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金东区中心医院整形中医知识兰溪市第三医院激光祛斑多少钱

来源:最新网    发布时间:2019年08月25日 15:32:36    编辑:admin         

New York University, in the midst of a review of how laborers were treated during the construction of its Abu Dhabi campus, has acknowledged that procedures intended to protect workers at its other major foreign outpost, in Shanghai, were not followed.纽约大学(New York University)正在就该校阿布扎比(Abu Dhabi)校区建设过程中工人的待遇问题而开展调查。现在该校承认,针对该校在上海的另一个海外校区,旨在保护工人的相关规程没有得到遵守。According to a university spokesman, N.Y.U. hired a company to perform an array of services while the new campus was being built, including monitoring working conditions and publishing its findings in annual reports. But the company “did not perform as expansive a compliance review as N.Y.U. desired, nor did they produce the detailed report that N.Y.U. requested,” the spokesman, John Beckman, said in an email.该大学的一位发言人透露,在新校园建设期间,纽约大学聘请一家公司开展了一系列务,包括监督工作条件,并在年度报告中发表其调查结果。不过,纽约大学发言人约翰·拜克曼(John Beckman)在电子邮件中说,该公司“并没有像纽约大学希望的那样,开展广泛的合规审核,也没有出具纽约大学要求的详尽的报告。”Several years ago, in response to criticism that it was building campuses in authoritarian countries without strong labor protections, the university created “statements of labor values” that pledged fair wages, reasonable hours and the right to resolve labor disputes, and forbade forced labor or employment discrimination.数年前,为了回应该校在缺乏有力劳工保障的威权主义国家建设校园的批评,该校作出了“劳工价值声明”,承诺要给予公平的工资、合理的工时,以及解决劳动纠纷的权利,此外还禁止强迫劳动或就业歧视。During the construction of the Abu Dhabi campus, the engineering firm Mott MacDonald was hired to oversee compliance and to issue annual public reports about its findings. Those reports offered consistent praise for the way laborers on the vast new campus were being treated. But an investigation by The New York Times later found that many of the workers, who were largely South Asian migrants under contract to local companies, had been charged high fees to obtain their jobs, were forced to work overtime and were not being paid what they had been promised. Some were warehoused in squalid and cramped apartments, and some were beaten or arrested for going on strike.在阿布扎比校区建设期间,该校聘请了工程顾问公司莫特麦克唐纳(Mott MacDonald)开展合规监督,并就其监督结果发布公开报告。这些报告对于规模宏大的新校园建设期间,劳工得到的待遇给予了普遍的赞誉。然而《纽约时报》之后开展的调查显示,参与建设的劳工主要是与当地企业签约的南亚移民,他们在获取工作之前都被收取了很高的费用,被迫加班,拿到的报酬也没有承诺的多。一些人挤在肮脏拥挤的公寓里,还有一些人因为罢工而遭到殴打或逮捕。John Sexton, the president of N.Y.U., called such conditions “if true as reported, troubling and unacceptable.” The university, along with the Abu Dhabi government, which financed the campus and oversaw its construction, announced an inquiry, which is continuing.纽约大学校长约翰·塞克斯顿(John Sexton)表示,“如果报道属实”,这种情况“令人不安,是不能接受的”。纽约大学与阿布扎比政府宣布开展调查,目前仍在进行当中。校园是阿布扎比政府出资并负责建设的。N.Y.U. Shanghai, a joint venture with East China Normal University, is the university’s second major outpost. The real estate consulting firm Jones Lang LaSalle was hired in March 2012 to perform a variety of functions on the building site.上海纽约大学(NYU Shanghai)作为纽约大学在海外的第二座大型校区,是与华东师范大学共同开办的。2012年3月,校方聘请了房地产咨询公司仲量联行(Jones Lang LaSalle)在建设现场开展一系列工作。