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2019年09月21日 04:56:56 | 作者:安心诊疗 | 来源:新华社
Mao Sui Recommending Himself毛遂自荐Historical Record Volume 76 Prince Ping Yuan Biographies:《史记》卷七十六《平原君虞卿列传》记载:Qin’s troops laid siege to Handan, the capital of the State of Zhao.春秋时,秦军在长平一线,大胜赵军。秦军主将白起,领兵乘胜追击,包围了赵国都城邯郸。Therefore, Prince Ping Yuan was to be sent on a mission to the State of Chu to form an alliance against Qin.大敌当前,赵国形势万分危急。平原君奉赵王之命,去楚国求兵解围。Among the guests fed by Ping Yuan was a man called Mao Sui who went up to his host and recommended himself as a member of the Prince’s suite.平原君把门客召集起来,想挑选20个文武全才一起去。他挑了又挑,选了又选,最后还缺一个人。这时,门客毛遂自我推荐,说:“我算一个吧!”The negotiations between the Prince and the King of Chu proceeded without substantial results.到了楚国,楚王只接见平原君一个人。两人坐在殿上,从早晨谈到中午,还没有结果。Seeing this, Mao Sui mounted bravely the platform where the negotiations were being held and stated the advantages and disadvantages.毛遂大步跨上台阶,把出兵援赵有利楚国的道理,作了非常精辟的分析。The King of Chu was at last convinced and decided to dispatch his troops for saving the State of Zhao.毛遂的一番话,说得楚王心悦诚,答应马上出兵。Now, this allusion is used to refer to those who volunteer to offer one’s services for a task or a job.成语“毛遂自荐”由此而来, 比喻不经别人介绍,自我推荐担任某一项工作。 /201509/3953835.Chocolate5.巧克力When you take a bite out of a well-made chocolate bar, it feels like you#39;re eating the food of the gods. And, well, you#39;d be exactly right.当你从一根做好的巧克力棒上咬下一口的时候,你会觉得自己是在吃神赐的食物。好吧,确实是如此。The story begins as far back as 1500, when the Olmec managed to find and utilize cocoa beans. Of course, it was not called #39;cocoa#39; then, but #39;kakawa#39; – where we get the name from. They managed to turn it into a drink, but historians are hard-pressed to find any evidence that the Olmec did much else with it. The Mayans, however, loved the stuff. They identified it as a food of Kon, the god of rain and wind. They drank it, used the mixture as a substitute for blood in rituals, and even used the beans as currency. That#39;s right; once upon a time, you could buy things with chocolate. As for the solid bars we all know and love? They didn#39;t pop up until around 1850AD. Even after all of these years, however, we still love to offer chocolate to people we praise highly.故事开始于公元前1500年,奥尔梅克人发现了可可豆,并研究其用法。当然,那时候它还不叫;可可;,而是;kakawa;——现在的名字由此演变而来。他们将其做成一种饮品,但历史学家们很难找到据明奥尔梅克人用它制作了其他的东西。但是玛雅人很爱这种东西。他们确信它是风雨神Kon的一种食物。他们饮用这种饮品,在祭祀仪式上用它代替血,甚至用可可豆来当货币。没错,曾经有一段时间,你可以用巧克力来买东西。那么我们所认识且钟爱的巧克力棒呢?它们直到公元1850年才出现。然而,纵然过去了这么多年,我们仍然喜欢为我们珍爱的人赠送巧克力。4.Worcestershire Sauce4.辣酱油While relatively unknown to most of the world, this foodstuff gets a spot on this list because it was made entirely by accident.尽管辣酱油在世界上很多地方都鲜有人知,但我们还是将这种食物纳入这篇文章中,因为它的制作完全是个意外。It began its life as an Indian sauce. The recipe made its way over to Worcester, England, where two chemists, John Wheeley Lea and William Perrins, got their hands on it. They marketed this new exotic sauce, claiming all sorts of healing properties to cure common problems. When they actually made the stuff, however, it tasted awful. The pair stuffed the rest in a barrel and left it in a cellar, presumably to use again some day. That day didn#39;t come until two years later. The pair, rediscovering their old invention, decided to give it a second shot. What should have probably murdered them, actually tasted very good. The pair decided to sell the sauce under the name #39;Lea and Perrins,#39; a brand name that is strong to this day. Who knows how many other food inventions we#39;ve missed, due to people not willing to eat vastly out-of–date food?