时间:2019年09月18日 06:42:12

Beijing will experience five days of poor air quality partly caused by heating systems being turned on, officials announced on Tuesday.有关官员在周二表示,由于冬季供暖开始,未来5天北京的空气质量将比较差。Pollution is expected to be moderate to severe in the next two days, but may drop a little due to possible rain on Friday before rising again during the weekend, Beijing Environmental Protection Bureau has forecast.据北京市环保局预测,未来两天,北京的空气污染级别将达到中度甚至重度,若周五下雨,情况可能会有所缓解,但在随后的周末污染又会进一步加剧。;Pollution caused by heating systems is one significant factor, while high humidity and little wind are unfavorable weather conditions for the diffusion of pollutants,; said Zhang Dawei, director of the bureau#39;s municipal environmental monitoring center. ;But we are expecting that haze and fog will be blown away when the wind comes next Monday.;环保局市环保监测中心主任张大伟表示:“供暖是导致空气污染的一个重要因素,而湿度大、无风的天气条件不利于污染物的扩散。也许下周一的大风能吹走雾霾。”Thick fog and haze shrouds Beijing and other northern cities in the winter when heating systems start operating.每年冬天开始供暖时,北京以及其他北方城市就处在雾霾的笼罩之中。;It has been the case for years,; said Zhang, ;but the number of days with heavy pollution in Beijing has significantly decreased compared with the same period in previous years.;张大伟称:“多年来一直是这样,但与前几年相比,今年同一时期,北京重度污染的天数明显减少。”The city has witnessed a significant improvement in air quality in the past 10 months. The average concentration of PM2.5, fine particles that pose particular hazards to human health, was 69.7 micrograms per cubic meter in the city, down 21.8 percent from the same period last year.过去10个月,北京的空气质量有了显著改善。PM2.5(对人体健康造成某种危害的细颗粒物)的平均浓度比去年同期下降了21.8%,达到每立方米69.7微克.Strenuous efforts to improve air quality, including replacing coal with natural gas for heating and closing down heavily polluted factories, have worked well, Zhang said.张大伟还表示,用天然气取代煤来供暖,关闭污染严重的工厂等等,这些改善空气质量的举措得到了很好的实施,取得了不错的效果。But recent heavy pollution in Shenyang, Liaoning province, has some anxiety.但近期辽宁沈阳的严重污染天气的确让人忧心。On Sunday, the ing was as high as 1,400 micrograms per cubic meter at some monitoring sites in the city.上周日,沈阳某些监测点的读数竟高达每立方米1400毫克。The province will continue to suffer from heavy smog on Wednesday, according to the National Meteorological Center.根据国家气象中心的数据,辽宁省周三还有大雾。;I felt that the heavy pollution might have to do with what is happening in Shenyang, because wind blows it,; said Zhang Yuan, who lives in Beijing#39;s Haidian district and was wearing a mask to go outdoors.“我觉得北京的重度污染可能跟沈阳有关,因为风把雾霾吹到了这里。”北京海淀区的张元正戴着口罩准备出门。;We understand why people worry about the air pollution, but we also want to clarify that pollution in Liaoning province is not likely to affect a place as far away as Beijing,; said Wang Bin, head of the emergency management office of the bureau. ;We will increase the frequency of air monitoring, and will inform the public.;“我们可以理解人们对空气污染的担忧,但我们想澄清的一点是,辽宁的污染天气不可能影响到与它相隔千里的北京。”北京市环保局应急处处长王斌表示,“我们将加大空气监测频率,并向公众公布相关结果。” /201511/409557

