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成医附属不孕不育医院无痛人流的收费标准成都孕前优生检查费用重庆市九龙坡区第一人民医院取环上环需要多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Global health全球健康One potato, two potato, three potato一个懒汉,两个懒汉,三个懒汉An effort to count the worlds sloths来数一数世界上的懒汉A PAPER in the Lancet, shamelessly timed to coincide with the Olympic games, compares countries rates of physical activity.《柳叶刀》的一篇文章对世界各国人民进行体育锻炼的比率做了一个比较,而这篇文章的发表时间竟有意选在了奥运会召开之际。The study it describes, led by Pedro Hallal of the Federal University of Pelotas, in Brazil, is the most complete portrait yet of the worlds busy bees and couch potatoes.文章中的研究由巴西佩洛塔斯联邦大学的Pedro Hallal主导,是迄今为止对世界上的勤劳之人和电视懒虫最为完整的描绘。It suggests that nearly a third of adults, 31%, are not getting enough exercise.研究显示,世界上有将近三分之一的成年人缺乏锻炼。That rates of exercise have declined is hardly a new discovery.人们的锻炼比率有所下降这并不是什么新发现。Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, technology and economic growth have conspired to create a world in which the flexing of muscles is more and more an option rather than a necessity.自从工业革命开始后,科技和经济发展合谋创造了一个新世界,在这个世界里,锻炼身体越来越成为人们的一种选择,而非迫切的需要。But only recently have enough good data been collected from enough places to carry out the sort of analysis Dr Hallal and his colleagues have engaged in.但直到最近,Hallal士和他的同事才从足够多的地区收集到了充足的数据来进行这类分析研究。In all, they were able to pool data from 122 countries, covering 89% of the worlds population.Hallal士和他的同事总共收集了122个国家的数据,覆盖了89%的世界人口。They considered sufficient physical activity to be 30 minutes of moderate exercise five days a week, 20 minutes of vigorous exercise three days a week, or some combination of the two.他们认为,充足的体育锻炼应该是每周五天进行半小时的适量运动,或是每周三天进行20分钟的激烈运动,或者对这两者进行适当结合。There are common themes in different places.不同的地区出现了同样的模式。Unsurprisingly, people in rich countries are less active than those in poor ones, and old people are less active than young ones.富裕国家的人比那些贫穷国家的人锻炼得更少,老人比年轻人锻炼得更少,这一点在意料之中。Less obviously, women tend to exercise less than men—34% are inactive, compared with 28% of men.但较为隐秘的一个现象是,女性通常比男性锻炼得少。女性懒惰人数占总人数的34%,而男性却只占了28%。But there are exceptions.但是也有例外情况,The women of Croatia, Finland, Iraq and Luxembourg, for example, move more than their male countrymen.如克罗地亚、芬兰、伊拉克、卢森堡这几个国家的女性锻炼得就比本国男性同胞多。Malta wins the race for most slothful country, with 72% of adults getting too little exercise.马耳他有72%的成年人缺乏锻炼,成为世界上最懒的国家。Swaziland and Saudi Arabia slouch in close behind, with 69%.斯威士兰和沙特阿拉伯紧随其后,懒惰人数占全国的69%。In Bangladesh, by contrast, just 5% of adults fail to exercise enough.相比之下,孟加拉国只有5%的成年人缺乏锻炼。Surprisingly, America does not live up to its sluggish reputation.让人吃惊的是,美国竟然没有人们所说的那么懒。Six Americans in ten are sufficiently active by Dr Hallals definition, compared with fewer than four in ten Britons.根据Hallal士的标准,十个美国人中有六个拥有足够的锻炼,而相比之下,十个英国人中拥有足够锻炼的人还不到四个。In an accompanying analysis of peoples habits, Dr Hallal found equally wide differences.同时Hallal士还对人们的生活习惯进行了分析,发现在这方面不同地区的人差别也很大。In South-East Asia fewer than a quarter sit for at least four hours each day; in Europe 64% do.在东南亚,每天至少坐四小时的人不到四分之一,但在欧洲这样的人却占了总人口的64%。And even neighbours may differ.