“After some miscommunications — for which we share responsibility — and delays — during which we nevertheless thought a report would ultimately be completed — it became clear that a report with the level of detail we wanted was not going to be forthcoming,” Mr. Beckman said in an email last week.拜克曼上周在一封电子邮件中表示,“发生过一些沟通不畅(我们在其中也负有一定责任),以及延误(那段时间我们仍然以为最终会完成一份报告)之后,显然不会产生一份具有我们期望的那种详尽程度的报告了。”Anthony Couse, a managing director for Jones Lang LaSalle in East China, said there was no miscommunication. “Compliance review with the Statement of Labor Values was not part of our original scope,” he said. “During the summer of 2013 we were contacted by N.Y.U. about labor compliance monitoring; we carried out that monitoring, as agreed.”仲量联行华东区董事总经理顾东尼(Anthony Couse)表示,并不存在沟通不畅。“就劳工价值声明开展合规核查,并不属于我们最初的职责范围,”他说。“2013年夏,纽约大学联系我们核查劳动规章的遵守情况。我们依照双方的约定开展了核查。”He added, “The project is regarded as a success on several levels by both N.Y.U. and J.L.L.”他还说,“纽约大学和仲量联行都认为,这个项目在很多方面都取得了成功。”This summer the university hired the law firm Paul Hastings L.L.P. to perform a retroactive audit of working conditions at the Shanghai campus. The results, which will be made public, are expected by the end of the year.今年夏天,纽约大学聘请普衡律师事务所(Paul Hastings L.L.P.)对上海校区的工作条件开展事后审核。预计审核将于年底完成,结果会对外公开。Mr. Beckman added that “the conditions on the site for workers were in overall compliance with the Statement of Labor Values of N.Y.U. Shanghai.”拜克曼说,“工人在建设现场的工作条件大体上符合纽约大学上海校区的劳工价值声明。”Faculty members in New York who have been scrutinizing the overseas construction projects said that information about the Shanghai campus had been all but impossible to get. An email th between members of the local chapter of the American Association of University Professors and the university administration, in which the professors repeatedly asked which firm had been hired to monitor compliance and what standards it would employ, dated to 2011.身在纽约负责监督海外建设项目的教师表示,几乎无法取得关于上海校区的信息。美国大学教授协会(American Association of University Professors)当地分会的成员,与大学的行政部门之间的一些电子邮件讨论可以追溯到2011年,其中教授们曾反复询问聘请了哪家公司做合规监督,采用的是怎样的标准。Three years later, Jeffrey S. Lehman, the vice chancellor of N.Y.U. Shanghai, wrote to members of a faculty advisory committee to say that “notwithstanding what we understood last summer,” Jones Lang LaSalle “was not able to produce a thorough review of compliance with the worker rights that are set forth in our statement of labor values,” and that Paul Hastings had been hired “to do the kind of thorough review that J.L.L. could not.”三年后,纽大上海校区常务副校长杰弗瑞·S·雷蒙(Jeffrey S. Lehman)给一个教师顾问委员会的成员发邮件表示,“与我们去年夏天的理解不同”,仲量联行“未能出具一份全面的文件,陈述我校劳工价值声明中列举的工人权益是否得到了遵守。”校方聘请了普衡律师事务所“开展仲量联行没能开展的全面审核”。Mr. Lehman added, “Paul Hastings is writing up their report and (not surprisingly) they say they have seen no red flags, no evidence of material noncompliance, etc., etc.”雷蒙还说,“普衡正在撰写报告,而且(并不出人意料的是)他们称审核过程中没有出现问题,也没有重大违规的据,等等。”Anna McCarthy, a professor of cinema studies who was a part of that three-year exchange, expressed frustration that an effective system of oversight was not in place while the campus was being built. “I’m not satisfied,” she said. “I really do think there needs to be a lot more transparency.”