它最初是一种印度酱油。这个食谱传到了英国伍斯特,被两位化学家John Wheeley Lea 和William Perrins所得。他们售卖这种新的异国酱油,宣称它能治愈一般的疾病。然而,当他们实际制成了这种东西的时候,它的味道非常糟糕。这两个人将剩下的酱油倒进一个桶里,存放在地窖中,准备过几天再用。而这一天直到两年后才到来。这两个人重新发现了他们过去的发明,决定再试试。差点让他们笑死的是,这东西尝起来非常美味。两人决定售卖这种酱油,给它取名;Lea and Perrins;,这个商标直到今天依然赫赫有名。因为人们不愿意吃那些过期的食物,谁知道我们因此错过了多少美食的发明?3.Milkshake3.奶昔Milkshakes are a lovely treat for the young, but you definitely would not want to give the original recipe to a child.奶昔是款待年轻人的好东西,但你绝对不愿意给孩子们品尝早期的奶昔。The first time the world saw the word #39;milkshake#39; was in 1885, in a British newspaper. The article did not go on to talk about if people preferred strawberry or banana flavour; in fact, what the article did say was that milkshake was a ;sturdy, healthful eggnog type of drink, with eggs, whiskey, etc., served as a tonic as well as a treat.; Yes, that#39;s right; the original milkshake contained alcohol. The actual milkshake we know and love came a little later in the 1900s. In 1922, a man called Ivan ;Pop; Coulson wanted to make a remix on the recipe. Ever an experimenter, he added the one ingredient that made a huge impact on the recipe of milkshake forever; ice cream. Since then, the version with whiskey in it has fallen out of public knowledge; unfortunately, alcoholic milkshakes are not an item on the #39;hidden #39; in fast food places.;奶昔;一词于1885年在英国的一份报纸上第一次问世。文章并没有继续讨论人们更喜欢草莓还是香蕉的香味;实际上,这篇文章所描述的奶昔是一种;坚硬的、健康的蛋酒式饮品,里面加有鸡蛋、威士忌等,既是一种补药,也可用来款待宾朋。;没错,最初的奶昔里面含有酒精。我们现在知道且喜爱的奶昔出现得较晚,到20世纪90年代才出现。1922年,一个名叫Ivan Pop Coulson的人想在食谱中再混合点东西。他在试验品中加入了一种发挥了重要作用的原料——冰激凌。从那以后,加有威士忌版本的奶昔就逐渐退出了公众视野;不幸地是,酒味奶昔在快餐店的;隐藏菜单;里也不提供。2.Graham Crackers2.全麦饼干Do you feel less lust after eating a graham cracker? You should do – or, at least, the inventor of it hopes you do.吃完一片全麦饼干以后是否觉得欲望有所减轻呢?这正是——或至少是其发明者所希望的。In the 1830s, reverend Sylvester Graham decided that America had become too lust-filled. In order to curb the problem and help people across the nation get back onto a good God-fearing path, he created the #39;Graham diet.#39; The diet consisted of wheat, fruit and vegetables, but absolutely no meat; eating meat and fatty foods was, Graham claimed, a way to invoke sexual thoughts in the mind. Sylvester Graham invented the graham cracker as a part of his newfound diet. He wasn#39;t alone in his mind-set; someone else who shared this was John Harvey Kellogg. Does the name seem familiar? That#39;s right – Kellogg#39;s corn flakes. The beloved breakfast cereal was Kellogg#39;s way to save the souls of the American people, but ended up being a delicious breakfast rather than a cure for the wandering eye. Next time you need to calm down, try stuffing graham crackers into your mouth. If the wheat doesn#39;t do the trick, the dry mouth certainly will.19世纪30年代,教士Sylvester Graham认为美国欲望太过膨胀。为解决这一问题,帮助全国的人们回到一条虔诚的道路上,他发明了;Graham 饮食;。这种饮食中包括谷物、水果和蔬菜,但绝对没有肉;Graham认为,吃肉和脂肪类食品会引发人心中的淫欲。Sylvester Graham发明了全麦饼干作为他的全新饮食的一部分。他并不是一个人将想法付诸实际;另外一个与他共享的是John Harvey Kellogg。