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2020年01月21日 19:02:34
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北碚区妇幼保健院贵吗The Americas美洲Paraguays new president巴拉圭的新总统Cartes plays his cards卡特高明的手段Trickle-down economics in one of South Americas poorest countries南美最穷一国的滴流经济学IN OCTOBER claims surfaced that Victor Bogado, a Paraguayan senator, had arranged two lucrative public jobs for his childrens nanny.十月宣言浮出水面, 巴拉圭的参议院议长柏佳都,为其孩子的保姆安排了两项有利可图的公共工作。A few weeks later 23 of his peers—a majority—voted against stripping him of the immunity from criminal proceedings that Paraguayan legislators enjoy.几周后,23位同僚,大多数反对剥夺巴拉圭立法者所享有的豁免刑事程序。Instead of going unnoticed in a country where political clientelism has long been the norm, the story sparked outrage.按理说国家出现政治上的庇护很正常可被忽略,反而故事引起了更多的愤怒。Restaurants, petrol stations and beauty salons in the capital, Asuncion, put up signs naming the 23 shameless rats, and barring them as customers.首都亚松森的餐馆,汽车加油站以及美容沙龙,公然张贴了广告名为23只不知羞耻的老鼠,禁止他们进店消费。Two weeks later a senate committee overruled the vote for immunity.两周后,参议院委员会豁免视此种行为属于无效选票。The case of the golden nanny is part of a wider citizen revolt against political corruption.金牌保姆的事件只是更多市民参与反对政治腐败的一部分。In October the Supreme Court ruled that Daniel Vargas, a radio host, had the right to know the names and salaries of municipal employees.十月份,最高法院判定电视台节目主持人丹尼尔·巴尔加斯,有权知道市政雇员的名字和他们的薪酬。Six years earlier listeners had asked him to investigate; he went to court after being stonewalled.早在6年前听众让其去调查,他在受阻后上了法庭。Without public pressure the Supreme Court would never have dared to move against Congress, says his lawyer, Benjamín Fernandez.若没有了公共压力,最高法院将绝不敢反对议会,他的律师本杰明·费尔南德兹说道。Rather than obliging citizens to seek the information piecemeal, Paraguays new president, Horacio Cartes, told public bodies to publish it, though many are dragging their feet.而不是为了使有责任心的公众获取的是零碎的信息,巴拉圭的新任总统奥拉西奥·卡尔特,告诉公众去惩治此事,尽管许多人不愿意合作。Mr Cartes, a tobacco magnate, is a political neophyte who only joined the Colorado party in order to run for office in Aprils general election.卡尔特先生,烟草巨头,也是一名政治新秀,仅为科罗拉多党成员参加了四月普选。The Colorados held power for 60 years, 35 as a notoriously corrupt dictatorship, before losing in 2008 to Fernando Lugo, a former bishop whose left-Liberal alliance promised to redistribute land and cut poverty.科罗拉多党执政60年来,臭名昭著的腐败独裁者多达35名,于2008年失败于巴拉圭领导人费尔南多·卢戈,前任大主教,左倾自由主义联盟承诺重新分配土地以及治理贫穷。In power Mr Lugo turned out to be weak and politically inept.手握重权的卢戈不过是一名懦弱的笨拙的当政者。After an unfairly abrupt, though constitutional, impeachment his Liberal vice-president, Federico Franco, replaced him in 2012. Lacking a strong internal candidate, the Colorados plumped for Mr Cartes.尽管是合乎宪法的,他遭到了有失偏颇的突如其来的弹劾,副总统费德里科·弗朗哥于2012年取代了他。由于缺乏强大的内部候选人,科罗拉多政党选中了卡尔特先生。Many assumed the new president would be his partys puppet.许多人设想新任总统将会是其政党的傀儡。Does his support for the anti-corruption fight show that the Colorados got more than they bargained for?他反腐政策表明了科罗拉多意味着他们会获得比他们要求的更多。