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2020年01月26日 13:06:03    日报  参与评论()人

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西安市第二医院消化病多少钱The death last week of Prince Saud al-Faisal, the respected statesman who had been foreign minister of Saudi Arabia for 40 years until this spring, prompted comment about the kingdom’s apparent transition from diplomacy behind the scenes to a policy of confrontation with Iran, the Sunni Arab realm’s Shia and Persian rival for regional hegemony.费萨尔亲王(Prince Saud Al-Faisal)担任沙特外交大臣长达40年,直至今年春季才卸任。这位备受尊敬的政治家于近日病逝,外界随即称,沙特明显正从幕后外交转向与伊朗正面对抗。两国是争夺地区霸权的对手,沙特王国是逊尼派掌权的阿拉伯国家,而伊朗是什叶派掌权国家,人口以波斯人为主。There is some truth in this. Prince Saud was by instinct a bridge-builder. Saudi foreign policy at the moment seems to be burning a lot of bridges. King Salman, who succeeded the late King Abdullah in January and recentralised power around himself and his family, served notice in March that he would fight Shia fire with Sunni fire.上述说法有几分道理。费萨尔亲王天生是一位“修桥人”。目前沙特的外交政策似乎正在烧掉大量的桥梁。萨勒曼(Salman)在今年1月接替阿卜杜拉(King Abdullah)出任沙特国王,他将权力重新集中在他本人及他的家族周围。萨勒曼国王在3月份宣称,逊尼派将对什叶派以牙还牙。The ruling House of Saud, legitimised by the kingdom’s absolutist strain of Wahhabi Islam, had watched in appalled paralysis as Iran and its proxies exploited the mayhem unleashed across Arab lands — from the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003 to the Arab spring after 2011 — to forge a Shia axis from Baghdad to Beirut.在伊朗及其代理人利用阿拉伯地区的混乱局势——从2003年美国牵头入侵伊拉克到2011年之后的“阿拉伯之春”运动——缔结从巴格达到贝鲁特的什叶派轴心联盟之际,伊斯兰瓦哈比专制教派持的沙特王室感到极度的震惊,并且没有还手之力。In March the Saudis launched an air war in Yemen, claiming Iran was behind an attempt by Shia Houthi fighters to overrun the country. Three months of futile and indiscriminate bombing later, this multi-sided contest for a failed state is no closer to resolution. The Saudis, who have never managed to do much about their ungovernable southern neighbours except bribe a varying combination of tribes, know full well that Tehran has played little more than a peripheral role in their recent protagonism. The war in Yemen is more a signal of deep unhappiness at the deal the US and world powers have struck with Iran over its nuclear programme. The bombing started in late March just as the two sides worked on a framework agreement in Lausanne.今年3月,沙特对也门发动了空袭,并宣称伊朗是什叶派胡塞(Houthi)武装分子肆虐也门的幕后主使。在经过3个月毫无成效的狂轰乱炸之后,这种多方参与的对一个失败国家的争夺仍毫无解决之计。沙特人除了贿赂诸多部落以外,从未对他们难以控制的南部邻国有过多少作为,他们清楚地知道,德黑兰在他们最近的重要行动中只不过扮演着次要角色。也门战争更多地表明,沙特对美国及其他强国与伊朗签署核协议感到极度不满。空袭也门开始于今年3月底,当时正是美伊双方在瑞士洛桑准备签署框架协议之际。In the interim, the regional menace of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (known as Isis) has not stopped the Saudi government fixating primarily on Iran and the Shia — but that was true long before the death of Prince Saud.在此期间,“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(ISIS)的地区性威胁未能阻止沙特政府把目光主要放在伊朗和什叶派上——但早在费萨尔亲王病逝前就是这种情况了。The veteran Arab diplomat had warned the Bush administration what would happen in Iraq and the region if it went ahead with the 2003 invasion. But it was also Prince Saud, Arab officials say, who told John Kerry, US secretary of state, last summer after Isis surged back from Syria into Iraq, that “Daesh [an Arabic acronym for Isis] is our [Sunni] response to your support for the Da’wa”, the Shia Islamist party that has dominated Iraq since the fall of Saddam Hussein’s minority Sunni regime — with varying degrees of support from Washington and Tehran.