The London I grew up in 30 years ago felt like a city on the way down. It had lost an empire and many of its key trades, most obviously shipping and manufacturing, were in decline.三十年前,伴我成长的伦敦仿佛在走向没落。它已经失去了一个帝国,许多关键产业——最明显的是航运和制造业——都处于衰落中。In the 1960s London’s docklands had never been busier but by the early 1980s they had collapsed.上世纪60年代,伦敦码头区曾经异常繁忙,但到了80年代早期,已变得冷清下来。London of course was not the only western city struggling with deindustrialisation. Indeed, with its large business sector, its renowned universities, many professions, government institutions and great tourist attractions, the city was more resilient than most.当然,伦敦并非唯一一座努力应对去工业化的西方城市。实际上,这里庞大的企业部门、知名学府、各种专业人才、政府机构以及著名的旅游胜地,让这座城市比多数城市都更具生命力。Slowly London and many other western urban centres learned how to navigate their way to the post-industrial age. While the precise route differed from one place to another, the basic approach was similar. Instead of shoring up declining trades, cities found that their future lay in attracting and retaining the stars of the new service economy — highly skilled young professionals and entrepreneurs, “knowledge workers” and “creatives”. This involved city authorities tackling crime and investing in transport, schools, the public realm and culture.伦敦与其他许多西方中心城市都慢慢地找到了步入后工业化时代的路径。虽然各地的具体路径都不相同,但基本方式类似。这些城市没有去撑衰落的产业,相反,它们发现自己的未来在于吸引并留住新务经济的“明星”——拥有高技能的青年专业人才及创业家、“知识型员工”和“创意人士”。这需要城市当局打击犯罪,并投资于交通、学校、公共空间及文化。Many post-industrial cities now find themselves in a position almost unimaginable only a couple of decades ago: they risk falling victim to their own success. Their economies and their populations have expanded fast and inequality and living costs have shot up-with them. City leaders no longer worry about attracting young talent but how to stop it from being squeezed out.如今,许多后工业城市发现自己正置身于一个二十年前还几乎无法想象的处境:面临沦为自身成功的牺牲品的风险。它们的经济和人口迅速扩张,但贫富差距和生活成本也随之直线上升。市政领导人不再担忧吸引不到青年才俊,而是担忧如何阻止人才被挤出去。London is a case in point. The UK’s capital has long depended on its appeal to artists and innovators. They have been vital to its success. London’s world-conquering creative industries — its music, film, theatre, publishing, gallery, design and advertising activities — are nourished by an endless stream of talented and mainly young people. David Bowie was once a young singer from south London called David Jones.伦敦就是一个例子。作为英国的首都,伦敦长期以来一直依赖于自身对艺术家和创新者的吸引力。这些人对伦敦的成功至关重要。伦敦享誉世界的创意产业——包括音乐、电影、戏剧、出版、画廊、设计及广告——主要得益于源源不断的、有才华的年轻人的滋养。大卫#8226;鲍伊(David Bowie)曾经是一名来自伦敦南部、原名大卫#8226;琼斯(David Jones)的年轻歌手。The capital’s strengths in scientific research and digital innovation are fed by academics and tech entrepreneurs in their 20s and 30s. London has a great, if somewhat under-appreciated history of social and civic innovation — this is the city that gave the world Save the Children, Amnesty International and Band Aid — and this too has been fuelled by youthful talent.二三十岁的学者、科技创业家缔造了伦敦在科研和数字创新方面的优势。伦敦有伟大却被低估的社会与公民创新历史——伦敦为世界育了拯救儿童基金会(Save the Children)、大赦国际(Amnesty International)及援非联合乐团(Band Aid)——这也是由青年人才推动的。That said, London is much less welcoming to the creative class than it once was. The threats to London’s sense of buzz are various. They include characterless development, overzealous licensing and policing of nightspots, an increasingly restrictive visa system and cuts to public funding of arts and culture. By far the biggest problem is the sheer price of living in the city. A third of London’s music venues have closed since 2007. The 2014 Artists Workplace study predicted that, on present trends, London will lose 30 per cent of artist studios before 2020. Housing is incredibly expensive. According to the office of the city’s mayor, most London artists make less than £10,000 a year from their work, when the average house price is £500,000. No wonder newspapers are full of stories of young Londoners moving to Brighton, Bristol, Barcelona and Berlin.