而且即使是邻国之间差别也很大。Only 2% of Swiss walk to work, whereas 23% of Germans do so.在瑞士,只有2%的人走路上班,但在德国却有23%的人这样做。These high rates of inactivity are worrying.这么高的懒惰率实在令人担忧。Paradoxically, human beings seem to have evolved to benefit from exercise while eschewing it whenever they can.人类似乎已经进化到一种自相矛盾状态,尽管运动十分有益,但人类却唯恐避之不及。In a state of nature it would be impossible to live a life that did not provide enough of it to be beneficial, while over-exercising would use up scarce calories to little advantage.在自然状态下,缺乏锻炼的生活是不可能对人有益的,但过度锻炼又可能耗尽宝贵的卡路里,对人体无益。But that no longer pertains.但现在这种说法已经不再适用现代人了。According to another paper in the Lancet, insufficient activity these days has nearly the same effect on life expectancy as smoking.《柳叶刀》中的另一篇文章称,缺乏锻炼对寿命造成的影响几乎和抽烟差不多。 /201402/275663Business this week一周商业要闻Jul 13th 2013 |From the print editionThe European Commission unveiled its proposed “single resolution mechanism” that would give it the authority to wind down failing banks in the euro zone with the support of a new cross-border fund. Germany is opposed, arguing that such an expansion of the commission’s powers would require a treaty change. France, Italy and Spain are fairly happy with the idea.欧洲委员会公布此前提议的“单一解决机制”计划的细节,根据该计划,欧盟可以获得一跨境资金,用以安抚行情低迷的欧元区。德国持有不同观点,认为实施这种扩大委员会权利的做法,有可能需要欧盟条约。法国,意大利跟西班牙则乐此不疲。American regulators outlined plans to increase the amount of capital that eight systemically important banks must hold. The banks will be required to increase their leverage ratios to 5% of their total assets, which is above the 3% agreed to by international regulators in the Basel 3 accord. Although the banks would have until 2018 to comply, they might in practice need to meet these thresholds earlier. 为了增加八所具有系统重要性的应有资产数额,美国监管部门对此草拟出一份方案。要求在其总资产中将杠杆比率增加到5%,高出于巴塞尔协议Ⅲ中国际监管机构所商定的3%。尽管各只需在2018开始实施这项方案,实际上,他们也许该尽早地达到这项指标。A committee set up by the British Treasury to choose a new administrator for LIBOR gave the job to NYSE Euronext, which operates the New York Stock Exchange. It is paying a token 1 pound (1.50 dollars) for the honour and expects to start managing the international benchmark interest rate early next year. The British Bankers’ Association has overseen LIBOR since the 1980s, but the scandal surrounding the manipulation of the rate by traders dented its reputation.英国财政部设立一组委员会,来决定由谁管理伦敦同行业拆借率。最终将这项工作交给纽约泛欧交易所集团,这个集团经营着纽约券交易所。明年年初,在象征性地付一英镑(1.5美元),换取这项荣誉后,此集团将带着众人的期望开始管理国际准基利率。自1980年以来,英国家协会便一直关注伦敦间拆放款利率,但是一些包含交易者操纵利率内容的丑闻流出,使之名声受损从而失去选票。The global asset-management industry grew to a record 62.4 trillion dollars last year, according to the Boston Consulting Group, passing the previous high set in 2007, before the financial crisis. Most of the gain is explained by roaring equity markets, which increased the value of assets under management.据波士顿咨询集团报道,金融危机之前,全球资产管理行业总值在去年达到62.4万亿美元,超过之前2007年的高峰值。之所以能够达到这么高的总值,原因在于产权投资市场的快速增长,增加了受制资产的价值。China’s Ministry of Public Security accused GlaxoSmithKline, a British drugs company, of bribing doctors in three cities to prescribe its medicines to patients and of receiving kickbacks through conference fees. China has been an important growth market for GSK over the past decade.