caterpillars, and thecaterpillars benefit from the antsprotection.就这样,蚂蚁从幼虫的分泌物中摄取营养,而幼虫也正是有了蚂蚁的保护而健康成长。201410/335439

Presidential candidates keep hopping on the bandwagon. Tis the season, after all.But according to a recent survey conducted by the Detroit News and WDIV-TV, Michigan voters are mostly not liking what theyre seeing.The News Lansing reporter, Chad Livengood, tells us that the survey says the established brands – former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and former Florida Gov. Jeb Bush – have an advantage through sheer recognizability, but they also have an ;unfavorable; problem.According to Livengood, when all candidates on the survey were scored on ;favorables; versus ;unfavorables,; the results were skewed toward the latter.;Its just one sign that maybe the public is increasingly disengaged or turned off by whom they see vying to be the next leader of the free world,; Livengood says.Listen to our conversation with Livengood above to learn more about the survey results and what it might mean in the upcoming political landscape.201506/381620Osteoporosis literally means porous bone.骨质疏松从字面意思上讲就是骨组织疏松症状。Osteoporosis is characterized by loss of bone density and the deterioration of bone tissue, which makes bones fragile and more likely to fracture.骨质疏松的特点是骨质密度丧失及骨组织恶化,从而使得骨骼脆弱,更易断裂。The important thing about osteoporosis is figuring out whether youve got it before you injure yourself.而对于这种疾病最重要的一点就是在你弄伤自己前搞清楚你是否已经骨质疏松。And thats pretty easy to do:theres a specialized test that measures bone density, and based on its results, doctors can prescribe various medications to slow the disease down.很容易就可以进行检测:接受专门的骨密度测试,而医生根据结果可以给你开各种药物以延缓疾病。 201501/352522

Sorry, Im late.I was brushing my teeth.对不起,我迟到了。我刚刚刷牙去了!Brushing your teeth! Right before A Moment of Science?Why?刷牙!就在节目开始前!为什么啊?Im trying to get rid of a cavity.防止蛀牙啊!Get rid of a cavity? Are you stuck with a cavity once youhave it?防止蛀牙?你长过蛀牙吗?It depends on how deep it is.这就得看牙被蛀得有多深了。Acid from bacteria in yourmouth can cause your tooth to decay.口腔中的细菌会产生一些腐蚀牙齿的酸性物质。First, the acid eats away the very hard outer layer of yourtooth, called the enamel. Inside the enamel is the dentin.酸性物质会先腐蚀掉牙冠表层的珐琅质(也就是我们所熟知的釉质)。珐琅质所包覆的便是牙本质。Its spongy and has nerve endings, soyour tooth might be sensitive to sweets or cold if the decay reaches there.牙本质不如珐琅质坚硬,其中还含有很多的神经末梢。因而,如果牙本质也受到了腐蚀,牙齿对甜食或是过冷的东西就会很敏感。But the cavity doesnt really start to hurt until it gets through the dentin to the soft pulp. Thatswhen you get a toothache.但是,要等到酸性物质通过牙本质,开始腐蚀牙髓了才会对牙齿造成本质的伤害。这个时候牙齿也就开始疼起来了。Dentists sometimes will fill a cavity by putting in a filling while the decay is still in the enamel.当珐琅质遭到腐蚀时,医生有的时候会采取补牙的方式进行治疗。But decay is reversible until it reaches the dentin. If its properly treated, the decay will stop, and the enamel will harden, although the tooth will never be perfect again.可是,在牙本质遭到腐蚀之前,腐蚀随时都会发生。如果治疗得当,腐蚀将会停止,珐琅质也会重新变硬,美中不足的是,牙齿不会像受腐蚀前那么完美了。So, thats why youre brushing. Can you do anything else to help get rid of a cavity?这就是你刚刚刷牙的原因!你还有其他防蛀牙的办法吗?Dentists can help by giving you a fluoride treatment, but you have to brush and floss regularly.医生还可以为你做氟化物治疗(在蛀牙部位涂上高浓度的氟化物,令初期蛀坏的部分还原),但是,你必须定期洗牙,还要经常使用牙线清洁牙齿。You might have to give up soda and sweets. So its not easy–and dentists know that.另外,什么汽水啊,甜食啊,都必须戒掉。