尽管如此,伦敦对创意群体的友好性已大不如从前。伦敦热闹的艺术创作受到了各种各样的威胁,包括无个性的开发、对夜店过严的审批和监管、日益严格的签制度以及对艺术和文化公共资助的减少。伦敦最大的问题在于高得可怕的生活成本。自2007年以来,三分之一的伦敦音乐表演场地已经关闭。2014年一项对艺术家工作场所的研究预计,按目前的趋势,伦敦在2020年之前将失去30%的艺术家工作室。房价已经贵得离谱。伦敦市长办公室的数据显示,多数伦敦艺术家工作一年收入不到1万英镑,而伦敦房屋均价为50万英镑。难怪报纸上充斥着伦敦年轻人搬到布赖顿、布里斯托尔、巴塞罗那以及柏林的故事。London is not the only city facing this problem. Paris, once a byword for artistic creativity, has suffered from a reputation of being a safe, over-regulated and air-conditioned city for more than a decade. New Yorkers worry about gentrification and the loss of urban vitality in almost exactly the same terms that Londoners do and there has been a much discussed exodus of New York artists to Los Angeles.伦敦并非唯一面临此类问题的城市。巴黎曾经是艺术创造力代名词,但十几年来,作为一座“安全、过度管制、有空调的城市”的声誉损害了它的艺术创造力。纽约人对中产阶级化和城市丧失活力的担忧与伦敦人如出一辙,纽约艺术家大批出走洛杉矶已经引发大量讨论。Just as it took cities a long time to work out a route out of industrial decline, so it will take a time to come up with a recipe for preserving the buzz and vitality that post-industrial cities need if they are to flourish.正如一些城市花了很长时间来寻找走出工业衰退的路径一样,要找到一种方法来保持后工业化城市繁荣所需要的喧闹与活力也需要一段时间。In the past young innovators have flocked to old rundown areas, with lots of character and cheap rents. As they become developed, we will have to find ways of creating new development that works in the same way.过去,年轻的创新者曾蜂拥至老旧城区,这里有很多鲜明的特色且租金便宜。当这些地方被开发后,我们将不得不设法打造新的能以同样方式发挥作用的新街区。City leaders will have to get a lot more enterprising about protecting and nourishing late night culture — Paris has followed Amsterdam in appointing a night mayor. London is doing the same. Philanthropists and public funding bodies will need to work together to preserve local cultural centres and artists studios.在保护和繁荣午夜文化方面,市政领导将不得不发挥更多进取精神——继阿姆斯特丹之后,巴黎任命了一位夜间市长。伦敦也在有样学样。慈善家与公共资助机构需要共同努力,保护本地的文化中心和艺术家工作室。The best developers are beginning to understand the value they get from investing in the public realm but they will need to learn to see the value of other cultural assets. The most expensive cities will have to explore if and how to extend subsidised housing to creative workers.最优秀的开发商已开始理解他们可以从投资公共领域获得的价值,但他们还需要学会看到其他文化资产的价值。生活成本最高的城市将不得不探索是否以及如何将保障性住房扩大到覆盖创意工作者。Munira Mirza, London’s deputy mayor for the arts, puts its nicely. “Culture is to London what the sun is to Spain.” Not even the most powerful city leader can do much about the local weather. But our cities will have to learn how to keep culture shining.负责艺术的伦敦副市长穆尼拉#8226;米尔扎(Munira Mirza)说得很好。“文化之于伦敦就像太阳之于西班牙。”即便最强势的市政领导对当地的天气也无可奈何。但我们的城市必须学会如何让文化保持灿烂。 /201605/441566