这名字是不是有些熟悉?没错——Kellogg#39;s玉米片。Kellogg想要以这种受人喜爱的早餐谷物来拯救美国人的灵魂,谁知它没有拯救得了迷茫的双眼,却成为了美味的早餐。当下次你需要冷静一下的时候,试试在你嘴里塞上全麦饼干。如果小麦解决不了问题,那口干舌燥的感觉肯定会让你达到目的。1.Marshmallows1.棉花糖To better understand where the marshmallow came from, you must first understand that the name #39;marshmallow#39; is a combination of #39;marsh#39; and #39;mallow#39;. It refers to the Mallow plants that grew around marshes; hence the name.为了更好地理解棉花糖从哪而来,你必须要理解棉花糖的名字,;棉花糖marshmallow;是由marsh(沼泽)和mallow(锦葵)组成。它是指生长在沼泽中的锦葵,这就是它的名字。This specific plant was harvested in Egyptian times. They did not merely eat it for its sweet flavour, however. Back then, Egyptian doctors were convinced that marshmallow was an effective way of curing a sore throat in children, which sounds like a medication a child would never reject. In fact, it#39;s thought that this miracle medicine was eaten by richer kids as a treat, rather than a cure. As for the marshmallow as we know of it today, the root goes back to 1800s France, where it was pushed as a treat for kids and adults alike. Then, in 1948, Alex Doumak created a way to make the little delights in a way that was completely automated, allowing the sweet treat to be produced efficiently. While the marshmallow is treated as a candy rather than medicine, it wouldn#39;t hurt to buy a big bag and #39;experiment#39; for yourself next time you catch a cold.这种特殊的植物在埃及时代丰收。但人们不是仅仅为了食用它的甜味。当时,埃及的医生相信,沼泽中的锦葵可以有效地治疗儿童咽喉疼痛,孩子似乎不会拒绝这种药。实际上,人们认为,富人家的孩子吃这种神奇的药作为消遣,而不是治疗疾病。至于今天我们所知道的棉花糖,要追溯到19世纪的法国,它很受孩子和成年人的喜爱。到1948年,Alex Doumak发明了一种方法使这种小甜品的生产完全自动化,提高了它的生产效率。尽管棉花糖成为了一种糖果而非药品,但你下次感冒的时候买上一大包自己;试验;一下也不会有害。翻译:赵倩 来源:前十网 /201510/405397The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period春秋战国时期The Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought争鸣As an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China, the Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子)lasted from 770 to 222 .作为中国历史上一个文化与智慧迅速扩展的时代,诸子始于公元前770年,终于公元前222年。Known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought and the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (争鸣),the period saw the rise of many different schools of thought.这个时代被誉为中国思想的黄金时期和争鸣的时期,它见了不同思想学派的兴起。Many of the great Chinese classic texts that originated during this period have had profound influences on Chinese lifestyle and social consciousness lasting to the present day.不少起源于这个时代的中国古典著作直到今日对中国人的生活方式和社会意识还有着深远的影响。The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant intellectuals, who were usually employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy.这个时代的知识型社会以流动的智者为特征,这些智者被不同国家的君主任用为顾问,针对治国之道、治军之道和外交手段提出建议。Confucianism (儒家思想)is the body of thought that has arguably had the most enduring effect on Chinese life.儒家思想可能是对于国人生活最具有长远影响的本体思想。Also known as the School of the Scholars, its written legacy lies in the Confucian Classics, which later became the foundation of the traditional society.它还被称为学者学派,其文学遗产存在于儒家典籍中,这些典籍为传统社会奠定了基础。The representative of this thought is Confucius (孔子),he believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: “Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject.”这种思想的代表人物是孔子,他坚信政府唯一行之有效的体制必然是个体之间明确规定的关系:“君君,臣臣”。Furthermore, he contended that a king must be virtuous in order to rule property.