阿拉伯资深外交官曾警告布什政府称,如果推进2003年的入侵行动,伊拉克和中东地区将会陷入混乱。但阿拉伯国家的官员们表示,在ISIS从叙利亚杀回伊拉克之后,去年夏天费萨尔亲王曾向美国国务卿约翰克里(John Kerry)表示,“达伊沙(阿拉伯语对ISIS的首字母缩略词)是我们(逊尼派)对你们持达瓦党(Da’wa)的回应”。达瓦党是自萨达姆侯赛因(Saddam Hussein)的逊尼少数派政权倒台以来在伊拉克占据主导地位的伊斯兰什叶派系,获得了华盛顿和德黑兰不同程度的持。Isis is, of course, a physical threat to Saudi Arabia, where online polling suggests it has alarmingly high support. But the main fear of Saudi rulers is of being outflanked on the religious right by the jihadi extremists. The competition, therefore, is between Wahhabi absolutists and the Sunni supremacists of Isis as to which of them is a more credible scourge of the Shia — branded in both ideologies as polytheist heretics and rafidah (“rejectionist”).当然,ISIS对沙特阿拉伯造成了切实威胁,该国在线民调显示,ISIS的持率高得惊人。但沙特统治者主要担忧的是,在宗教权利方面,他们会被作为圣战极端分子的ISIS所超过。因此,竞争是在瓦哈比专制派别和ISIS的逊尼至上主义派别之间展开的,以决定他们哪个更有可能给什叶派造成麻烦——两种教义均将什叶派贴上多神主义异教徒和拒绝派(rafidah)的标签。The speeches of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the self-declared Isis caliph, are often marinated in pieces of Islamic lore ripped from their context and always threatening. But they repay examination. In mid-May, he labelled the Yemen operation, which the Saudis called Storm of Resolve, “the kick of a dying person”.ISIS自封的哈里发阿布贝克尔巴格达迪(Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi)在演讲中往往夹杂着断章取义的伊斯兰教义,始终在危言恫吓。但这些演讲值得研究。今年5月中旬,巴格达迪将空袭也门行动称为“垂死之人的挣扎”——沙特称为“决心风暴”。He mocked the Saudi air strikes as “a storm of delusion” and spoke of “the Muslim public in the Arabian Peninsula rallying around the Islamic State since it defends them against the rafidah”.他将沙特的空袭行动嘲讽为“妄想风暴”,并表示,“阿拉伯半岛的穆斯林民众聚集在我们的周围,因为伊斯兰国帮助他们抵御拒绝派”。Picking up on reports that Saudi Arabia had held meetings with Israel to discuss the consequences of an Iran nuclear deal, the Isis leader said the al-Saud were “not people of war” but “people of luxury and extravagance, people of intoxication, prostitution, dances and feasts...愠挀挀甀猀琀漀洀攀搀 to the defence of the Jews and Crusaders”.巴格达迪注意到有报道称,沙特与以色列会晤以讨论伊朗核协议的影响,他表示,阿勒沙特家族“不是好战者”,他们“穷奢极欲,喜好酗酒、娼妓、跳舞和宴会……习惯于犹太人和十字军的防御”。Isis has a record of following up such rants with action. It bombed two Shia mosques in Saudi Arabia’s eastern province in May and then sent a Saudi suicide bomber to kill Shia in a mosque in Kuwait City. This sectarian carnage shows that, while the Wahhabis marginalise the “rafidah”, Isis exterminates them. Such attacks also show the limits of Saudi control, in the part of the kingdom that contains most of its Shia and nearly all its oil. But if the authorities move towards conciliating the Shia, that plays very well for Isis too.ISIS有着大放厥词之后采取相应实际行动的记录。今年5月,它轰炸了沙特东部省份的两座什叶派清真寺,随后派一名沙特人在科威特市的清真寺里实施自杀性炸弹袭击以杀害什叶派人。这种教派屠杀表明,在瓦哈比边缘化“拒绝派”的同时,ISIS在灭绝他们。此类袭击还表明,沙特在其境内的大部分什叶派居住地以及几乎全部的石油储藏地控制力有限。但如果沙特政府向着与什叶派和解的方向发展,那也非常有利于ISIS。Saudi Arabia, an absolute monarchy dependent on the Wahhabi clerical establishment, is purportedly a vital ally in the fight against Isis. Yet the kingdom is hoist with its own petard of religious absolutism at a time when the crumbling region around it needs the emerging detente with Iran to become eventually an entente — something Saud al-Faisal would instinctively have grasped.沙特阿拉伯是一个依赖瓦哈比教派的君主专制国家,被认为是打击ISIS的关键盟友。然而,在陷入混乱的周边地区需要与伊朗之间新出现的缓和局面,以最终实现和解之际——费萨尔亲王会本能地明白这一点——沙特却吞下了宗教专制主义的苦果。 /201507/387350庆阳市第一人民医院胃病胃肠在哪 A black S.U.V. recently rolled through the streets of Williamsburg, Brooklyn, and stopped in front of the converted warehouse that is the global headquarters of Vice Media. Out of the vehicle stepped the media mogul Rupert Murdoch.前不久,一辆黑色的SUV车驶过布鲁克林威廉姆斯堡的街头,停在Vice传媒由仓库改建的国际总部门口,从车上走下来的是传媒界的大人物鲁伯特·默多克(Rupert Murdoch)。Mr. Murdoch’s 21st Century Fox owns a small stake in Vice, and he was visiting Brooklyn to meet with Vice’s chief executive, Shane Smith. Among the topics at hand was a rumor that Vice was negotiating to collaborate with, and perhaps sell a large stake to, one of Fox’s competitors, Time Warner.默多克的21世纪福克斯公司拥有Vice的一小部分股份,他来布鲁克林是想见Vice的首席执行官尚恩·史密斯(Shane Smith)。他们的议题包括这样一条谣言:Vice正在与福克斯公司竞争对手之一的时代华纳公司谈判合作,或许还要出卖一大笔股份给它。Fox is discussing a deal with Vice, too. So is Disney. Any agreement is likely to value Vice, which started as a free magazine in Montreal in 1994, at .5 billion to .5 billion. A partnership could take many shapes. But Vice, which has produced limited programming expressly for television, is seeking its own TV network, a movie deal and a lot of money for its founders and investors.福克斯公司也在和Vice谈判一笔交易,迪斯尼也是。Vice的起点是一个蒙特利尔的独立杂志,创刊于1994年,如今,与这些公司的任何一笔交易中,它的估值都可能在15亿到25亿美元之间。合作可能有很多形式,但Vice已经制作了一些项目,显然是提供给电视的,它希望建立自己的电视网络、签一个电影合约,为它的创始人和投资者们大赚一笔。The digital disruption that is transforming the news and entertainment businesses has led to many odd alliances, but few seem more incongruous than one that would join Vice with a corporate media conglomerate. Though financing itself mostly by making s in partnership with large corporations, Vice has assiduously cultivated an insurgent image, with its tattooed news correspondents, hand-held cameras and journalistic stunts like sending the former basketball player Dennis Rodman to North Korea.数码产业的破坏力在改变着新闻和业,这导致了很多奇怪的联盟,但是Vice加入一家大型传媒集团这个想法还是让人觉得太不搭调了。Vice赚钱主要是依靠和大公司合作制作视频,但它也一直不懈地维持自己的叛逆者形象,它有带纹身的新闻记者、使用手持摄像机、制造新闻噱头,比如把前篮球运动员丹尼斯·罗德曼(Dennis Rodman)送到朝鲜访问之类。Along the way, Mr. Smith, 44, has routinely criticized the mainstream media and traditional television. If he can reach a deal with one of these companies, he will be joining the club he has professed to disdain.一直以来,44岁的史密斯经常批评主流媒体和传统电视业。如果他和这些公司签一份合约,他就会加入那个自己公然鄙视的俱乐部。And yet here he is, in negotiations involving the likes of James Murdoch, Rupert’s son and Fox’s heir apparent; Robert A. Iger, chief executive of Disney; and Jeffrey L. Bewkes, chief executive of Time Warner. All of them are desperately scrambling to reach a generation of consumers who are more attached to their mobile phones than to traditional television.但他却在与鲁伯特之子、福克斯的法定继承人詹姆斯·默多克(James Murdoch)谈判,还有迪斯尼的首席执行官罗伯特·A·伊格(Robert A. Iger)、时代华纳的首席执行官杰弗里·L·比克斯(Jeffrey L. Bewkes)等人。这些人都拼命争抢新一代的消费者,他们对手机比对传统电视更感兴趣。The executives covet Vice’s unruly, D.I.Y. sensibility — “News from the edge” is the tagline for its 30-minute weekly program on HBO — and, above all, the connection it has established with its core audience of young men.这些执行官们觊觎Vice这种不守规矩、自己动手的易感性——“来自边缘的新闻”是它在HBO台每周播放的30分钟节目的广告词——最主要的是,他们还觊觎Vice和年轻的核心观众建立起来的联系。Now that he is in conversations that could net his company hundreds of millions of dollars, Mr. Smith, normally brash and outspoken, is trying to be discreet. Though he would not speak about the various deals Vice is discussing, he talked about his vision for the company’s future and television’s role in it recently at his office.