More than 1,370 people aged 60 or over go missing every day in China, according to a new report.一份最新报告称,我国每天都有超过1370名年龄在60岁及以上的老人走失。The White Paper on the Lost Elderly, released last Sunday, states that Alzheimer#39;s disease and other forms of dementia are a major cause of such disappearances.于上周日发布的《老年人走失状况白皮书》称,阿尔茨海默症以及其他类型的痴呆症是老人走失的一个主要原因。72% of senior citizens reported missing have trouble with their memory, while 25% have been diagnosed with Alzheimer#39;s, according to Xiong Guibin, co-author of the report, which was jointly issued by Zhongmin Social Assistance Institute and online content aggregator Toutiao.这项由民社会救助研究院与在线内容聚合平台今日头条共同发布的报告,其合著者熊贵彬介绍称,被报走失的老年人中,72%存在记忆方面的障碍,25%被诊断出阿尔茨海默症。What is compounding the problem in China is the large number of elderly people living alone in less-developed rural areas, whose relatives have migrated to cities to find better-paying jobs. These people are at greater risk, the report warned.报告警告称,目前在我国欠发达农村地区,许多老人因为亲人移居到城市寻找薪酬更好的工作而处于独居状态,这些老人走失的风险更大,加剧了这一问题的严重性。The report calls for the establishment of a national network to record and find missing people, and recommends that aid centers arrange specialist personnel to look for missing persons.这一调查呼吁建立一个全国性的网络来记录和发现失踪人口,并建议援助中心安排专业人员寻找失踪人口。It also suggests that local governments in areas with large population outflows cooperate with social groups to assess the living conditions of seniors citizens left at home, and explore effective methods to prevent such citizens from going missing.该报告还建议,大量人口外流的地区的当地政府,应与社会团体合作,以评估留守家中的老年人的生活条件,并一起探索有效的方法来防止这些人口失踪。 /201610/470461

With the shops in Tokyo’s Ginza district preparing to close for the day, and the tour guide begging they return to the coach, two tourists from Chengdu, China, hit a crescendo in their debate over quality, styling and workmanship.东京银座的商店正准备打烊,导游正在劝说两名来自中国成都的游客回到大巴车上,而这两名游客关于质量、款式和做工的讨论达到了高潮。Rationed to a single case each because of extraordinary demand, one grabs the largest box of Merries, the other a box of Goo.N and they leave in divided silence. When it comes to Japanese nappies and their beloved softness, Chinese passions run high.由于购买需求异常旺盛,每名消费者限购一箱纸尿裤。其中一名游客抓起最大的一箱妙而舒(Merries),另一个人则拿起一箱大王(Goo.N),最后带着分歧沉默地离开了。一提到日本纸尿裤及其受人欢迎的柔软度,中国人便热情高涨。Investors are trying to parse the demographics, arbitrage windows, bottlenecks and distortions of an Asian nappy market with annual sales of about bn, forecast by CLSA to reach bn by 2030.投资者正尝试着亚洲纸尿裤市场的人口统计特征、套利窗口、瓶颈以及扭曲状况。据里昂券(CLSA)预计,到2030年亚洲纸尿裤市场的年销售额将从目前的120亿美元上涨至450亿美元。As wealthier societies age, adult diapers are expected to represent an ever-larger portion of these sales, but in the shorter term, the focus is on Asia’s rising middle class and its babies.随着较富裕国家日益老龄化,成人纸尿裤占亚洲纸尿裤销售额的份额将日益扩大,但是在短期内,亚洲不断壮大的中产阶级及其新生儿才是该市场的重心。CLSA and Euromonitor data suggest a tight correlation between expansion of this socio-economic group across the region and increased disposable nappy adoption. Indonesia’s 16m under-threes now work their way through an average of eight disposable nappies per baby per month. Five years ago, demand was a quarter of that.里昂券和欧睿(Euromonitor)的数据显示,整个亚洲这一社会经济群体的扩大与一次性纸尿裤的使用量增加之间存在紧密关联。印度尼西亚目前有1600万的3岁以下儿童,平均每个儿童每月使用8片纸尿裤。而5年前的需求量是这一水平的四分之一。China’s average per baby consumption per month leapt from 21 five years ago to 39 last year. Wang Jingyi, a 25-year-old from Beijing who has a seven-month-old daughter, typifies the local tendency to opt for Japanese versions. “I’ve never used a Chinese brand diaper,” she explains.中国婴儿平均每个月使用的纸尿裤数量从5年前的21片增加至去年的39片。王静宜(音译)来自北京,今年25岁,有个7个月大的女儿,她代表了中国人选择日本纸尿裤的倾向。