On taking office in August, Mr Cartes named technically able outsiders to his cabinet and passed a fiscal-responsibility law limiting budget growth to 4% above inflation and the deficit to no more than 1.5% of GDP.自从8月入职以来,卡特尔先生技巧性的给其内阁以外的人,并通过了一项财政法律限制其预算增长到4%通货膨胀以及财政赤字不高于国民生产总值的1.5%。Since most spending goes on wages, that will squeeze patronage.因为大多数花销都用于付薪酬,那将会丧失庇护。A new law will allow the executive to auction infrastructure concessions without having to get approval from Congress, where the Colorado old guard holds sway.新法将允许行政人员拍卖基础性设施让步,而无须得到由科罗拉多一股老保守派统治的议会的批准。Some waterways should be auctioned in months, says Jose Molinas, a former World Bank official who is now minister of planning.一些水道应该在近几个月内拍卖,Jose Molinas,前任世界的官员现任规划部部长。Landlocked Paraguay relies on rivers to get its vast soya and beef exports to market. Intercity roads will follow.被陆地包围的巴拉圭依靠河运来出口大量的豆类与牛肉。城市间的道路的处理也随之而来。A law providing for disputes between government and concession-holders to be settled by international arbitration is planned for 2014.一项解决政府以及让步性之间的争端将有国际仲裁部于2014年开启。The economy is predicted to have grown by 13.6% in 2013.2013年经济被预测已经增长了13.6%,But that is mainly because of a bumper soya harvest after drought saw GDP shrink by 1.2% in 2012.但是这主要是因为2012年国民生产总值减少了1.2%在豆制品丰收后。Paraguay is one of South Americas most unequal countries.巴拉圭是南美最不公平的国家之一,A third of its people are poor and 18% extremely so, while 6% of farms occupy 85% of farmland.大约三分之一的人们贫穷,18%极端贫穷,仅有6%的农场就占据了85%的耕地。Though Mr Lugo failed to reform landholding, partly because of opposition in Congress, he did introduce modest handouts for the poorest.尽管卢戈进行私人性质耕地的改革失败,部分原因是因为议会的反对,他确实为最穷苦的人给予了最简单的救济品。Mr Franco brought in an income tax, albeit at just 10% for the highest earners.弗朗哥先生引进了收入税,尽管对收入最高的富人只征收10%的税收。Mr Cartes, too, promises to cut poverty and create a fairer society.卡特尔先生,也承诺消减贫困,创造一个相对公平的社会。But his plans rely less on redistribution than on wooing foreign capital.但是他的计划过度依靠借助外资而不是资源的重新分配重组。He has ceaselessly plugged the opportunities offered by the coming infrastructure auctions, Paraguays abundant land, cheap labour, light-touch regulation—and, of course, low taxes.他执着于接洽即将到来的基础设施的拍卖,如巴拉圭的富饶的耕地,廉价劳动力,温和管理模式,当然,还有低税收。He vetoed a levy on the export of soyabeans, the economys mainstay.他决定对豆类的出口进行征税,社会经济的主要来源。A rise in land taxes is the only one planned.耕地税的增长是唯一按照计划进行的,He sometimes strikes an off-key note, as when he told Uruguayan businessmen that Paraguay aimed to be easy, like a beautiful woman.有时候他的做派不是很合理,比如当他告诉乌拉圭商人巴拉圭头脑简单,就像一个徒有其表的美女。But he has swiftly restored ties with Mercosur, a regional bloc from which Paraguay was suspended after the ousting of Mr Lugo.但是他很快恢复了与南方共同市场,自卢戈被驱逐后,受人怀疑的巴拉圭所在的区域集团。Mr Cartes has secured its mission, partly by persuading Congress to ratify Venezuelas admission to the group.卡特尔先生保了巴拉圭重新获得认可,部分原因是因为说了议会来修正委内瑞拉的入市资格。Its in Paraguays interests to be back inside Mercosur, he says. I dont want to waste my presidency on fights.他说道:这返回南共市是巴拉圭的利益,我不想把时间浪费在争夺总统之位上面。In Brazil strident calls for land reform faded when growth boosted jobs and salaries in cities.在巴西疯狂叫嚣耕地改革的呼声已经褪去,当时城市工作岗位以及薪水均已经增长。