Thats whythey sometimes fill a cavity in its early stages, before it starts to hurt.所以说,做这个治疗并不容易—当然,医生们也是很清楚的。这也是为什么医生会在蛀牙初期的时候为病人补牙,防止酸性物质的继续腐蚀。So, youre not stuck with tooth decay once it happens.Nope. But its better not to let it happen in the first place.这么说,你从来都没有长过蛀牙。当然。但是,“防患于未然”总是好的啊! 201411/344265Britain Sterling英国 英镑Weaker still and weaker屋漏偏逢连天雨The downgrade of British sovereign debt by Moody’s did not spook the markets. But investors were aly worried穆迪公司下调了英国主权债务评级,没有引起市场震荡,但却使投资者忧心忡忡“We will safeguard Britain’s credit rating with a credible plan to eliminate the bulk of the structural deficit over a parliament,” the 2010 Conservative manifesto. Well, so much for that. The decision by Moody’s, one of the three big rating agencies, to downgrade Britain from Aaa to Aa1 on February 22nd was a colossal embarrassment. Moody’s now ranks Britain’s credit lower than that of Luxembourgor the Isle of Man.2010年,保守党宣言称,“我们将通过议会出台一项减免大量结构性赤字的计划来捍卫英国的信誉评级。”但那也只是说说而已。2月22日,三大信誉评级机构之一的穆迪公司,决定把英国债务评级从Aaa下调至Aa1。这项决定让保守党十分尴尬。目前,穆迪公司将英国的信誉评级排在卢森堡和英国的属地曼岛之后。Will the downgrade harm the economy? In the past countries with lower credit ratings have had to pay higher borrowing costs. But neither America, which was downgraded in 2011, or France, which suffered a similar fate last year, have suffered much.这样的信誉评级的下降会对经济造成危害吗? 在过去的几个世纪里,一个拥有低信誉评级的国家只不过意味着他需要付更高的借贷成本。但不论是于2011年遭遇信誉降级的美国还是去年遭受同样命运的法国,却都蒙受了巨大的损失。It is hard to spot an immediate impact in Britain, either. Investors had expected the ratings agencies to act after last year’s autumn statement revealed that the government was struggling to reduce its deficit on schedule. The two other big ratings agencies—Fitch and Standard and Poor’s—both have Britain on “negative watch”.Sterling dropped to a 32-month low against the dollar and reached its weakest level against the euro since October 2011, but gilt yields actually fell.但是要立刻察觉出信誉评级的下调对英国经济产生的影响是很难的。在去年秋天的一份报告中指出英国政府正在按计划努力减少赤字后,投资者都盼望着信誉评级机构对英国会有所改观。但是另两家信誉评级机构惠誉和标准普尔都将英国评级下调至负面展望。英镑兑美元的汇率连续32个月走低,英镑兑欧元的汇率更是在2011年10月跌至历史最低点。国债的收益也有所下跌。Pull back a little, though, and the picture is more worrying. So far the pound is the weakest major currency of 2013. It has fallen even farther than the yen, where the decline had the explicit backing of the Japanese prime minister. In the past few weeks gilt yields have been rising relative to the cost of borrowing of the German government, too.但是,反观过去这段时间的走势,其形势更令人担忧。时下,英镑已算的上是2013年最疲软的货币之一。英镑比日元贬值的更多,但是日元的贬值状况已经得到日本首相详细规划以期有所改善。在过去的几周里,国债的收益有所提升,这与德国的借贷成本的下调不无关系。Several things are making investors wary of British assets. As Moody’s noted in justifying its downgrade, the performance of the economy has been poor; figures released on February 27th showed that GDP had shrunk by 0.3% in the fourth quarter of 2012 and is still 3% smaller than it was in the first quarter of 2008. Growth forecasts for the next few years were lowered in the autumn statement.一些事的存在不得不让投资者对英国资产的态度变得谨慎。就在穆迪声明实英国信誉降级之时,英国经济状况就已经不佳了。2月27日公布的数据显示,2012年第四季度中,英国的GDP缩水了0.3%,相比于2008年第一季度的GDP值还少3%。在去年秋天的一份报告中称,对于未来几年的经济走势并不看好。