除此之外,他主张君主以仁治国。Mencius (孟子) was a Confucian disciple who made major contributions to the sp of humanism in Confucian thought, declaring that man, by nature, was inherently good.孟子是孔子的弟子,他为儒家思想中人道的传播做出了主要贡献,宣扬“人性本善”。He argued that a ruler could not govern without the people;s tacit consent, and that the penalty for unpopular, despotic rule was the loss of the “mandate of heaven”.他认为一位君主不可能脱离人民的默许而治理国家,而不得人心的惩罚与暴虐的管理是“天命”的缺失。Another Confucian follower was Xun Zi (荀子)who preached that man is innately selfish and evil,孔子的另一位继承者是荀子,宣扬“人性本恶”,he asserted that goodness is attainable only through education and conduct befitting one;s status.他坚称教育是唯一能够获得仁善的渠道,而后天的环境会影响人的仁善。He also argued that the best form of government is one based on authoritarian control, and that ethics is irrelevant in the context of effective rule.他还认为国家治理最好的形式应建立在专治管理之上,仁义道德与有效统治的环境没有关系。Legalism (法家思想)greatly influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government.法家思想深刻地影响了国家管理形式的哲学基础。During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken to form a sort of synthesis, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain largely intact until the late 19th century.在汉代,儒家思想和法家思想中最实用的元素被结合起来,创造了一种政府管理的新模式,这种模式一直被完整保留到19世纪末期。As the second most significant stream of Chinese thought, the Zhou period also saw the development of Taoism (道家思想).中国同样见了国学思想中第二主要的流派——道家思想的发展。Its formulation is often attributed to the legendary sage Lao Zi (老子)and Zhuang Zi (庄子).它由传说中的圣人老子和庄子所构建。The focus of Taoism is on the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society;道家思想的核心在于自然境界中的个人而不是社会中的个人。according to Taoism, the goal of life for each individual is to seek to adjust oneself and adapt to the rhythm of the natural world, to follow the Way of the universe, to live in harmony.根据道家思想,每个人的生活目标应该是调整自我来适应自然世界的节奏,顺应宇宙的模式,和谐生活。The school of Mohism (墨家思想)was founded upon the doctrine of Mozi (墨子).墨家学派是基于墨子思想而创立的。Though the school did not survive through the Qin Dynasty, Mohism was seen as a major rival of Confucianism in the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought.尽管这个学派在秦朝没有得以发展,墨家思想仍被认为是争鸣学派中儒家思想的主要竞争对手。Its philosophy rested on the idea of universal love: Mozi believed that “all men are equal before heaven”, and that mankind should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love.它的理论在于“兼爱”的思想。墨子相信“人人平等”,认为人们应该通过兼爱来模仿天志。His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that our cognition ought to be based on our perceptions—our sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing—instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on our capacity for abstraction.他的理论可以被看作是最原始的唯物主义。他相信我们的认知应该建立在我们的感觉,也就是我们的感官体验例如视觉和听觉上,而不应该建立在想象、内在联系或是以抽象概念为基础的元素上。In a word, the scene of “contention of a hundred schools of thought” brought forth in the Spring and Autumn Period 2 500 years ago and the Warring States Period over 2 200 years ago and the emergence of various schools of thought and their exponents such as Lao Zi and Confucius about 2400 years ago all occupy a very important position in the world history of philosophy.总而言之,“争鸣”的景象出现在2500年前的春秋时期和2200年前的战国时期。2400年前,诸子的出现以及他们的倡导者老子和孔子都在世界哲学史的发展过程中占据了重要地位。 /201509/397298