But even if Mr Cartess brand of trickle-down economics shows promise, many obstacles remain.但是即使卡特尔模式的滴流经济学表态承诺实施,但是仍然困难重重。Paraguay lacks the skilled workers to build all the promised infrastructure.巴拉圭缺乏技术工人来建造所有的承诺过的基础设施。And the Colorado old guard will surely regroup. They are giving me time, says Mr Cartes.科罗拉多老保守派势力势必会重组。If I deliver results itll be fine. He is counting on people power and openness to maintain momentum.他们给予了我时间卡特尔先生说道,如果我传达了结果,事态将会好些。People get used to things getting better. If you give them improvements they wont want to go back.他依靠人民大众的力量,公开保持这种势头。人们已经习惯了越来越好,如果你改善了他们的生活,他们将不想倒退回去。 201401/271645城口县割眼袋多少钱Science and technology科学技术Alternative medicine替代医疗Think yourself better往好处想Alternative medical treatments rarely work. But the placebo effect they induce sometimes does替代疗法的治疗效果见效甚微,但是所产生的安慰效果往往有所疗效ON MAY 29th Edzard Ernst, the worlds first professor of complementary medicine, will step down after 18 years in his post at the Peninsula Medical School, in south-west England.5月29日,作为世界首位互补性医学专家艾德撒.恩斯特将从位于英国西北部的半岛医学院退休,他在这里曾效力了18年。Despite his job title, Dr Ernst is no breathless promoter of snake oil.跟他的职务头衔相反Dr Ernst 并不是那种推销起蛇油舌灿莲花的人。Instead, he and his research group have pioneered the rigorous study of everything from acupuncture and crystal healing to Reiki channelling and herbal remedies.其实,他和他的研究团队是缜密研究针灸,水晶疗法,灵气疗法以及草药治疗的先驱。Alternative medicine is big business.替代性医疗是一个很大的商业市场。Since it is largely unregulated, reliable statistics are hard to come by.由于这一市场在很大程度上没有得到监管,所以很难获取可靠的数据统计。The market in Britain alone, however, is believed to be worth around £210m, with one in five adults thought to be consumers,然而,该市场仅在伦敦就达到约2亿1千万英镑,其中5个成年人中就有一个是替代性疗法的消费者,and some treatments available from the National Health Service.并且有些疗法还是国家医疗务制度中所提供的务项目。Around the world, according to an estimate made in 2008, the industrys value is about billion.根据2008年的评估,该产业在全球的价值约为600亿美元。Over the years Dr Ernst and his group have run clinical trials and published over 160 meta-analyses of other studies.在过去的几年中,恩斯特士和他的团队进行了临床实践并发表了160多份关于其他研究的再分化分析报告,并有了全然的发现。His findings are stark. According to his Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine, around 95% of the treatments he and his colleagues examined—in fields as diverse as acupuncture, herbal medicine, homeopathy and reflexology—are statistically indistinguishable from placebo treatments.根据其《补充替代医学指南》,在他及其同事所验的治疗方法中从针灸到草药,从顺势疗法到反射疗法,约有95%在数据统计上等同于安慰疗法。In only 5% of cases was there either a clear benefit above and beyond a placebo, or even just a hint that something interesting was happening to suggest that further research might be warranted.在仅有的5%的病例中,其中要么明显属于非安慰疗法所带来的疗效,要么暗示了有某些有趣的因素使得需要进一步的研究。It was, at times, a lonely experience.这一研究在过去有时很少有人涉足。Money was hard to come by.资金难以筹集。Practitioners of alternative medicine became increasingly reluctant to co-operate as the negative results piled up, while traditional medical-research bodies saw investigations into things like Ayurvedic healing as a waste of time.