电影研究教授安娜·麦卡锡(Anna McCarthy)参与了长达三年的电子邮件交流。她表示,在校园建设过程中,没有建立有效的监管系统,这让她很失望。“我并不满意,”她说。“我真的认为透明度应该高得多才行。”The Shanghai campus, in that city’s Pudong neighborhood, and the Abu Dhabi campus, on Saadiyat Island, are part of what N.Y.U. calls the Global Network University, a constellation of degree-granting campuses and smaller study-abroad sites through which students and faculty members are encouraged to cycle. The concept has won admiration from many other colleges and universities, which have scrambled to establish overseas footholds of their own. It has also attracted criticism from students and faculty members, who say that development of this kind jeopardizes academic freedom and workers’ rights.上海校区位于浦东新区,阿布扎比校区位于萨迪亚特岛,这两个校区都是纽约大学所说的全球教育体系(Global Network University)的组成部分。这一体系中包括一系列可以颁发学位的校区,以及规模较小的海外学习场所,校方鼓励学生和教师在整个体系中轮换。这种设想在其他许多学院和大学中赢得了赞誉,它们也都在匆忙建立自己的海外分校。不过这种设想也受到了师生的批评,他们表示这种开发项目妨碍了学术自由和工人的权利。The inquiry into conditions in Abu Dhabi, conducted by Nardello amp; Company, an investigative firm led by a former federal prosecutor, was to be completed this year. It is now expected in early 2015.针对阿布扎比校区工作状况的调查是由Nardello amp; Company开展的,这家调查公司的负责人是一位前联邦检察官。调查预计将于今年结束,结果将在2015年初发布。 /201412/346759。

A contract has been signed between the Chinese and the US parties to build a Universal Studios theme park in Beijing’s east suburban district of Tongzhou, the newly confirmed second administrative center of the city, Beijing Youth Daily reported Monday.据《北京青年报》周一报道,中美双方正式签署在北京东部郊区通州建立环球主题公园的合约,而通州近期确认为北京的第二管理中心。The Beijing Universal Studios project was approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in September 2014 and was directly led by the Beijing government. Li Shixiang, Member of Standing Committee of CPC Beijing Committee and executive vice-mayor of Beijing, attended the signing ceremony at New York headquarter of the US cable company NUniversal on Sunday.2014年9月,北京环球影城项目经国家发改委批准并直接由北京政府领导。周日,市委常委、常务副市长李士祥出席在康卡斯特N环球集团纽约总部举行的签约仪式。According to the contract, a joint venture company will be set up to carry out the construction. The park, expected to open in 2019, covers 2.02 million square meters of floor space and is set to attract a total investment of 50 billion yuan (.98 billion).合约表明,将建立一个中外合资公司进行施工。主题公园有望于2019年开放,占地面积达202万平方米,将吸引总投资500亿元人民币(79.8亿美元)。The Universal Studios theme parks boast of offering a behind–the-scene look at movie making. Its Beijing location, the sixth of its kind in the world and the third in Asia, will become the largest one.据悉,环球影城主题公园将向游客展示电影幕后制作。北京环球主题公园是环球世界第六个也是亚洲第三个主题公园,将是最大的环球主题公园。The first stage of the project includes a Universal CityWalk retail-entertainment complex and the world’s first Universal-themed resort hotel, both being completed in five years. Another theme park, a water park and five other resort hotels are planned to be built in the second stage.项目一期工程包括零售综合环球商业街和世上第一家环球主题度假酒店,预计五年内完成。项目二期工程包括第二主题公园、水上乐园和另外五座度假酒店。Traditional and modern Chinese culture elements have been incorporated in the planning to boost the city’s tourist appeal to foreign visitors, according to the culture and tourism administration bureau of Tongzhou district.