“我从来没用过中国国产品牌的纸尿裤,”她解释道。As the world’s largest producer of nappy-making machines, Japan’s Zuiko has a privileged insight into this surging market. It says Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia are areas where investment in future nappy production is hottest. Zuiko’s sales figures from last year suggest that it has positioned its mostly Asian customers to churn out an additional 7bn nappies as demand soars.作为全球最大的纸尿裤生产设备制造商,日本瑞光(Zuiko)对于这个迅速发展的市场有着特有的见解。瑞光称,泰国、马来西亚和印度尼西亚是对未来的纸尿裤生产投资最热的国家。瑞光去年的销售数据表明,随着需求飙升,预计其客户(主要为亚洲厂商)的产量将增加70亿片。The popularity of Merries, produced by Japan’s Kao Corp and hotly favoured on internet forums in China, is a symptom of the unusual times. The limit of one-box-per-visit for premium brands is not only in place at Chinese tourist-thronged stores in Ginza, but in supermarkets across Japan.妙而舒的人气是如今这个非常时代的一个表现。该品牌由日本花王集团(Kao Corp)生产,在中国的网络论坛上备受青睐。优质品牌每人限购一箱的限制不仅出现在中国游客聚集的银座商店,还存在于日本各地的超市。Nappy rationing, now in force for more than a year, sits strangely in a country with one of the lowest birth-rates in the world.纸尿裤限购已实施了一年多,在这个出生率居于全世界最低水平的国家,这颇为奇怪。Kao has ramped up production in Japan to its limit, and has attempted to take greater control over its ecommerce sales into China. Still the shortages persist, and lead times for new production facilities are longer than they used to be because Japan has led nappy technology to become more complex. Even if Kao placed an order tomorrow with Zuiko for a new Merries-making machine, it would not relieve pressure on the market before early 2017.花王已经将其在日本的产量提高至极限,并且尝试着更好地控制在中国电子商务渠道的销量。不过短缺情况仍在持续,同时,由于日本引领纸尿裤技术发展得更加复杂,新生产设备的交货周期比过去更长。即便花王明天向瑞光下单订购一台全新的妙而舒生产设备,这也只能在2017年初以后缓解市场压力。Meanwhile, there is little to suggest any let-up from Chinese buyers, particularly if the yen continues to trade in its recent range. Demand for Merries is driven by China’s rising clamour for Japanese quality in all things worn, ingested or rubbed on to the skin. Another propellant has been the depreciation of the Japanese currency since 2013: Chinese tourists, along with parallel exporters, quickly spotted that it is cheaper to get a box of Merries in Shizuoka than in Shanghai.与此同时,没有什么依据表明中国消费者有停止抢购纸尿裤的迹象,特别是在日元继续维持现有汇率水平的情况下。中国日益追捧日本在装、食品以及护肤品等一切产品上的质量,这推动了中国对妙而舒的需求。另一个助推因素是自2013年开始的日元贬值:中国游客以及平行出口商迅速发现,在静冈县买一箱妙而舒比在上海买更便宜。Occasionally, suburban Japanese supermarkets clock the fact that nappy export gangs are arriving in trucks and loading up with product bound for China. But attempts to calculate the scale of the parallel exports are tricky. One guide is the surge of Merries’ share in Japan: up from 23 per cent in 2012 to 29 per cent last year.位于日本郊区的超市偶尔会遇到这样的情况:纸尿裤的出口商开着卡车前来,再装满发往中国的商品。然而,想要算出平行出口的规模却成了棘手的问题。一种体现指标是妙而舒在日本所占市场份额的增长:从2012年的23%上升至去年的29%。This was not grabbed from domestic competitors, say analysts, but pure market expansion driven by parallel exports to China.分析师称,这部分增长并不是从日本本土竞争者手里夺走的,而是由向中国的平行出口推动的纯粹市场扩张。 /201601/424036