并且由于负面效应的积累越来越多的替代性医疗从业者不愿意参与合作,于此同时传统医疗研究组织也将针诸如对阿育吠陀疗法的研究调查视作是浪费时间。Yet Dr Ernst believes his work helps address a serious public-health problem.而恩斯特士相信他的工作将有助于解决一系列公共健康问题。He points out that conventional medicines must be shown to be both safe and efficacious before they can be licensed for sale.他指出传统药品必须在确保安全和有效后才能许可出售。That is rarely true of alternative treatments, which rely on a mixture of appeals to tradition and to the natural wholesomeness of their products to reassure consumers.但是替代性疗法却不需要,这些疗法依赖于其产品的传统性以及天然健康性的综合体来赢得消费者的放心。That explains why, for instance, some homeopaths can market treatments for malaria, despite a lack of evidence to suggest that such treatments work, or why some chiropractors can claim to cure infertility.这解释了为什么一些顺势疗法在疟疾的治疗上具有市场,尽管缺乏据显示其疗效效,以及为什么脊椎推拿师声称他们可以治疗不育症的原因。Despite this lack of evidence, and despite the possibility that some alternative practitioners may be harming their patients, Dr Ernst also believes there is something that conventional doctors can usefully learn from the chiropractors, homeopaths and Ascended Masters.虽然缺乏医疗据以及存在一些替代性疗法从业者伤害患者的可能,但是恩斯特士相信传统医生仍然可以从脊椎推拿师,顺势疗法以及上师那里学到一些有用的东西。This is the therapeutic value of the placebo effect, one of the strangest and slipperiest phenomena in medicine.作为医学中最奇怪以及最棘手的医疗现象之一,这些东西是安慰疗法的医疗价值所在。Mind and body思想与身体A placebo is a sham medical treatment—a pharmacologically inert sugar pill, perhaps, or a piece of pretend surgery.安慰疗法是一种虚假性医疗方法在药物上使用糖丸,或者进行一次虚假手术。Its main scientific use at the moment is in clinical trials as a baseline for comparison with another treatment.其主要科学应用在于它可以作为其他疗法对比基准的临床实践性。But just because the medicine is not real does not mean it doesnt work.但是不使用真实药物并不代表没有疗效。That is precisely the point of using it in trials: researchers have known for years that comparing treatment against no treatment at all will give a misleading result.这也恰恰是在实践中使用它们的原因:研究者多年以来已经明白将完全不治疗跟某种治疗法做比较往往会产生误导的结果。Giving pretend painkillers, for instance, can reduce the amount of pain a patient experiences.比如,假的止疼药可以在一定程度上缓解患者的疼痛。A study carried out in 2002 suggested that fake surgery for arthritis in the knee provides similar benefits to the real thing.2002年进行的一次研究显示针对膝部关节炎患者进行一次虚假手术所带来的疗效如同对其进行了一次真实的手术。And the effects can be harmful as well as helpful.并且产生的效果有好有坏。Patients taking fake opiates after having been prescribed the real thing may experience the shallow breathing that is a side-effect of the real drugs.而处方规定需用鸦片制剂的患者实则用了假的鸦片制剂后会出现呼吸短促这种真实药物所带来的副作用症状。Besides being benchmarks, placebos are a topic of research in their own right.除了作为基准,安慰疗法在其自身领域内也是一个研究主题。On May 16th the Royal Society, the worlds oldest scientific academy, published a volume of its Philosophical Transactions devoted to the field.5月16日,作为世界最悠久的科学研究组织,皇家学会发表了一期此领域的《哲学会报》。One conclusion emerging from the research, says Irving Kirsch, a professor at Harvard Medical School who wrote the preface to the volume,为该会报撰写前言的是来自哈佛医学院的专家欧文.