Photos of two 16-year-olds in a wedding gown and suit at what seems to be a wedding have triggered heated discussion on Chinese social media.两个身穿结婚礼和西装的孩子似乎在举办婚礼的照片引起了中国社交媒体的热议。The two teens, who were first reported to be a 13-year-old groom and a 16-year-old bride, have made clarification online that they both reached 16 years old, and their marriage has won the blessing and support of their parents, despite the legal marriageable age in China being 22 for males and 20 for females.媒体首次报道这两个青少年时表示,新郎今年13岁,而新娘则是16岁。但是随后他们在网上澄清,双方都已经16岁。尽管中国法定结婚年龄是男方22岁,女方20岁,他们的婚姻得到了双方父母的祝福和持。The couple, from a small town in south China#39;s Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, claimed to have known each other for over a year. Both have dropped out of school. Aside from clarifying their ages in the online statement, the two also refuted netizens#39; speculation that the marriage is due to the bride#39;s pregnancy.这对夫妇来自中国南部的广西壮族自治区,声称已相识一年有余,两人都已经辍学。除了在网络声明中澄清了自己的年龄以外,他们还反驳了网友关于新娘怀结婚的推测。;The marriage between us is just inevitable after knowing each other for over a year. So we just held the ceremony and will get a marriage certificate after we reach our legal age,; said the 16-year-old bride.16岁的新娘表示:“相识一年以后结婚是必然的。所以我们举办了婚礼,等到了法定年龄,就领取结婚。”The fact that the groom quit in the second year of junior high school sparked debate. According to Chinese law, a teenager has to receive nine years of compulsory education, namely six years of primary school education and three years in junior high school.新郎在初中二年级辍学这一事件引发了争议。根据中国法律,青少年必须接受九年义务制教育,即六年小学教育和三年初中教育。;My parents are farmers, and since I am not good at schooling, why waste the time and tuition fees? ; said the groom. Since two years ago, after he quit school, he has been working in Nanning, the capital city of Guangxi.但是新郎却说:“我的父母都是农民,我书念得不好,干嘛还浪费时间和学费?”自两年前退学以后,他就一直在广西省省会城市南宁工作。Some web users questioned the meaning of this wedding, since it is not legal. ;Is it possible that their families arranged this wedding, invited friends to the wedding banquet so as to collect gift money? The #39;marriage#39; is not protected by law anyway,; Weibo user Ajiaojiao said.因为婚礼不合法,一些网民质疑其举办的意义。微用户Ajiaojiao说:“有没有可能是他们的父母安排了这场婚礼,邀请朋友参加婚宴,借机收钱?无论如何,这场婚姻不会被任何法律保护。” /201602/428335

The Tang was the most brilliant dynasty in Chinese history, it’s also China’s second golden age after Han.唐朝是中国历史上最为辉煌的朝代,是中国继汉代之后的第二个黄金时期。Tang accomplished splendid achievements in the areas of politics, economy, military affairs, culture, and foreign relations.唐代时,中国在政治、经济、军事、文化、中外关系等各个方面都取得了辉煌的成就。Its especially important position in Chinese history may be summarized as follows :唐朝在中国历史上的特殊重要地位可以从以下几个方面来认识:First, it was a second peak of development in Chinese history. In Chinese history, the development of economy, politics and culture peaked three times after the Warring States Period. The first peak appeared in the Western Han Dynasty, the second in the Tang, and the third in the Ming and Qing dynasties.首先,中国历史自战国以来,社会经济、政治、文化等在发展过程中出现过三次高潮,即三次鼎盛局面:第一次在西汉,第二次在唐代,第三次在明清。The second period of development, especially the early years of the Tang Dynasty, saw ever rising agricultural production, increasingly fined handicrafts, a prosperous commodity economy, and vigorous urban life.