史密斯现在正在进行能令公司获益数亿美元的谈判,他一贯傲慢而坦率,如今正学着审慎一点。尽管他不愿谈起Vice目前正在进行的各种谈判,但最近他在自己的办公室接受采访时谈了自己对公司未来的看法,以及电视在其中扮演的地位。“It’s the next step in our evolution,” he said. “Our mobile and online stuff is going to grow exponentially, but we want a three-legged stool, and the third leg is TV.”“这是我们发展的下一步,”他说,“我们的移动与网络部门员工正在呈指数级别增加,但我们希望用三条腿站立,这个第三条腿就是电视。”Bearded and bearish, Mr. Smith looks as if he belongs at a Viking feast, drinking mead from his helmet. Instead, he was sipping chilled premier cru Chablis poured by an assistant.史密斯满脸胡须,脾气粗暴,仿佛是维京人盛宴上用头盔畅饮蜜酒的人物。事实上,他喝的是冰镇的夏布利一级葡萄酒,是助理倒给他的。Fox, Disney and Time Warner all declined to comment.福克斯、迪斯尼和时代华纳都拒绝对此进行。Deals that join heavily hyped digital companies with large media conglomerates do not always end well. News Corporation bought the website Myspace for 0 million in 2005, and sold it six years later for million. Time Warner’s 2000 merger with AOL is now taught to aspiring M.B.A.s as the worst business transaction in history.大热的数码公司与大型媒体集团进行的谈判,最后的结局通常通常不怎么美妙。2005年新闻集团曾以5.8亿美元收购Myspace网站,6年后以3500万美元卖出。2000年,时代华纳与AOL的联合如今已经作为史上最糟的商业交易案例用于MBA教学。Mr. Smith contends Vice is different. The company’s finances are private, but a person familiar with its business said it expected to generate about 0 million in revenue in 2014. A vast majority comes not from online news content but from s created to resemble news content, paid for by companies like Intel and ATamp;T.史密斯声称,Vice是不一样的。公司的财务状况是保密的,但一位熟悉Vice经营的人士称,2014年它预计创造5亿美元的收入。其中大部分不是来自网络新闻,而是来自类似新闻的视频内容,由英特尔与ATamp;T等公司出钱。Vice would also arrive with a devoted following, though the size of its audience is hard to verify independently. The hope is that it will not become another Myspace, but a modern, multiplatform MTV. Tom Freston, a founder and former chief executive of MTV who went on to run Viacom, is one of Vice’s investors and closest advisers.Vice还拥有一批忠实拥趸,尽管它的观众数量很难单独核算。希望它不会成为另一个Myspace,而是成为现代的、跨平台的MTV。MTV的创始人之一与前首席执行官汤姆·弗莱斯顿(Tom Freston)后来执掌维亚康姆公司,他是Vice的投资者与最密切的顾问之一。MTV was built on an original concept: the pop-music . Vice’s appeal is that it has branded a certain kind of cool, but coolness is an ephemeral concept. And there is exponentially more content to compete with now than when MTV began in 1981, making it harder than ever to stand out.MTV成立之初是建立在流行音乐录像的基础之上。Vice的魅力来自它已为自己打上“酷”的标记,但“酷”是个短暂易逝的概念。和MTV在1981年初创之时相比,现在需要竞争的东西要多得多,一直保持卓越不凡就更难了。Vice got its first taste for television when it started producing its weekly newsmagazine show for HBO last year. It recently broadcast the final episode of its second season, featuring reports from crime-ridden Camden, N.J., and refugee camps in Chad and Darfur. (In last year’s infamous finale, Mr. Rodman and three members of the Harlem Globetrotters played before Kim Jong-un in North Korea.)去年,Vice开始为HBO台制作每周的新闻杂志秀,这是它第一次制作电视节目。最近,这个节目的第二季刚刚播出了最后一集,内容包括犯罪猖獗的新泽西州卡姆登,以及乍得和达尔富尔的难民营。去年这个节目的最后一集可谓臭名昭著,拍的是罗德曼和其他三个哈林花式篮球队的队员在朝鲜为金正恩表演。In its first year, Vice’s HBO show averaged 821,000 viewers a week, including the original broadcast and viewings in the next seven days, according to Brad Adgate, the director of research for Horizon Media. Weekly viewership fell to 760,000 in its second season. HBO says the number is 2.8 million weekly viewers when repeat broadcasts, online and on-demand viewings are included.