A fall in the pound makes Britain’s goods cheaper for foreign buyers—a welcome tonic for exporters at a time when the current-account deficit is running at 3.5% of GDP. But sterling’s big decline in 2008 and did not cut the trade deficit. The downside of a weaker pound is that the price of imported goods, such as oil, will increase, further squeezing consumer spending. “It’s not just that our gilt outlook is weak; it’s not just that we’ve lost our triple-A credit rating; it’s that we’re really addicted to imported goods” says Jim Leaviss of M and G, a fund-management group. “A current-account deficit this large has historically preceded a sterling crisis.”英镑贬值对于外国买家来说是件好事,因为商品的价格更加便宜。而一向受欢迎,创造喜人收益的出口商,此时往来账户的赤字却占据GDP的3.5%。但是2008年和年的英镑贬值并未减少贸易赤字。疲软的英镑造成了一种下降的趋势,这种趋势使得类似石油这样的进口商品的价格增加,并使消费者的手头更加拮据。“之所以造成这样状况,不是因为我们国债的前景一片灰暗的,也不是因为我们已经失去了3A的信誉评级,而是因为我们的确是习惯于进口商品”,一位来自MG投资管理公司的吉姆·里维斯(Jim Leaviss)说道,“如此之大的贸易逆差使得它历史性的领跑了这场英镑危机。”Higher import prices are also likely to ensure that the Bank of England continues to overshoot its 2% inflation target, as it has for the last 38 months. Indeed, the bank recently predicted inflation would stay above the target for the next two years. Despite this, three members of the nine-strong monetary-policy committee—including the governor, Sir Mervyn King—recently voted for more quantitative easing.更高的进口价格也极可能把英格兰继续送上超出它所定的2%通货膨胀的目标的不归路上,因为这已经持续38个月。事实上,英格兰最近也预测到,在接下的两年里,这样的通货膨胀都将会超出预定目标。尽管有此预测,但在九强货币政策委员会中,包括英国央行行长默文·金恩(Mervyn King)在内的三名成员在,最近都投票持实行更大规模的量化宽松政策。With ten-year gilts yielding just 2%, domestic investors seem likely to lose money in real terms. Foreign investors might not be too keen to buy such a low-yielding asset in a depreciating currency. If Britain’s borrowing costs rise sharply, the government’s deficit-cutting task will be made even harder. However, this yield rise could be offset if the Bank buys more gilts in a further extension of QE.10年期的国债收益仅为2%,实际上,国内投资国债的人极有可能在赔钱。在货币贬值的情况下,外国投资者可能不太会热衷于购买这样的低收益资产。假如英国的借贷成本激增,政府想要完成减赤的计划就会更加困难。但是,假如英格兰在更大规模的量化宽松政策中,购买更多的国债,所增加的收益又会被抵消。The good news is that the foreign exchange and government bond markets are an ugly contest these days, in which few options look attractive. The indecisive Italian election result reawakened investor fears about the stability of the euro zone, and may make gilts appear relatively safe, as was the case in 2011 and 2012. Both Japan and America could loosen their monetary policy further, an approach that may put pressure on their currencies. Britain is not the only country with problems.这些天,外汇和政府债券市场进行了一场胶着的竞争,但双方都并未成为投资者看好的投资对象,这算的是一个好消息。但悬而未决的意大利大选却再度唤起投资者对欧元区经济稳定的担忧。但这样的状况对国债而言,还是相对安全的,这样的结论在2011年和2012年都得到了印。日本和美国都可能会进一步放宽他们的货币政策,并以此来作为对货币进行施压的一种方法。由此可见,英国并不是被麻烦缠身的唯一一个,他并不孤单。翻译:沈晓旭译文属译生译世 /201610/471396

Hans Frank, who would go on to become a leading Nazi, first heard Hitler speak in 1920.汉斯弗兰克于1920年首次听到他的演讲后成为纳粹头目。Everything came from the heart and he struck a chord with all of us.一切都发自肺腑,他和我们产生了共鸣。He uttered what was in the consciousness of all those present.他说出了在场人士的心声。This is a key insight into charisma.这是领袖魅力的关键。Because charisma does not exist on its own in anyone.因为它不会单独存在于某人身上。It exists only in an interaction between an individual and an audience.它只存在于个人与观众的互动之中。An individual like Hitler who was telling the audience what they wanted to hear.比如希特勒,他所讲的正是观众想听到的。Many of them longed for a charismatic leader to lead them out of misery.民众渴望出现一位富有领袖气质的人带领他们走出阴霾。German history was rich in stories of such heroes.德国历史上这样的英雄人物历来屡见不鲜。