据通州区的文化旅游表示,传统与现代中国文化话元素已纳入计划,从而提升城市对外国游客的吸引力。The US side also promised to put the world’s best and popular entertainment projects into the Beijing Universal Studios, with the Hollywood filmmaker Steven Spielberg involved in the design of the park.美方曾表示,将把全世界最好和最受欢迎的项目放在北京,好莱坞著名导演史蒂芬·斯皮尔伯格将参与北京环球主题公园的设计。Subway Line 7 will be extended to reach the park and put into use before the opening to meet the demand of the tourists.地铁7号线将延伸至主题公园,并在公园开放前投入使用以满足游客的需求。Universal Studios now operates five theme parks - in Los Angeles, Orlando, Osaka and Singapore.环球影城目前有五个主题公园——在洛杉矶、奥兰多、大阪和新加坡。 /201509/399167。

Lightning has broken a finger off the right hand of Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro.里约热内卢的耶稣基督雕像16日夜遭闪电打击,右手大拇指尖被削掉。Father Omar, rector of the shrine that holds the statue, told the Globo radio station that lightning frequently strikes the nearly 100-foot tall statue, a symbol of Rio that overlooks the Brazilian city from the peak of the Corcovado mountain.耶稣神像所属教区的奥马尔牧师向巴西环球之声透露,这座坐落在科尔科瓦山之巅的基督雕像高达100英尺,俯瞰城市的耶稣基督已经成为里约热内卢的城市标志,而其却经常成为闪电击打的对象。Its right hand had been damaged sometime ago, but the finger finally broke off in a storm late Thursday.之前基督雕像的右手就曾被闪电毁损过,但在上周四的一场暴风雨中,右手中指尖还是被削掉了。“lightning does not strike the same spot twice. But with the Christ it does,” the priest said on Friday.“闪电一般不会两次击中同一个地方,但对于这座基督雕像来说是个例外。”周五牧师受访时称。A lightning rod and other equipment are in place “to protect the image,” but they do not always do the trick, he said.牧师称,避雷针和其他的设备都已到位来“保护雕塑的形象”,但它们不是总能发挥作用的。Father Omar noted that people who work at the site are usually warned in advance by city officials about electrical storms so they can ensure the safety of the thousands of visitors at the site on top of Corcovado mountain.奥马尔神父还提到,通常会有提前的官方雷电预警通知神像所在风景区的工作人员,这样在科尔科瓦山顶瞻仰基督塑像的千万游客的安全就得到了保障。“I have aly endured the situation of being at the Christ at a time of rain and a lot of lightning, and it is scary. But we have a plan to quickly take all visitors away from there,” the priest said.“我在这里已经经历了好些坏天气了,比如下大雨或者雷暴天气。但我们有快速疏散游客的紧急计划。”牧师说道。The statue is set to be refurbished next month, so this and other damage are set to be fixed.该塑像计划于下月进行整修,这样新旧损伤也将于一并修复。 /201401/274059。

This month, in a plebiscite on Catalan independence, four out of five voters opted to secede from Spain. The vote was symbolic: Madrid does not recognise Catalans’ sovereignty or their legal right to leave the Spanish state. Artur Mas, the Catalan president, is under criminal investigation for holding the poll. The Spanish government says his plan for independence in 2016 is “a road to nowhere”.最近,在加泰罗尼亚的独立公投上,五分之四的选民赞成脱离西班牙。这场投票只是象征性的:西班牙政府并不承认加泰罗尼亚的主权,也不承认该地区人民拥有脱离西班牙的法律权利。该自治区主席阿图尔#8226;马斯(Artur Mas)因举行独立公投面临刑事调查。西班牙政府称,马斯寻求在2016年独立的计划是“一条绝路”。We do things differently in Britain. We have real referendums on independence, where even the defeated parties end up as winners. On September 18, 55 per cent of Scots voted against seceding from the UK in a referendum whose question, timing and franchise were shaped by the Scottish government. By then, dizzied by the yeasty nationalists, the leaders of the main UK parties had vowed that a No vote would still lead to devolution of “extensive new powers” to Edinburgh. This week, a cross-party group tasked with turning that vague promise into reality issued its recommendations. The conclusion of the commission led by Lord Smith of Kelvinmeans that Scotland should soon become one of the most powerful devolved nations in the world.