地平线传媒的研究主管布拉德·艾德盖特(Brad Adgate)说,Vice在HBO的节目第一年平均每周有82.1万名观众收看,包括首日播出的收看者和其后七天内的收看者。到第二季,每周收视率降低到了76万人。HBO说重播的收视率是每周280万人,包括网络和点播收视。People familiar with the negotiations say the talks with Time Warner have made the most progress. It could buy a large, minority stake in Vice, and give Vice control of the cable channel HLN, or they could operate the network as a joint venture. The deal would give Vice a 24-hour news network that reaches more than 100 million households. Time Warner would get a potential solution to a channel that has struggled to find an audience.了解这些谈判的人说,与时代华纳的谈判进展最大。时代华纳有可能买下Vice的大笔少数股权,把有线电视HLN台的控制权交给Vice,或者两个公司会像合资企业那样运营电视网。该项合同交给Vice的是一个24小时播出、入户一亿个家庭的新闻台。这样,时代华纳也可能为一个难以找到观众群的频道找到潜在的解决方案。But the companies remain at odds over how much influence Time Warner would have over Vice and HLN, said the people familiar with the talks, who spoke on condition of anonymity because they are continuing and delicate. The two also disagree about the total value of Vice. Time Warner contends it is worth about .5 billion; Vice says it is worth at least .5 billion.但了解这些谈判的人说,两家公司仍然在为华纳公司应该对Vice和HLN拥有多少影响力而争执,这些知情者要求匿名,因为谈判还在继续,而且非常微妙。两家公司对Vice的总价值也未能达成一致。时代华纳认为它价值15亿美元,Vice认为自己价值至少25亿美元。These people also cited another matter. In March, Mr. Smith delivered a profanity-laced assessment of CNN — also owned by Time Warner — to The Daily News in New York, calling the network “a disaster.” The president of CNN, Jeff Zucker, was furious, a Time Warner official said. If Vice were to take over HLN, Mr. Zucker and Mr. Smith would be colleagues.这些知情者还提到另一件事。三月,史密斯在纽约的《每日新闻报》(The Daily News)上,就时代华纳旗下的CNN台发表了脏话连篇的评价,他说CNN台是“灾难”。一个时代华纳的主管说,CNN台长杰夫·扎克(Jeff Zucker)勃然大怒。如果Vice接手HLN,扎克和史密斯就会成为同事。Among its other suitors, Vice has the strongest relationship with Fox, which last year bought a 5 percent stake in the company for million. James Murdoch is on Vice’s board.在所有追求者当中,Vice和福克斯的关系最密切,福克斯以7000万美元买下了Vice至少5%的股份,詹姆斯·默多克是Vice的董事会成员。But a Fox deal faces hurdles, too. The company does not have a logical single channel to give Vice, which is what Mr. Smith most wants. “You can’t be MTV without a TV network,” he said.但是和福克斯合作也有障碍。这个公司并没有一个独立的电视频道可以提供给Vice,而这正是史密斯最想要的。“没有电视台,我们就成不了MTV台,”他说。An agreement might instead call for Vice to program blocks of time on a few Fox networks. And, of course, Fox’s defining news brand, Fox News, is not popular among Vice’s core audience.福克斯的替换方案可能是在旗下的电视台里提供给Vice的节目一些时段。当然,福克斯的招牌新闻品牌福克斯新闻在Vice的核心观众中并不流行。The talks with Disney were initiated more recently — it is not clear at whose prompting — after news of the Time Warner discussions broke. It is also unclear how a deal might be structured.和迪斯尼的谈判是最近才开始的,是在Vice和时代华纳的谈判破裂的新闻爆出之后,不清楚是谁先提起的,合同的框架尚不分明。Disney has recently pursued digital media assets that cater to a younger audience. In March, it acquired the YouTube production network Maker Studios.迪斯尼最近开始收购数码媒体,以迎合年轻观众。三月,它买下了YouTube的视频制作公司Maker Studios。Mr. Smith said Vice was in a powerful bargaining position. “It’s not like we’re beggars coming cap in hand saying please give me a network,” he said. “We’re bringing Gen Y, we’re bringing mobile, we’re bringing social, we’re bringing all of these things that they don’t have.”史密斯说,Vice在谈判中的立场很强硬。“我们并不是手捧帽子的乞讨者,祈求别人给我一个电视频道,”他说,“我们能吸引Y世代(Gen Y),我们能吸引移动用户,我们能吸引社交媒体用户,我们能为他们带来他们没有的一切。”