Here, amongst the mountains around Hitlers house, the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa was, according to legend, sleeping, waiting to awaken and fight his final battles.据传说腓特烈大帝就沉睡在希特勒住所所在的山谷中,等待着被唤醒,与敌人决一死战。And one of the most popular tourist attractions of the time was this monument, completed in 1875, to Hermann, a tribal leader who had led the Germans to victory over the Romans nearly 2,000 years before.这座于1876年完工的纪念碑是当时最受欢迎的旅游景点之一,是为了纪念2000年前带领德国人战胜罗马的部落首领赫尔曼。This later engraving claims a direct link between Hitler and Hermann.不久人们就将希特勒与赫尔曼联系起来。Both portrayed as German heroes.两人都被描述成德国英雄人物。And Hermann was so important to the Nazis that Heinrich Himmler took over Wewelsburg Castle nearby in the 1930s, intending this place to be a centre of SS power.鉴于赫尔曼对纳粹的重要性,希姆莱在30年代霸占了韦维尔斯城堡意图将这里变成党卫军的权力中心。 译文属201511/409480Britain Schools reform英国 学校改革Class acts优秀法案England’s schools are radically different. Now make them better英格兰各个学校相比其他地方极为不同,现在是是时候改善这些学校了AT the King Solomon Academy in London, children from the nearby tower blocks are settling into a new school year. Girls in hijabs mingle with Afro-Caribbean boys in over-sized new blazers. The proportion of pupils receiving free school meals because their parents are poor is three times the national average. Yet the academy, which is run by ARK, a charity, is ranked as “outstanding” by the schools inspector and has been lavishly praised by Anthony Seldon, headmaster of a leading private school.在位于英国伦敦的索罗门国王学院里,来自附近高层贫民楼的学生们正迎来他们新的学年。学校里学生人种混杂:既有戴着头巾的穆斯林女学生,又有穿着肥大的新校的加勒比黑人男学生。由于家境贫寒,一部分小学生可享受免费的校餐。这部分学生在全校中的比例现已达英国平均比例的三倍之多。然而,对于这所由某名为“ARK”的慈善机构所运营的学院,督学人员表示“表现优异”,同时,某著名私学校长安东尼·塞尔顿(Anthony Seldon)也对其大加赞誉。Max Haimendorf, its young head, has adopted many ideas from American charter schools. His mission is to get as many children as possible to top universities. “It’s what changes lives,” he says. Notice-boards are festooned with information introducing children from primary level upwards to that aspiration.担任该学院校长一职的Max Haimendorf十分年轻。他从美国特许学校中借鉴了许多想法。其办校宗旨是让尽可能多的学生能进入顶尖高等学府。“这将改变命运”,他表示。学校的布告栏上贴满了宣传其学生从小学一路考入名牌大学的各种信息。Ambitious outfits like this delight Michael Gove, the education secretary. He has expanded the academies programme which began under Labour, and which aims to give schools more control over their management and curriculum (though not their admissions policies) as well as discretion to vary teachers’ pay. Over half of state secondary schools are now academies. The coalition is also pushing free schools, created by parents and other groups dissatisfied with the local offerings. So far 79 free schools have opened, with another 100 in the pipeline.对于类似索罗门国王学院这样的学校,英国教育部部长迈克尔·戈夫(Michael Gove)表示十分欢迎。原本由英国工党发起的“学院计划”(academies programme)经其手得到拓展。该计划旨在使校方就学校管理、课程安排、教师工资方面(尽管招生政策不包含在内)有更多的自主权。如今,英国国立中学中有一半以上已是学院类学校。由家长等不满于地方政府补贴的团体也自发组成联盟,以推进此类公益学校。至今为止,已有79所义学向学生开放。同时,另有100所正处于酝酿之中。That Britain’s schools need to be transformed is clear. A new OECD report, Education at a Glance, notes that British pupils slipped down the international league tables in the past decade despite a big increase in spending, which doubled in real terms under the last Labour government. Asian and former communist countries in eastern Europe are leaving them behind.英国学校改革的必要性已不言而喻。据经合组织(OECD)一项名为“教育概览”(Education at a Glance)的最新报告显示,尽管英国政府的教育出激增,相比工党执政期最后一任内阁时的实际额度翻了一番,但其小学生平均成绩的国际排名在过去10年间有所下滑。