克尔斯,is that the effect is strongest for those disorders that are predominantly mental and subjective, a conclusion backed by a meta-analysis of placebo studies that was carried out in 2010 by researchers at the Cochrane Collaboration,其称这些研究所得出的一个结论是安慰疗法对于那些主要是脑力和主观紊乱的患者最为有效,这一结论同样得到另一个安慰疗法再分化研究的持,an organisation that reviews evidence for medical treatments.该项研究由医疗据审核组织科克仑合作所的研究者们在2010年开展。In the case of depression, says Dr Kirsch, giving patients placebo pills can produce very nearly the same effect as dosing them with the latest antidepressant medicines.对于抑郁症病例,克尔斯称给患者用安慰性药物将产生和给患者用最新抗抑郁症药物同样的疗效。Pain is another nerve-related symptom susceptible to treatment by placebo.疼痛是另一种容易得到安慰性治疗的神经性症状。Here, patients expectations influence the potency of the effect.在这里,患者的期望值可以影响治疗的效果。Telling someone that you are giving him morphine provides more pain relief than saying you are dosing him with aspirin—even when both pills actually contain nothing more than sugar.告诉患者你给他们用的是吗啡要比告诉他们用的是阿司匹林具有更好的阵痛效果其实两种药物的成分都只是糖。Neuro-imaging shows that this deception stimulates the production of naturally occurring painkilling chemicals in the brain.神经元成像显示这种欺骗行为可以促进大脑中自然分泌的阵痛化学物质的产生。A paper in Philosophical Transactions by Karin Meissner of Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich concludes that placebo treatments are also able to affect the autonomic nervous system, which controls unconscious functions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, digestion and the like.来自路德维希马克西米利安慕尼黑大学的卡琳.梅斯诺在《哲学会报》上发表的一份论文称安慰疗法同样可以影响控制诸如心跳,血压,消化等等这些无意识功能的自主神经系统。Drama is important, too. Placebo injections are more effective than placebo pills, and neither is as potent as sham surgery.表演在安慰疗法中也很重要。安慰性注射虽然比安慰药丸有效果,但是却没有虚假手术来得见效。And the more positive a doctor is when telling a patient about the placebo he is prescribing, the more likely it is to do that patient good.并且在向患者描述疗效的时候,医生显得越积极,对于患者来说安慰治疗的疗效越好。Despite the power of placebos, many conventional doctors are leery of prescribing them.尽管安慰疗法有着强大的力量,但是很多常规医生仍怀有猜疑。They worry that to do so is to deceive their patients.他们担心这种做法是在欺骗患者。Yet perhaps the most fascinating results in placebo research—most recently examined by Ted Kaptchuk and his colleagues at Harvard Medical School, in the context of irritable-bowel syndrome—is that the effect may persist even if patients are told that they are getting placebo treatments.然而,也许在安慰治疗研究中最引人入胜的研究结果便是即使患者之道他们所接受的是安慰治疗,其疗效却依然存在,这一发现由来自哈佛医学院的泰德.凯普扎克及其同事近期在过敏性肠综合症的研究中所确认。Unlike their conventional counterparts, practitioners of alternative medicine often excel at harnessing the placebo effect, says Dr Ernst.恩斯特士称与常规医生不同,替代性疗法的从业者善于利用安慰治疗的疗效。They offer long, relaxed consultations with their customers.他们会在轻松的气氛下向患者提供咨询。And they believe passionately in their treatments, which are often delivered with great and reassuring ceremony.并且他们对于治疗工作充满热情,使用杰出而令人放心的医疗方式进行治疗。That alone can be enough to do good, even though the magnets, crystals and ultra-dilute solutions applied to the patients are, by themselves, completely useless.仅此已足够,而那些用在患者身上的磁铁,水晶以及高稀释溶液本身就没有什么用处。 /201304/234897重庆眼袋 抽脂哪家医院好