Vice has focused most of its energy and resources on the web. But while its six YouTube channels and various websites attract plenty of digital advertising, those rates pale in comparison to what Vice’s shows could potentially command on television.Vice最关注自己在网络上的能量与资源。但是,虽然它的六个YouTube频道和若干网站吸引了大量网络广告,这些和它的节目吸引电视广告的潜在能力相比还是太少。More to the point, the move into television might also allow Vice to become less financially dependent on advertising agency work and corporate partnerships. In other words, it could try to evolve into a pure content-only operation.此外,走向电视这个举措可能会令Vice在经济上不那么依赖广告经纪的工作与公司合作伙伴。换言之,它想试着发展为更纯粹的内容运营者。Even if Vice can make a deal, there is no guarantee that its fans will follow the company to television in an era when young people are getting their news, increasingly, on other types of screens. “News on TV skews very old,” said Tom Rogers, the chief executive of TiVo, who helped start CN and MSN among other cable channels. “Most news channels have average audiences of 60 or older.”就算Vice能签下一份合同,也不能保它的粉丝就一定会追随这个公司去看电视。在这个时代,年轻人愈来愈多地从电视以外的其他屏幕获取新闻。“从电视上看新闻的方式太古老了,”TiVo的首席执行官汤姆·罗杰斯(Tom Rogers)说,他曾协助开创了CN和MSN等有线台。“大多数新闻台的观众平均年龄是60岁或更为年长的人。”The average age of Vice’s HBO viewers is 46 to 50, Mr. Adgate said. Its online audience is a good deal younger, but on television anyway, it has not reached the elusive millennial demographic.Vice在HBO的节目的观众平均年龄是46-50岁,艾德盖特说。它的网络观众则比较年轻,但在电视上,它还是没有得到难以捉摸的千禧年一代观众群。Developing a television show is also very different from developing a web series; Vice has produced about 76 hours of domestic and international programming. Michael Lombardo, the president of programming at HBO, said the network had worked very closely with Vice to shape the newsmagazine show into something it felt could build an audience on television. The conversations were not always easy, he said.做电视节目和做网络系列是非常不一样的;Vice已经制作了大约76小时的国内和国际电视节目内容。HBO的节目总监迈克尔·伦巴多(Michael Lombardo)说,HBO台和Vice密切合作去制作这档新闻杂志秀,让它能适合电视观众。他说,双方沟通并不总是轻松的。“When you’re in the digital space and you’re looking for clicks the idea is to just be noisy,” he said. “That impacts not only the subjects of your story but the way you tell a story. It’s different when you have someone sit down to a half-hour or hour show.”“在追求点击率的数码世界里,只要足够吵闹就行了,”他说。“影响力不是来自故事题材本身,也是来自你讲故事的方式。但是要让人坐下来看半小时或一小时的电视节目,那就是另一回事了。”Last week, the talks over Vice’s future moved from Brooklyn to Cannes, the site of an annual international media conference that attracts many of the world’s biggest companies. Vice rented three villas for the occasion, and, hosted a couple of big parties. One had been scheduled for a French strip club, but the guest list grew so long that it had to be moved to a more conventional location, the Palais des Festivals.上个星期,关于Vice未来的谈判从布鲁克林移到了戛纳,年度国际传媒大会在那里召开,吸引了全世界许多顶级公司。Vice包下了三座别墅,举办了几个大派对。其中一个本来计划在法国脱衣舞俱乐部举行,但是宾客名单太长,只好搬到比较传统的地点——戛纳电影节宫。 /201407/309852延安市人民医院消化不良恶心呕吐腹痛烧心

西安唐都医院胃病胃肠网上咨询When conventional road signs have no effect, designers are turning to increasingly clever ways to subconsciously make drivers slow down or pay attention.当常规道路标志不起效果的时候,设计师正转向一个更聪明的方式去让司机下意识减速或引起他们的注意。Lights which last 25 years are cutting Jersey#39;s street lighting bill in half and may improve road safety.持续了25年的路灯在新泽西的街道照明预算中削减到一半,且可以改善道路的安全。A spooky, black human silhouette suddenly appeared out of nowhere on the roadside of a picturesque country road in southern France. It was the size of an adult, but it had no face; instead, a lightning bolt seemed to split its head in two.