在英国,我们处理事情的方式不同。我们举行了真正的独立公投,而即使是被击败的党派,最后也成为了赢家。9月18日,在一场问题、时机和投票权都掌握在苏格兰政府手中的全民公投中,55%的苏格兰人选择留在英国。公投举行之时,被煽风点火的民族主义者搞得头晕脑胀的英国主要政党的领袖们誓言,如果苏格兰选择不独立,将向苏格兰下放“广泛的新权力”。最近,负责落实这个模糊承诺的跨党派团体发表了建议。由史密斯勋爵(Lord Smith of Kelvin)领导的委员会做出的结论意味着,苏格兰很快将成为世界上得到最多放权的民族地区之一。After a rushed process described by close observers as “ghastly”, “awful” and nearly ruined by “halfwits”, the group has proposed sweeping reforms. Most important are those to do with tax and spending. Under the Smith deal, Scotland would raise almost 40 per cent of its own taxes (up from less than 10 per cent) and control about half of the spending in the country. These changes are substantial. But it is naive to think they form Scotland’s final settlement.密切观察这一进程的人士称,委员会仓促的决议过程“令人反感”、“糟透了”,几乎被“白痴”毁了。委员会提出了全面改革方案,其中最重要的是与税收和公共出相关的改革。根据史密斯提出的方案,苏格兰将有权征收本地区近40%的税(目前这个比例低于10%)并控制大约一半的公共出。这些改变具有实质意义,但如果认为它们将一劳永逸地解决苏格兰问题,就太天真了。Its champions believe that the Smith report means Scottish politics can return to normal. Since 2007, when the Scottish National party took charge of the devolved parliament, constitutional questions – culminating in the independence referendum – have defined politics north of the border. As if plagued by status anxiety, the SNP has agonised over what it does not have while neglecting what it has. Only independence, it argues, can activate Scotland’s latent social democracy. The party’s opponents now argue that Holyrood will soon have the powers to redistribute income and introduce benefits. If the SNP wants to fund munificent statism, they imply, it will need to persuade Scots to foot the bill. Unionists want to end the SNP’s double life as both a party of protest and a party of power.改革方案的捍卫者认为,史密斯报告意味着苏格兰政治将恢复常态。2007年苏格兰民族党(Scottish National Party,简称SNP)入主苏格兰议会后,宪法问题成了苏格兰政治的中心,最终带来独立公投。就像一个“地位焦虑症”患者,苏格兰民族党一直对自己没有的东西耿耿于怀,而对自己拥有的东西视而不见。该党提出,只有独立才能激活苏格兰内在的社会民主主义。该党的反对者现在主张,苏格兰议会很快就会拥有收入再分配和引入福利的权力。他们暗示,如果苏格兰民族党想搞福利优厚的国家主义,就需要说苏格兰人为此买单。统一派想要终结苏格兰民族党既做抗议党、又是执政党的双重身份。Scotland would certainly benefit from having its governing party govern. Holyrood politics is cozily consensual. Cults have more genuine disputes. The few self-reflective nationalists admit that their party is incurious about policy. There is no proper debate in Scotland about how to improve its awful public health or how the widest educational inequalities in the UK could be narrowed. Scotland aly controls these areas. A moratorium on independence talk would give Holyrood the room to take on entrenched problems.苏格兰肯定能获益于一个当家作主的执政党。目前苏格兰议会政治基本上是一团和气的共识政治。就连极端宗教团体内部的意见分歧也比它更加真实一些。一些自我反思的民族主义者承认,他们的政党对政策毫不关心。对于如何改善糟糕的公共卫生,如何缩小整个联合王国范围最严重的教育不平等,苏格兰没有展开认真的辩论。苏格兰已经控制这些领域。暂缓关于苏格兰独立的讨论,将让苏格兰议会腾出精力应对一些根深蒂固的问题。