中国公安部指控英国药物公司葛兰索史克的不法营业手段,此公司贿赂三个城市的医生给患者开自家生产的药品,并且从会议费中扣取回扣。在过去十年中,中国已经变成葛兰索史克公司首要成长型市场。Faring slightly worse进展稍显不顺The IMF shaved its forecast of growth for the world economy from a previous estimate in April. It lowered its projections for this year in America, the euro zone, China, Brazil, Russia and India, though Britain, Canada and Japan all had their GDP growth figures revised up. The IMF’s list of looming risks includes a sharper slowdown in emerging markets and the possible tapering of quantitative easing in America, which, it said, could lead to “sustained capital-flow reversals”. Meanwhile, the cooling of China’s economy was underlined by official figures showing that its exports unexpectedly fell by 3.1% in June compared with the same month last year. Imports were down by 0.7%.较之前四月份显示的总值,国际货币基金组织预测世界经济增长将减弱。尽管英国,加拿大和日本的国内生产总值上调,IMF还是降低了对美国,欧元区,中国,巴西和印度的预测值,IMF列出的潜在危机包括新兴市场的剧烈减缓,以及美国量化宽松政策消退的可能,后者据说可以导致“持续的资本流动逆转”。与此同时,官方数据明确显示中国经济正在冷却。数据表明中国出口总值较去年同月,出人意料的下降了3.1%,进口值则下降了0.7%。Royal Dutch Shell appointed Ben van Beurden as its new chief executive. Mr Van Beurden, who has spent a large part of his 30 years at the energy company working at its liquefied-natural-gas division, had not been regarded as a front-runner.荷兰皇家壳牌公司任命范伯登为其新一任的首席执行官。范伯登曾为该公司液化天然气精炼部门任职,30年来一直默默无闻。Spoiling the books plot打击书市阴谋A judge in America ruled that Apple had conspired with five big publishers to push up the price of e-books and break Amazon’s grip on the market. The judge found that the “evidence is overwhelming that Apple knew of the unlawful aims of the conspiracy” hatched with the publishers, which have all reached separate settlements with the Department of Justice. Apple is to appeal against the decision.美国联邦法官近日作出判决,认定苹果公司与5家图书出版商串通,提高电子书价格以打破当下亚马逊垄断图书市场的现状。法官查明,据的确实:苹果公司清楚自己与出版商共同策划的阴谋意图是非法的。出版商已分别与司法部达成协定,苹果公司则将提出上诉。The chief executive of Barnes amp; Noble resigned, two weeks after its latest quarterly earnings report made for troubling ing. The book retailer’s Nook e-er doubled its losses as it struggled to compete with the Kindle and iPad, a blow to the company’s hopes that digital publishing would offset falling sales of books.在做出有关阅读便利方面的季度收益报告两周后,Barnes amp; Noble公司首席执行官提出辞职。这个书本零售商发行的NOOK电子书跟kindle和ipad拼力竞争,结果导致损失加倍。本以为靠数字出版能抵消书本销量下降带来的损失,结果确让公司深受打击。Tribune became the latest media company to announce it is splitting in two, with a plan to separate its newspaper arm from its television and internet division. The publisher of the Los Angeles Times and other dailies gets around two-thirds of its sales from newspapers and websites, but only a fifth of its operating profit. It recently bought 19 local TV stations in a 2.7 billion dollars deal.作为最新宣布将公司一分为二的媒体公司,论坛报计划将报纸从电视、网络部门中分裂出去。出版商销售洛杉矶时报以及其它日报的营业额里,报纸和网站大概占有三分之一,而营业收益只占五分之一。此公司最近以2.7亿美金收购19家地方台。Global personal-computer shipments continued to slump, falling by about 11% in the second quarter, according to Gartner and IDC, two tech-market research firms. Both also reported that China’s Lenovo overtook Hewlett-Packard as the world’s biggest seller of PCs.