一个怪异的人形黑影突然出现在法国南部的一个风景如画的乡村公路上。这是一个成年人的体形,但是没有脸;一道闪电似乎把它的头劈成了两半。Speeding down this road with no traffic, no lampposts and no speed traps – just ancient plane trees towering on both sides – I dismissed the figure as a weird prank. But then there was another. And then two more, an adult and what looked like a child. Then it dawned on me. The cut-outs represented people who died on this road in car accidents. The message came across: I slowed down.沿着这条没有交通拥挤,没有路灯,没有限速,只是两边种满树木的道路上加速,我把这个景象当作一个奇怪的恶作剧。但是之后又出现了另一个,然后又出现两个,一个成年人和一个看起来像孩子一样的人。然后我恍然大悟。这个景象代表了在这条路上出车祸去世的人们。我领会到了它要传达的信息:我车速慢了下来。It’s a not-too-subtle example of a strategy known as behavioural science or nudging – techniques that make people act or respond in a certain manner. Some nudging tactics are straightforward or obvious. Signs displaying speed, speed limits or reminding drivers to take regular breaks try to capture the driver’s attention directly. Others are more subtle; like the “average speed” cameras. While normal speed traps try to catch speeding drivers at one single spot, average speed cameras punish drivers who cover the distance between point A and B too fast. The nudging works: when in 2005 average speed cameras were installed on a 32-mile stretch of the A77 motorway near Glasgow in Scotland, the amount of road casualties fell 37%.这一不太微妙的策略被称为行为科学——这个技术,使人以某种方式行动或是做出回应。一些“督促”策略是直白或是明显的。标识牌显示速度、速度限制或是通过一些有规律的变化来直接引起司机的注意。其他的更加微妙,像“平均速度”相机。当规定一个正常速度来捕捉超速驾驶者在某一点的速度时,平均速度相机就会捕捉下来,惩罚从A到B点距离超速的司机。这些相机被用在:2005年时的平均速度的相机被安装在苏格兰的格拉斯哥附近的一个32英里的A77高速公路上,道路伤亡数量下降了37%。Then there are measures that tap more into the subconscious. Some road construction sites use smiley signs to influence driver behaviour: At the start of the road works the smiley is sad – but it gets progressively happier as you’re nearing the end of the construction zone. The goal is to keep drivers alert and decrease their frustration while they have to keep to a lower speed limit. In a similar vein speed boards in the UK have had a smiley added underneath. They smile at cars under the speed limit, and frown at those that go above it.还有更多利用潜意识的措施。一些道路建筑工地用笑脸符号影响司机的驾驶行为:在刚进入道路施工区时那个笑脸是悲伤的——但是当你靠近施工区的尽头时它会逐渐快乐起来。它的目标是保持司机警惕,当他们不得不保持一个较低的速度限制时,降低他们的失落心情。本着同样的目的,在英国速度主板下面会添加一个笑脸。它们对低于限速行驶的汽车微笑,对超过限速的汽车皱眉。Bumping behaviour碰撞行为Roads in some countries are clearly more dangerous than in others. India accounts for 10% of all road fatalities – about 137,000 people died on Indian roads in 2011 alone. Even though the country’s first access-control motorway – the six-lane Mumbai-Pune Expressway is relatively less dangerous than cramped urban streets, there have been more than 2,000 accidents, with at least 500 fatalities, in its 12 years of operation. Nudging is one way of dealing with the problem. Final Mile is a Mumbai-based behavioural science and design firm that hopes it can play mind tricks with Indian drivers to persuade them to slow down and pay more attention.一些国家的道路明显比其他国家的更加危险。印度占所有道路死亡的10%——仅在2011年在印度的道路上就有大约13.7万人死亡。即使在该国首条限行的车道上(有六条行车线的孟买-浦那高速公路),在投入使用的12年内,也发生了2000多起事故,其中至少有500起死亡事故,尽管这条路比拥挤的城市街道相对安全些。“督促”是一种处理问题的方式。孟买行为科学和设计公司“最后一英里”希望它能利用心理战术劝印度司机开慢点,对道路安全多加重视。