However, the Smith commission is only a scene in the denouement of Scotland’s modern history. It will not end the tension between London and Edinburgh. For a start, there are thorny issues arising from the Smith recommendations. Universal credit, the UK’s foundering flagship welfare policy, will be run from Westminster and may work against Scottish efforts to reduce unemployment. Because of the tax powers still vested in London, Holyrood will not be able to redistribute income to the bottom fifth of Scottish earners. The “fiscal framework” is subject to negotiation; changes to the grant given to Scotland may cause resentment. And then there is the Conservative opposition to Scottish MPs voting on how income taxes are imposed in the rest of the UK.然而,史密斯委员会只是苏格兰现代史结局的一段情节。它不会结束伦敦和爱丁堡之间的紧张关系。首先,史密斯的建议将引发一些棘手的问题。联合王国议会将运行“统一福利”(Universal credit)——英国问题多多的旗舰福利政策,这可能不利于苏格兰减少失业的努力。由于税收权力仍归伦敦,苏格兰议会将无法对苏格兰收入分布最底层五分之一的人群重新分配收入。“财政框架”还需要经过谈判,对苏格兰拨款的变化可能会引起不满。此外,英国保守党反对苏格兰议员参与对英国其他地区征税事务的投票。The SNP will still be able to protest. Governing is the party’s MacGuffin: the aptly named literary device that serves no purpose other than as a trigger for the plot, in this case independence. The nationalist reaction to the Smith report was laughably typical. Having signed up to the cross-party agreement at 7pm on Wednesday, it had briefed against it by 9pm. On Thursday came the predictable complaints that Smith did not go far enough. It never does. It never will.苏格兰民族党仍能抗争。执政是该党的“麦高芬”(MacGuffin):一种恰当命名的文学手法,其唯一作用就是推动情节(苏格兰独立事业)发展。民族主义者对史密斯报告的反应实在可笑。上周三晚7点签署了跨党派协议后,当晚9点该党就举行反对该协议的吹风会。不出所料,上周四开始有人抱怨史密斯走得不够远。放权从来都是不够远的,而且永远不会够远。And why would the SNP change? The party has gone from an esoteric pursuit to within 400,000 votes of independence in a generation. There has been no reflection on why they lost in September because they do not believe that assessment of the result.再说,苏格兰民族党为什么要改变?该党在开始时只是少数人的追求,但在一代人时间内已将统独票数之差缩小到40万票以下。他们没有对9月份公投失败进行反省,因为他们不相信对公投结果的那种评估。The party’s membership has quadrupled. The SNP conference had the tenor of a revivalist meeting. If Jim Murphy wins the Scottish Labour leadership election next month, he would offer stronger opposition to the nationalists. But he is one man. A strong SNP performance in the 2015 UK general election, and/or the 2016 Scottish elections, will encourage the nationalists to think they have a mandate for even more devolution: “Smith plus”.苏格兰民族党的党员已翻了两番,该党大会的基调为复兴。如果吉姆#8226;墨菲(Jim Murphy)下月赢得苏格兰工党领导人选举,他会成为针对民族主义者的更强大反对派。但他只是一个人。苏格兰民族党如果在2015年英国大选,及/或2016年苏格兰选举中有强劲表现,将鼓励民族主义者相信他们有资格争取更多权力下放:“史密斯建议增强版”。In September, Scotland rejected independence but affirmed that its participation in the union is voluntary and contingent. British identity is dissolving in the slow ebb of empire. The referendum suggests that the union will survive so long as Scots feel they are better off within it. In spite of the nationalists’ disingenuity, most still believe in that practical rationale. But this could change if the Conservatives retain power in May and hold an EU referendum. If Britain were then to choose to leave the EU, Scotland would probably demand the right to a second independence vote.苏格兰在9月份拒绝了独立,但确认了自己是自愿及有条件加入联盟的。随着大英帝国的衰落,对英国的认同感已逐渐消解。独立公投的结果暗示,只有在苏格兰人觉得自己留在联盟内更划算的情况下,联盟才会存续。