Lucknow, India — I’m on my annual win-a-trip journey, in which I take a university student with me on a reporting trip. I’m traipsing through Indian villages with the winner, Austin Meyer of Stanford University, to tackle one of the world’s great whodunits: Why are hundreds of millions of children here stunted physically and mentally?印度勒克瑙——我踏上了今年的“与纪思道同行”旅途,带着一位大学生参加采访活动。我带着这次的幸运儿——斯坦福大学的奥斯汀·迈耶(Austin Meyer)——漫步穿过一座印度村庄,希望能解开世界上最大的悬念之一:为什么这里的亿万儿童身心发育迟缓?India is a vigorous democracy that has sent an orbiter to Mars. Yet its children are more likely to starve than children in far poorer nations in Africa.印度是一个朝气蓬勃的民主国家,已经向火星发射了一个轨道飞行器。然而,它的儿童比那些远比它更贫穷的非洲国家的儿童更有可能挨饿。In a remarkable failure of democracy, India is the epicenter of global malnutrition: 39 percent of Indian children are stunted from poor nutrition, according to government figures (other estimates are higher). Stunting is worse in India than in Burkina Faso or Haiti, worse than in Bangladesh or North Korea.这是民主制度的一大失败。印度处于全球营养不良的震中位置:政府数据显示(其它估计数据更高),39%的印度儿童因营养不良而发育迟缓。印度儿童发育不良的情况比布基纳法索、海地、孟加拉国和朝鲜的情况更糟糕。Here in Uttar Pradesh, a vast state of 200 million people in India’s north, the malnutrition is even more horrifying. By the government’s own reckoning, a slight majority of children under age 5 in this state are stunted — worse than in any country in Africa save Burundi, according to figures in the 2015 Global Nutrition Report.在北方邦,印度北部一个有着2亿人口的大邦,营养不良的情况更是令人咋舌。根据政府自己的估算,该邦5岁以下的儿童多数发育不良。根据2015年全球营养报告的数据,那里的情况比除布隆迪之外的任何一个非洲国家都要差。The greatest cost of stunting isn’t stature but brain power. Repeated studies have found that malnutrition early in life reduces intelligence in ways that can never be regained. The brains of stunted children don’t develop properly — you see the difference in brain scans — which is perhaps why stunted children on average drop out of school early.发育迟缓最大的代价不是身高,而是智力。反复的研究已经发现,早年的营养不良会妨碍智力发展,而且无法恢复。发育不良儿童的大脑发育会不正常——脑部扫描会让你看到区别——这也许是为什么发育不良儿童平均辍学较早。“We’re not focused on stunting because we fear kids will be too short,” said Shawn Baker, a nutrition expert at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, who accompanied me on visits to rural areas here. “We’re focused on stunting because it’s a proxy for cognitive development, and because kids are at risk of dying.”“我们关注发育迟缓不是因为我们担心孩子们长得太矮,”比尔和梅林达·盖茨基金会(Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation)营养专家肖恩·贝克(Shawn Baker)说道,他陪同我参观这里的农村地区。“我们关注发育迟缓,因为它是认知发展的体现,因为孩子正处于死亡的风险。”The win-a-trip journey is a chance to spotlight issues that aren’t sexy but matter most. And when hundreds of millions of children are unnecessarily malnourished, holding them back all their lives, that should be a global priority.“与纪思道同行”之旅是让公众关注不怎么有趣但最要紧问题的机会。当数以亿计的儿童毫无必要地面临营养不良困境且终生发展遭到妨碍时,这应该成为一个全球性的优先处理事项。Now a couple of bold new theories are emerging to explain why India does so poorly in child nutrition.现在一些大胆的新理论不断涌现来解释印度为什么在儿童营养方面做得如此之差。The first is that the low status of women leads to maternal nutrition in India that is much worse than previously believed. Women often eat last in Indian households — and 42 percent of Indian women are underweight before pregnancy, according to Diane Coffey, a Princeton University economist. Then during pregnancy, Indian women gain only half the recommended weight.首先,印度女性的地位低导致产妇营养比以前认为的糟糕许多。印度家庭中女性往往最后吃饭。根据普林斯顿大学经济学家戴安娜·科菲,42%的印度女性在怀前体重过轻。然后在怀期间,印度妇女只能增加一半的推荐体重。