江津区妙桃隆胸假体多少钱涪陵区治疗胎记多少钱Science and technology科学技术Cancer genetics癌症遗传学Gene therapy基因疗法Genetic mutations predict which cancers will respond to treatment基因突变将预测某种治疗会对哪些癌症起作用THE International Cancer Genome Consortium, an alliance of laboratories that is trying to produce a definitive list of the genetic mutations that cause cancer,国际癌症基因组协作组是试图建立一份会引起癌症的基因突变完整清单的实验室联盟,is accumulating data at an astonishing rate.它积累数据的速度让人吃惊。About 3,000 individual breast tumours, for example, have now had their genotypes published.例如,它已经发表了大约3000种不同的乳房肿瘤的基因型。But these data will not, by themselves, help patients.但光凭这些数据本身无法帮助患者。For that, they have to be collected in the context of a drug trial.要医治病人,人们必须结合药物试验采集数据。And this is just what Matthew Ellis and his colleagues at Washington University in St Louis have done for women suffering from breast cancer.而这正是在圣路易斯市的华盛顿大学工作的马修·埃利斯及其同事们为罹患乳腺癌的妇女们所作的工作。Their methods, if they prove to work for other cancers too, may revolutionise treatment.如果事实明他们的方法对其他癌症也有用的话,这可能会是癌症治疗的一次革命。Dr Ellis and his team sequenced the whole genomes of both cancerous and normal tissue from 46 women with tumours of a type called oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer.埃利斯士及其团队对46名身患雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌的妇女的癌组织和正常组织进行了全基因组测序。They also sequenced just the gene-containing regions of the genome—about 1% of total DNA—from an additional 31 women, and parts of the sequences of 240 more.他们也对另外31名病人的基因组中含有基因的那些区域进行了测序,并对其他240名病人的这些部分做了部分测序。They then compared the healthy and tumorous genomes of each patient, in order to discover which genes had mutated in the cancer.此后,为找出癌细胞中哪些基因发生了突变,他们比较了每个病人的健康和癌变基因组。In this, they were following the normal protocol of the cancer genome consortium.他们在这一工作中是按癌症基因组协作组的标准程序操作的,The novelty of their approach was that the women in question had each been involved in one of two clinical trials of a drug called letrozole.但其方法的新颖之处是,他们还同时进行一种名为来曲唑的药物的临床试验。该试验有两种,每个病人都接受其中的一种。These trials established letrozole as a standard treatment for people with this type of breast cancer,这些试验实来曲唑是这类乳腺癌的标准治疗方法,but not all patients benefit equally from the drug.但它对每个病人的疗效并不一样。Dr Ellis hoped to find out why.埃利斯士希望找出其原因。As they report in Nature, he and his team discovered 18 genes that were often mutated.正如他们在《自然》杂志中所报告的那样,埃利斯和他的团队发现了18种经常发生突变的基因,Some were the usual suspects of cancer genetics.其中有些是癌症遗传学通常怀疑的对象。These included p53, a gene that, when working properly, suppresses cancer by regulating DNA repair, cell division and cellular suicide,这中间包括p53,这种基因在正常工作时通过调节DNA对的修复、细胞分裂和细胞自杀来抑制癌症;and MAP3K1 and MAP2K4, which both promote cell growth.还有MAP3K1和MAP2K4,它们都能促进细胞生长。Others, though, were a surprise.但也有些令人吃惊的其他结果。At the top of that list were five which had previously been linked to leukaemia, but were not thought to affect solid tumours.高踞名单前列的5种基因是人们过去认为与白血病有关的,没想到它们也会影响实体瘤。By combining their newly acquired genetic data with clinical data from the participants,将他们新得到的基因数据与参与试验者的临床数据结合,Dr Ellis and his colleagues showed that those whose tumours carried mutations in p53 were less likely to have responded to letrozole than women whose tumours had normal p53.