而亚洲各国和东欧的部分原共产主义国家的表现,则不断赶超英国。Yet the government, so bold in many ways, has not dared to claim that its reforms will push the nation’s pupils up the rankings. England’s schools are different, but not yet demonstrably better (Scotland and Wales oversee their own schools, though not with much distinction). And as the schools revolution rolls on, new problems are popping up.而即使各方面都行事大胆的英国政府,也不敢宣称其改革将升高本国小学生成绩的国际排名。英格兰的学校相对比较不同,但也无法明其表现较好(而苏格兰和威尔士则拥有学校监督的自主权,尽管差别不大)。随着学校改革的推进,新的问题也将不断浮现。The sp of more autonomous schools has created a gap in accountability, which has been filled in a piecemeal way. Getting sluggish local authorities out of running schools is one thing. Ensuring effective intervention when things go wrong in academies or free schools is another. At the moment this role is left to the Department for Education—a state of affairs described by one critic as “Napoleonic” (it is also odd, given the coalition’s enthusiasm for pruning Whitehall bureaucracy).随着各学校自主权的增强,问责制缺口问题已然出现。对此,解决方法各式各样。其一是使学校脱离地方政府的保守经营。其二是确保学院或义校出现问题时政府的有效介入。目前,该义务由英国教育部承担。对于该现状,某家称之为“拿破仑式管理”(同时,由于私人团体强烈要求精简英国政府,这一现状也比较反常)。The education secretary’s ability to send strong reformist signals, so useful in encouraging the growth of academies, can cause a mess. A row over the sudden downward revision of English GSCE grades suggest that the qualifications regulator responded to pressure to make exams tougher—a favourite theme of Mr Gove—without giving due warning of the shift in grade boundaries or how to address them.尽管教育部部长多次有力地暗示将进行教育改革,并有效地刺激了学院式学校的开办,但最终可能引起混乱。就近期英国普通初级中学毕业文凭评级(GSCE)向下修正一事争论迭起,这说明英国的资格考试审查机构屈于压力而增加考试难度(这迎合了戈夫部长的主题),但却没有酒评级标准改变和应对方法作出相应的提醒。Another conundrum is what to do if an academy or free school under-performs (in America, charter schools close every year). Sir Michael Wilshaw, head of OFSTED, the schools inspectorate, hankers for powers to inspect academy chains as well as the local authorities who run the country’s remaining (and frankly neglected) comprehensive schools. OFSTED only has the right to inspect individual schools: a hangover from the previous system. One remedy might lie in the creation of powerful regional school commissioners, who could demand changes, send in improvement teams when things go awry and generally strive to outdo one another. A flaw in both Labour and Conservative school-reform efforts is that there is little drive for improvements to sp round the country. A keener sense of regional responsibility might help.另一个问题是,对于表现不佳的学院或义校该如何处理(美国每年都有倒闭的特许学校)。英国教育标准局(OFSTED)负责监督学校,其局长麦克·威尔萧爵士(Sir Michael Wilshaw) 则希望获得更大的权力,以监督各个学院以及经营英国其他(说白了就是被忽略的)综合学校。而目前,英国教育标准局的权力仅限于监督个别学校,这是先前的教育体系所遗留下的。对此,设立权限较大的地方教育专员可能是一个解决办法。该专业可以要求教育改革,发生问题时派遣补救小组,总体上又能相互竞争。英国工党和保守党在教育改革上都存在一个问题,那就是缺乏将改革扩散至全国的动机。而提高地区政府责任意识可能会有所改善。Ultimately, though, no amount of structural change, interventions or inspections counts for as much as good teaching. Lord Adonis, a former Labour minister who set up the academies programme, says it is “simply absurd” that top universities have no stake in teacher-training, a job left too long, he says, to “under-par educational sociologists”. The best schools could be given more autonomy and incentives to help train teachers, ensuring that newcomers learn from the best of their profession, not the middling performers. Rewards need sharpening, just as poor performers should be edged out more quickly. The coalition, which has supported “golden hellos” for some graduates training as teachers, could do more to entice top maths and science performers. (It might not harm to recruit a few teachers from the Asian Tiger economies, too, if only to impress parents with the amount of homework they would set.)