尽管民族主义者不老实,但多数人仍相信这一现实的逻辑。但如果保守党在明年5月份守住权力,并举行是否脱离欧盟(EU)的全民公投,这种情况可能会发生改变。如果到时候英国选择离开欧盟,苏格兰很可能会要求举行第二次独立公投。The Smith commission was not able to change the increasingly transactional – and therefore fragile – Anglo-Scottish relationship. Paradoxically, the most important news for the future of Scotland this week had little to do with constitutions. The oil price, upon which nationalist hopes for a viable economy rest, continues to fall. Its volatility is a reminder that Scotland’s future will be determined by global events as well as domestic politics.史密斯委员会无法改变这种日趋交易性的——因而脆弱的——盎格鲁-苏格兰关系。矛盾的是,上周对苏格兰未来最重要的消息与宪法没什么关系。民族主义者将苏格兰经济的未来寄望于石油价格,然而油价持续下跌。这种波动性是个提醒:苏格兰的未来除了取决于国内政治外,还将受到全球事件影响。Pragmatism won in September and it remains the main reason among Scots for staying in the UK. Devolution can do so only much to alter that fact; Lord Smith went with the flow of history rather than arresting it.务实主义赢得了9月公投,而且仍是苏格兰留在英国的主要原因。权力下放对这一事实能够做出的变更是有限度的。史密斯勋爵顺应了历史潮流,而没有阻碍它。 /201412/346744。

Are you saving too much for retirement? Can you believe I#39;m even asking that question?你的养老金是不是存得太多了?或者你认为这个问题本身就很无厘头?Full disclosure: The folks at Morningstar Investment Management, specifically head of retirement research David Blanchett, asked it first. He found that for many people the answer is yes -- by an average of 20%. That, as Blanchett acknowledges, is a big deal. ;Retirement is, by and large, the most expensive purchase of anyone#39;s lifetime,; he says. ;For people who think they need million but find they only need 0,000, it is a big difference.;而事实是这样的:晨星投资管理公司(Morningstar Investment Management)退休研究部主管大卫?布兰切特率先提出了这个问题,而且他发现, 20%左右的人对这个问题的回答是肯定的。布兰切特认为情况有些严重,他说:“养老储蓄金毫无疑问是大多数人人生最大的一笔投入。但想象和现实差距很大,人们以为自己需要存上100万美元来养老,实际上只要80万就够了。”So how do you figure out whether it applies to you? You have to take a step back and look at both the retirement saving goals you#39;ve set for yourself and your current spending.那么,这种情况是否也出现在你身上?大家最好还是重新审视一下自己的养老储蓄计划,以及目前的开销。There has long been a rule of thumb that says you should plan to replace 70% to 80% of your pre-retirement income (that is, your final annual salary before you retire) in retirement -- and that that number should be adjusted upward, with inflation, each year. In real life, data from the Survey of Consumer Finances shows, spending, and therefore the amount you#39;ll need, isn#39;t that linear.长期以来,根据概测法,人们应该存下退休前收入(即退休前的最终年收入)的70%到80%作为养老金。而且,算上通货膨胀的话,这个比例还应该逐年上调。但美国消费者金融调查报告(Survey of Consumer Finances)的数据显示,人们的实际开销并不会因为通胀的影响而上涨。People in their mid-40s to 50s spend the most. (As someone right in the middle of that range with one child in college and another starting in 18 months, I can totally see why that#39;s the case.) From there, spending starts to decline as -- typically -- the kids leave the nest, you downsize, retire the mortgage (although that#39;s getting less common), ditch the extra car, etc., etc., until medical needs drive expenses up again toward the end of life. Bottom line, the amount people need to replace varies from under 54% of pre-retirement income to over 87%.通常,四十五至五十岁的人群开销最大。(这个年龄段的人通常要负担一个上大学的孩子,同时抚养一个一两岁的小家伙。)