More than three-quarters of accidents happen because of a human error, says Ram Prasad, one of the company#39;s co-founders. Specifically, five aspects of human nature are at play: overconfidence; inattention; skewed perception of risk; lack of feedback; and lack of empathy – due to poor eye contact at high speeds.该公司创始人之一拉姆#8226;普拉萨德说,超过四分之三的事故的发生是由于人为错误。具体来说,是人性的五个方面在起作用:过度自信,注意力不集中,不正确的风险意识,缺乏反馈,以及缺乏同情心——因为在高速路上不能进行眼神交流。So, to get overconfident and inattentive drivers to slow down at India’s more than 13,000 open railway crossings, Final Mile has installed speed-bumps that run diagonally, rather than perpendicular, to the road. The front wheels of a car cross the bump one after the other, rather than in unison, making the car swing from side to side. “They bring in unfamiliarity,” says Prasad, “motorists tend to slow down significantly and therefore pay more attention to an oncoming train.” On the Mumbai-Pune Expressway, these speed-breakers are also painted with thicker yellow lines, making them appear higher. This tricks the drivers, forcing them to reduce speed before approaching them.因此,为了让过度自信和粗心的司机在印度1.3万多个开放铁路道口放慢速度,“最后一里”安装了颠簸的斜线减速带,而不是垂直的。汽车的前轮通过一个又一个的颠簸,而不是一致的,使汽车不停的摆动。普拉萨德说:“他们带来了不一样的感觉,驾车者往往都明显地速度变慢,因此更会注意到列车驶来。”在孟买-浦那高速公路,这些减速带也涂有厚厚的黄线,使他们显得更高。这迫使司机们在接近他们的时候减速。Going the extra smile额外的微笑Another tactic is to humanise signage. The black silhouettes on French and Canadian roads are one example, large posters in India showing shocking pictures of a man’s face in a crash are another. “This builds empathy,” says Prasad. “And instead of just saying ‘drive slowly#39;, we show what happens if you drive fast,” he says.另一个策略是以人为本的标志。法国和加拿大道路上的黑色影子就是一个例子,另一个例子是印度的一个大海报呈现的在一次车祸中的男人震惊的脸。普拉萨德说:“这个海报使人感同身受,相比只是说一句‘慢速驾驶’,我们展示了如果你开车太快会发生什么。”On some UK roads the familiar “Children crossing” sign with outlines of running children has been replaced by black life-size silhouettes of children instead. It works even better if “the children featuring on the poster are saying ‘I live here,’ or ‘I want my daddy to come home safely#39;,” says Pelle Guldborg Hansen, behavioural scientist at the University of Southern Denmark, and chairman of the Danish Nudging Network.在英国的一些道路就有很熟悉的“儿童通行”的标志,用黑色的真人大小的孩子的轮廓代替奔跑的孩子。佩尔古尔堡汉森是南丹麦大学的行为科学家和丹麦网络主席,他说:“它甚至比海报上的孩子们说,我住在这里,或者我希望我爸爸能平平安安回家的效果更好。”This makes the impact of aggressive driving very obvious, and creates awareness in an automatic, effortless way – which is crucial, says Ivo Vlaev, an experimental psychologist at Imperial College London in the UK.“这使得攻击性驾驶的后果非常明显,而且自然而然、毫不费力就灌输了这一意识,这是至关重要的”,英国伦敦帝国学院的实验心理学家伊沃说道。It falls in-between the extremes of calling attention to your speed and a perception of a possible risk.它既能让你注意车速,也能让你意识到可能发生的危险后果。Another nudge by illusion is a reminder of the force of the law by using fake police officers. In Bangalore, life-size khaki-clad cardboard cut-outs of policemen are used to persuade drivers to behave. Similar tricks are used in China, the ed States and some European countries. In Preston, a town in the UK, motorists hit the brakes after mistaking life-sized metal replicas for real police officers. Some towns have placed life-size cardboard cut-outs of police cars on bridges crossing highways.另一个通过幻象进行督促的例子是用“假警察”来提醒人们遵守法律。在班加罗尔,真人大小的土包纸板警察被用来震慑司机。类似的方法在中国、美国和一些欧洲国家也在使用。在英国的一个小镇上,驾驶者踩刹车,因为把真人大小的纸板误认为是真警察。一些城镇在跨越公路的桥梁上放置和警车同样大小的纸板“假警车”。 /201405/302460 陕西妇幼保健院肠胃科正规吗?怎么样西安哪家医院消化内科好

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