埃利斯士等人明了,来曲唑对肿瘤中有p53基因突变的病人的疗效不如对肿瘤中p53基因正常的病人那样显著。Conversely, those whose tumours had changes in either MAP3K1 or MAP2K4 had better than average responses to the drug.与此相反,这一药物对肿瘤中MAP3K1或MAP2K4有变化的病人的疗效高于平均水平。This sort of information has obvious implications for treatment.这种信息对治疗的含义是明显的。And the cheapness of modern gene-sequencing methods, particularly those that are looking for specific mutations suspected in advance,而且,现代基因测序法价格低廉,寻找预先已有怀疑的某些特别的基因突变尤为便宜;means that a tumours mutational complement can be worked out easily in an appropriately equipped pathology laboratory.这意味着,在拥有合适装备的病理实验室里,人们可以很容易地找出肿瘤基因突变的补体。In the case of oestrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer,就雌激素受体阳性乳腺癌来说,the genetic analysis has not yet gone so far as to be able to say with certainty which drug will produce the best result for a given individual,基因分析还无法肯定地告诉我们,哪种药物对某个病人疗效最佳;but Dr Elliss result lays a foundation on which such an edifice might be built for breast cancer and perhaps for other types of tumour, too.但埃利斯士的结果打下了一个基础,或许可以在此之上为乳腺癌——甚至其他种类的癌症——的治疗建立有效的预测方法。 /201307/250088巫溪县激光祛痘哪家医院好Wow! What a beautiful sunset.哇!多么美丽的夕阳啊!Enjoy it while it lasts, the sun wont be around forever, you know.尽情欣赏吧,太阳不会永远存在的。You mean, one day the sun will disappear?你的意思是,有朝一日太阳会消失?Not exactly disappear, but the sun will eventually burn out and die.不是完全消失,太阳的能量最后会耗尽并枯竭。Wont that make things really cold down here?那样的话,地球就会变得很冷了。Actually, there wont be any here, here.实际上,那时地球就不存在了。When the sun dies,the earth will be destroy too.没有了太阳,地球也将毁灭。Wow, hold on, start from the beginning.等一下,你从头开始说。Okay. Like all stars, the sun is basically a giant nuclear reactor that burns hydrogen to createenergy.好的。像所有的行星一样,太阳从根本上说,是一个巨型核反应堆,通过燃烧氢气产生能量。But like any reactor, the sun needs fuel to keep going.但是,就像任一反应堆,太阳需要燃料来保持运作。Its been going strong for around four-point-five billion years, and will probably keep burning for about five billion more.它已经良好运作大约45亿年了,并且将会持续燃烧50亿年左右。But then, the fuel will run out?到那时,燃料就会耗尽。Exactly. When it does, gravity will cause the suns core to contract.是的。当太阳能量耗尽,地心引力会使得太阳核心缩小。When it contracts the corewill get hotter, which will heat up the suns upper layers and make them expand.缩小地同时温度变得更得高,这样就加剧了太阳外层的燃烧并使其膨胀。The sun will then become whats called a red giant, and its radius will reach just past the orbit of Venus.太阳就变成了所谓哦红巨星,它的半径将会达到以前金星的运行轨道。Which is bad for us.那样会对我们有害。Well be burned to a crisp.我们会被烧成土豆片的。Thats sounds painful.听起来很痛苦。After a few billion years the core will begin to cool and expand.数十亿年后太阳中心开始冷却并扩大。The suns upper layers will expand and lose material, and eventually the core will cool enough to become a white dwarf star,and finally a black dwarf.太阳的上层也将扩大,失去物质重量,最后中心冷却到一定程度就成了白矮星,最终成黑矮星。So, were pretty much doomed.那时,我们就注定要完蛋了。Yes, but not for billions of years.是的。但那是几十亿年以后的事了。Who knows? By then, humans might been living on anotherplanet.谁知道呢?到那时,人类也许已经生活在另一个星球上了。 201407/309316北碚区面部除皱纹费用

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