然后最终,无论进行多少结构性改革、加大多少政府介入和审查,都不如改善教育质量来得有效。学院计划的发起人,前工党大臣阿多尼斯男爵(Lord Adonis)表示,教师培训对于顶尖高等学府无关紧要,这“简直荒谬”。他还称,教师培训这一工作被搁置得太久,“教育社会学家们都失望了”。那些优异的学校可以获得更多自主权,同时在教师培训上有更强的动机。这样,可以确保教授学生的是那些顶尖的师资,而非中庸的讲师。对于那些表现不佳者,需要立刻予以取代。同时,留任者的报酬也宜有所提高。而那些私人团体向来持对毕业后接受培训的准教师们提供优厚待遇,这些团体在招揽优秀的数学、理科教师方面将更胜一筹。(若只是为了给家长们留下海量作业的印象,雇佣一些来自“亚洲四小龙”的教师也无伤大雅。)England’s reforms are sound—just not sufficient by themselves to transform outcomes. The focus should now be on acquiring as many brilliant teachers as possible, as fast as possible. Pursuing that aim, rather than judging progress by the numbers of freshly-hatched schools, is the vital next step towards better education.英格兰的教育改革本身没错,只是通过自身不足以改变结果。而现在,改革的焦点应该集中在尽可能多而快地招揽优秀教师。相比以新办学校数来衡量成果,师资力量才是今后改善教育的关键一步。 翻译:沈骜译文属译生译世 /201607/454566听力参考文本:Theres a lot of talk about supporting our military veterans as they come home and transition back to civilian life. The Michigan Veterans Affairs Agency is standing by to help vets in a variety of ways, from employment to benefits and resources to transition assistance.And WWII veteran Franklin Quinlans experience shows that their assistance is there for a lifetime.Quinlan recently received his high school diploma with help from the agency.The veteran decided to get his diploma because one of his sons received a doctorate in physics and he says, ;I wanted to show him his father was quite well-educated, too.;The agency helped contact his high school and after looking up his 70-year-old record, they discovered he was entitled to a diploma.Upon receiving it just weeks later Quinlan says, ;The date they had marked, 1939, I then felt like I was 18 years old again.;Quinlan served in the merchant marines and Navy working mostly on the Pacific coast with naval air patrol bombers.When he returned to the ed States, he aly had a family to support and jumped right into work as a high pressure boiler operator.Throughout his lifetime Quinlan often changed occupations. Hes spent time as a fireman and sergeant with the Ferndale Fire Department, a builder, and then owned a concrete business, a party store and Quinlans Irish Gifts.;You name it, Ive done it,; he says.With four kids, 12 grandkids and 12 great-grandkids, Quinlan is busy, but he still finds time to visit schools and teach children about his service.;Whats next? I havent quite planned yet. Im possibly thinking maybe Ill go back to college and see about getting a degree in history and teach history,; Quinlan says. ;That will hold me until I am probably about 100 and then Ill think it over then.;For veterans who are transitioning back to life as a civilian, Quinlan offers the advice of concentrating on the next phase of life and joining veterans groups.Any Michigan veteran can get assistance from the Michigan Veteran Affairs Agency website or call 24 hour hotline 1-800-MICHVET.201504/367962

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