但之后,开就逐渐减少了,尤其是等到孩子们都成年以后,父母们就会缩减开销,取消房贷抵押(尽管这种情况越来越少),处理掉多余的汽车。这种状态一直持续到晚年,直到医疗和交通方面的开销出现增长。根据年龄段的不同,人们退休后的年均最低花费在退休前收入中的占比从低于54%到超过87%不等。For average earners, whose pre-retirement income is roughly ,000, this is welcome news, says Michael Falcon, Head of Retirement at JP Morgan Asset Management. Their annual spending in retirement seems not to be escalating as previously thought from around ,000 at age 65 to nearly ,000 at age 90 (due to inflation); instead, it climbs only to around ,000. Social Security can cover a significant chunk of that.根大通资产管理公司(JP Morgan Asset Management)退休部的主管迈克尔?法尔孔说,这对于年收入约5.6万美元的中等收入人群是个鼓舞人心的消息:这部分人群退休后的年度开并没有像当初预料的那样,从65岁时所需的4.3万美元增长到90岁时的8万美元(受通胀影响),而是仅仅止步于5万美元左右。其中,社保资金弥补了相当大的缺口。But higher earners -- particularly those who earn more than the median income but below what the country considers wealthy -- should be cautious before taking their feet off the gas. Their spending actually declines in retirement -- but that still doesn#39;t mean they#39;ll have saved enough to cover it.但收入更高的人群,尤其是高于平均水平,但称不上富豪的那些人,在决定养老储蓄时不能掉以轻心。他们退休后的开当然会较之退休前减少,但这并不意味着他们的储蓄足以维持这些开。;Having to save more is an affluent problem,; Falcon says. And here#39;s why: ;If I make 0,000 to 0,000 a year, I#39;m probably spending a lower percentage of my gross income pre-retirement because of saving and taxes,; Falcon says. ;I may be spending only 50% of my gross salary.; Still, because of the higher take-home, Social Security will not replace the same percentage of pre-retirement income. And taxes -- including those on withdrawals from retirement accounts -- will take a bigger bite.法尔孔说:“多攒钱是‘富人’不得不面对的问题。”他的解释是:“如果我一年能挣20万到30万美元,那么在退休前,我的开销可能是收入中较小的一部分,因为我得存钱,还得交税。我大概只会花掉总收入的50%。”而由于扣除各种费用后的实际收入更高,社会保险所能承担的退休后开占退休前收入的比例也无法达到与较低收入人群相同的比例。而税款也是很大一笔开,包括从退休账户取款需要缴纳的税款。Of course it pays to figure out if indeed you#39;re over-saving. That would free you up to use the money in the present, whether you put it toward defraying student loan debt for your kids or enjoying yourselves. Blanchett recommends a personal touch. ;Nothing can substitute for spending five hours with a CFP,; he says. ;But the percent of the population that will do that ... is a definite minority.; For people who are not going to engage, utilizing the online tools and retirement calculators available is a step in the right direction.当然,确定自己是否过度储蓄是明智之举。这样的话,你就不会在当下急需开时瞻前顾后。比如,你可以把一部分储蓄用来替孩子还掉助学贷款,也可以把它用于休闲。布兰切特给出了一条私人建议:“和金融理财师交流5小时绝对有必要。遗憾的是,很少有人这么做。”如果你不想聘请理财师,利用网络工具和退休计算器也不失为明智的做法。And remember, one thing this paper shows is that this is not a one-and-done experience. Your spending is not static. Neither is your health, earning potential, or -- even further from your control -- the sequence of your investment returns. Even if you#39;ve set retirement goals and are working toward them, revisiting the process every couple of years will pay off. Not just in how you#39;re able to live in the long run, but in how you#39;re able to live today.另外,请记住,这篇文章要说明的道理之一是,制定退休储蓄计划不是一劳永逸的事。你的花销并不是一成不变,同样,你的健康状况、赚钱能力以及你的投资回报顺序也不是一成不变的,未来它们甚至会失去控制。即使你已设定了退休目标,而且正在为之奋斗,每隔几年重新评估一下也是相当重要的。这样做不仅有益于未来的生活,也有助于过好当前的生活。 /201401/273437。