“The average woman in India ends pregnancy weighing less than the average woman in sub-Saharan Africa begins pregnancy,” Coffey writes in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.“印度普通女性结束妊娠时的体重低于撒哈拉以南非洲地区普通女性开始妊娠时的体重”,科菲在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences)上写道。The upshot is that many children are malnourished in the uterus and never recover.结果是许多儿童在子宫中就营养不良,而且再也无法恢复。The second new theory is poor sanitation, particularly open defecation. About half of Indians defecate outside without using toilets. The result is that children pick up parasites and chronic infections that impair the ability of the intestines to absorb nutrients — and 117,000 Indian children die each year from diarrhea, according to Unicef.第二个新的理论是卫生条件差,特别是露天排便。大约有一半的印度人露天排便而不使用厕所。其结果是孩子们会感染损害肠道养分吸收能力的寄生虫和慢性感染。根据联合国儿童基金会,每年有11.7万名印度儿童死于腹泻。That may explain an anomaly: Infant mortality is lower for Indian Muslims than for Hindus, even though Muslims are poorer. One reason may be that Muslim villagers are more likely to use outhouses.这也许可以解释一种异常现象:印度穆斯林的婴儿死亡率比印度教徒要低,尽管穆斯林更为贫穷。一个原因可能是穆斯林村民更可能使用屋外厕所。This is a life-or-death matter. Governments invest in tanks and fighter aircraft to defend their people, when the greater threat to their citizens comes from their own poop.这是一个生死攸关的问题。政府投资坦克和战斗机来保卫自己的人民,但他们人民的更大威胁来自于自己的粪便。Still, few recognize the risk. Worldwide, far more people have access to mobile phones than to toilets. That’s because phones are seen as the higher priority. In the villages that Austin and I visited, villagers routinely had mobile phones, but very few had outhouses. Even fewer used them: It’s easy for aid groups to build latrines, harder to get people to use them.尽管如此,很少有人认识到这种风险。在世界范围内,能够使用手机的人比能有机会上厕所的还要多。这是因为电话被视为拥有更大的重要性。在奥斯汀和我参观的村庄,村民通常都有手机,但很少有屋外厕所。使用它们的人则更少:援助组织建造厕所很容易,但让人们去使用却很难。One woman we met, Sahliha Bano, is a villager with an 11-month-old girl named Munni, who is acutely malnourished. The family doesn’t have a toilet (few in the village do).我们遇到了一个名叫莎莉罕·巴诺(Sahliha Bano)的女人,她有一个 11 个月大名叫莫妮(Munni)的女儿,严重营养不良。这个家庭没有厕所(村里很少家庭有)。Bano herself reflected other factors sometimes associated with malnutrition. She is illiterate and was married at about 14, and Munni is her sixth child. Bano rejects birth control because she believes it is against God’s wishes.巴诺本人体现了与营养不良有关的其他因素。她是文盲,约 14 岁时结婚,而莫妮是她的第六个孩子。巴诺拒绝节育,因为她认为这违背神祗的意愿。These are complex issues, but if Afghanistan and Bangladesh can make great progress (along with Indian states like Kerala), so can all of India. Manmohan Singh, India’s former prime minister, called child malnutrition “a national shame” — but there’s still no political will to address it.这些都是复杂的问题,但如果阿富汗和孟加拉国能取得巨大的进步(以及一些印度的邦,如喀拉拉邦),那么印度这个国家也可以。印度前总理曼莫汉·辛格称儿童营养不良为“一个国家的耻辱”,但该国还是没有解决这个问题的政治意愿。Instead, in a political move to win support from religious groups that object to eating fertilized eggs, the state of Madhya Pradesh recently rejected the idea of serving eggs in child-feeding programs. The result will be more children added to the hundreds of millions held back unnecessarily for the rest of their lives — as a great nation weakens itself.相反,在一项为赢得反对吃受精鸡蛋的宗教团体持的政治举措中,中央邦最近拒绝了在儿童哺育计划中提供鸡蛋的构想。其结果将是更多的孩子加入到数以亿计余生都受到毫无必要的负面影响的人群行列中——一个伟大的民族正在削弱自身。 /201510/404646

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