在第二次高潮中,尤其是唐朝前期,农业生产蒸蒸日上,手工艺品日益精巧,商品经济空前繁荣,城市生活繁华似锦。In the late Tang, areas in the south of the Yangtze River developed further, which laid a foundation for the economy of the south to overtake the north.唐朝后期,江南经济进一步发展,为以后南方经济水平超越北方奠定了基础。The peaceful and stable periods of Zhenguan and Kaiyuan administrations exceeded even that of Emperors Wen and Jing of the Western Han.当时在政治上,先后出现了“贞观之治”和“开元之治”,国家统社会安定,呈现一派升平景象,其成就超越西汉的“文景之治”。The reign of Emperor Xuan Zong was the pinnacle of Tang culture and the thriving scene permeated all aspects of the arts-literature, in particular, reached new heights.唐玄宗统治时期,鼎盛局面达到了高峰,甚至在文坛上也出现了“盛唐气象”。The early stage of Tang witnessed the booming of liberal arts and a large scale of prominent artists were sprouted in such as fields of poem, writing and painting.唐朝前期的人文艺术发展迅速。诗、书、画各方面大批名家涌现。The renowed are “the four elites of the early Tang”(Wang Bo, Luo Binway,Yang Jiong and Lu Zhaoling),the pastoral poet Wang Wei (699 ~ 759) and the “immor-tal poet” Li Bai( (707 ~762) etc.其中包括 “初唐四杰”、“田园山水派”的代表王维(699 ~759);“边塞派”诗人岑参(715 ~ 770)以及素有“诗仙”之称的唐代大诗人李白(707 ~762)等等。In addition, the well-known representative artists are the “Sage painter” Wu Daozi, Li Sixun; the celebrated musician Li Guinian etc.此外,还有令人熟知的“画圣”吴道子,李思训,大音乐家李龟年,都是盛唐气象的代表。Without disturbance from both inside and outside, the economy in early Tang grew unprecedently.唐朝前期由于没有内忧外患,其经济得到了空前的发展。From the period of Zhenguan to Kaiyuan, the population, lands and food production exceeded to its previous dynasties.自贞观至开元年间,唐朝的人口、土地和粮食产量都大大超过了前朝。People enjoyed their contented and comfortable life.人民安居乐业,丰衣足食。All these achievements laid a solid base for future growth of handicraft industry.这也为之后大力发展手工业提供了有力的保障。From an international point of view, China under the Tang was one of the strongest and most important empires in the world.总体比较,就当时的世界范围来看,唐帝国也是最重要、最强盛的国家之一。At that time, the Franks and the Byzantine empires were the two most powerful regimes in Europe. But they were far surpassed by the Tang in social and economic development.欧洲的封建强国主要有法兰克王国和拜占庭帝国,但就社会发展阶段而言,他们都远远落后于唐朝。In the east, there was India and Japan.东方重要的国家有印度和日本。India had just established its feudal system when King Jieri reunified the subcontinent. But after his death the country fell again into disunity, which lasted until the end of the 12th century.印度戒日王重新统一次大陆刚刚确立了封建制,可他死后次大陆随即分崩离析,割据局面一直持续到12世纪末。The Japanese “Grand Reform”, though trying hard to imitate the Tang policies and systems, was nothing but a transition from slavery to feudalism.日本的“大化革新”虽然尽量模仿唐朝的制度,但改革本身却具有由奴隶制向封建制过渡的性质。Therefore, in the world-wide range, the Tang Dynasty stands by itself not only as an powerful nation but also the most developed one.所以,在世界范围内,唐朝不但能够自立于世界民族之林,而且属于最先进的行列。Secondly, the Tang Dynasty played an important role in unifying the many ethnic groups within its borders.其次,唐代在中国多民族国家的发展壮大中也具有重要的历史地位。Although the Sui Dynasty achieved reunification it only lasted a short time. As a result, it was up to the Tang rulers to consolidate and bring into its culture new influences from its many peoples.中国社会经过魏晋南北朝的民族融合和文化整合,到隋朝重新实现了政治统一。The Tang lasted nearly three hundred years. In its early years, it enjoyed harmonious unification, powerful national strength, and vast territories.但隋朝毕竟太短,中华民族新的统一体的巩固和发展,中国新文化的形成和繁盛,就成了 李唐王朝的历史任务。唐历时近300年,前期统一,国力强盛,疆域辽阔。Its advanced civilization attracted neighboring peoples who quickly adopted many of its practices. These people frequently intermingled, allowing a closer understanding of each others cultures.高度的物质文明和高水平的文化使周边各族增强了向心力,于是国内各民族间的接触和交往空前发展,民族关系进一步密切。Therefore, the Tang is regarded, along with the Han Dynasty an important period in the development of a unified and multi-racial country.因此,唐代是继汉代之后,中国统一的多民族国家壮大、发展的又一重要历史阶段。Thirdly, it facilitated the interaction between China and the world, its advanced civilization made the Tang Empire the envy of Asia, Europe and Africa, who frequently sent envoys and merchants. The Tang Empire thus became a centre of economic and cultural communication in Asian countries and played a pivotal role in communication between the East and the West.第三,唐帝国崇高的国际地位和辉煌的经济文化成就,使亚洲各国乃至欧洲、非洲国家对其产生了由衷的欣羡之情,他们争相与唐朝交往,遂使中国成为亚洲诸国经济文化交流的桥梁和中心,在东西方交往中发挥了显著重要的作用。Of the three main cultural centres in the world at that time, India, Arabia, and China, the latter was the most important one.在当时的世界中,文化交流中心主要有印度、阿拉伯和唐朝中国,其中又以唐朝地位最为 突出。Therefore, the Tang Dynasty was another significant stage after Han in that the economic and cultural communication was brought to another pear in the world.唐代是继汉代之后,中国历史上中外经济文化交流的又一高峰期,具有特别重要的地位。Fourth, Tang is an important period in history because it was a transitional stage from the early feudal to the late feudal system.第四,唐朝正处于中国古代社会由前期向后期发生转折的关键时期,从这个意义上说,唐朝也具有重要的历史地位。During this period, various systems underwent frequent and all-round reforms.与此相应是各项制度不断的、全面的变革更新。Therefore, many things that appeared in the Tang Dynasty had long-lasting influence on history for more than a thousand years.唐朝后期出现的很多萌芽状态的新事物,对此后千余年的历史发展产生了深远的影响。For example, the “two taxes” system of the Song Dynasty, the “ single whip method of taxation”of the Ming Dynasty were originated from the Tang’s taxation system.例如:宋时的“两税法”和明朝时的单税法都来自于唐朝的赋税制度。The philosophical thoughts of Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan in the mid-Tang laid a foundation for Neo-Confucianism in the Song and Ming dynasties.中唐时期韩愈和柳宗元的思想为宋和明朝时的“新儒家”思想奠定了基础。The influence of the classicist prose writing advocated by Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan continued through the Song Dynasty until the eve of the Vernacular (baihua) Movement during the May Fourth Movement. )由韩愈和柳宗元提倡的散文写作方法,传至宋直到五四运动前的白话文运动。Clearly, the two hundred years from the mid-Tang to the establishment of the Northern Song saw drastic changes in Chinese society.从唐中叶开始到北宋建立,200年间酝酿了中国古代社会的重大变化,许多新事物都萌发产 生于唐代。To sum up, the Tang was the greatest dynasty after the Han for its prosperous economy, vigorous culture, powerful strength, and high international status. It was remembered as “the strong Han and flourish Tang” in Chinese history. Developments in the late Tang served as a forerunner for future events that profoundly influ-enced China.总之,唐朝经济发达、文化繁荣、国力强盛,国际地位超越往古,是中国历史上继汉代之后出现的又一鼎盛局面,史称“强汉盛唐”;唐朝后期的发展又为中国古代社会的巨大变革开了先河。The Tang Dynasty fully deserved the “the greatest time” in the history of Chinese people.唐代当之无愧是中华民族历史上最光辉灿烂的伟大时代! /201602/421847

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