全球个人计算机发货量持续下跌,据技术市场调研公司高德纳和互联网数据中心报告,个人电脑的销量第二季度下降了11%,同时中国的联想笔记本销量超过惠普,成为世界最大笔记本销售商。Delivering on a promise履行承诺The British government set out its plan to privatise the Royal Mail. Valued at up to 3 billion poumds (4.5 billion dollars), it will be the biggest privatisation in Britain since the mass sale of state industries more than two decades ago. Postal workers will be handed 10% of the shares, though unions remain opposed. The privatisation does not include post offices英国政府开始实施私有化皇家邮政计划。皇家邮政价值高达3亿英镑(4.5亿美元),这将会是继20多年前大量国有工厂出售以来,规模最大的民营化。尽管公会仍然反对,私营后邮局职员有望分享10%的股份。私有化范围并不包括邮政局。201307/248914成都查女性输卵管不通费用

四川省201医院图片Youre hiking through the Rockies one day when you hear a low, ominous rumble. 有一天你正试图徒步穿越落基山脉,这时你听到一种低沉的、不祥的隆隆声。Landslide! Hundreds of tons of rock and soil are careening toward you at enormous speed.是滑坡!数百吨的岩石和泥土眨眼间向你倾泻过来。Fortunately, theres a helicopter nearby and you lift off just in time to escape unharmed.幸运的是附近的一架直升飞机助你逃出生天,多亏及时及时起飞,才免受这一劫难。But now you notice something odd.但你却注意到了一些匪夷所思的怪现象。After the landslide has gone by, in its tracks little dainty flowers are still standing.滑坡过后的地方,小小惹人爱的花朵依然挺拔,Blades of grass are unbent.小草的叶子也没有因此折腰,How is this possible?其中究竟有何奥秘?Before we tell you the answer, heres another question.揭晓之前,先想想另一个问题。What happens when you drop a book flat onto a table?如果你将一本书水平扔到桌面上会发生什么?If you try it, youll see that the book doesnt hit the table unimpeded, but lands on a little cushion of compressed air.你会发现书在撞击桌子的时候并非顺利,而是有压缩空气形成的缓冲垫阻碍。If you dont believe us, try putting some little pieces of paper on the table before dropping the book.如果还持怀疑态度,你大可先在桌上放一些小纸张,然后再将书扔过去。The whoosh of compressed air escaping will blow them off.四散奔逃的受压空气会嗖的将小纸吹走.Thats the same phenomenon that happens with landslides.这就如同滑坡现象的原理。When an enormous sheet of rocks and dirt gets moving, it acts like a solid object.当巨大岩石和泥土块移动的时候,它们就像一个固体。It traps the air underneath it and actually rides downhill on a cushion of air.将空气压在下面的它实际上滚动的时候下面就有了空气垫。Strange as it may seem, much of the landslide never touches the ground at all.尽管听上去有点怪,但大多数山体滑坡从不会和地面接触。Because the cushion of air stays underneath it, the rocks and dirt arent slowed down by friction much and continue picking up speed as they fall.由于空气垫,岩石和泥土并没有受到擦力影响而减速,相反会不停地加速。Large landslides have been clocked in excess of 100 miles an hour.规模大的山体滑坡时速超过每小时100英里。So-could you just lie down and let the landslide whoosh over you?那么你能躺下来让滑坡从你身上呼啸着越过吗?No, unless you are about the size of a blade of grass.这可不行。除非你只有草叶般大小。People who are bigger than that should keep a helicopter handy. 因此比草叶体积大的人应该随时让一架直升飞机在身旁待命。 201311/262971乐山市治疗男性不育多少钱 成都无痛人流去哪

巴中不育专科医院Science and technology科学技术By the book照本宣科The American Psychiatric Associations latest diagnostic manual remains a flawed attempt to categorise mental illness美国精神医学会最新诊断手册在精神疾病分类上仍有欠缺A BOOK with the title Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition does not sound destined to be a bestseller, particularly at 9 a pop.《精神疾病诊断与统计手册,第五版》这个书名听上去注定成不了畅销书,尤其一本竟要199美元。But DSM-5, as it is known for short, is almost certain to become one.但是DSM-5(书名的简称)几乎肯定会成为一本畅销书。Its predecessor, DSM-IV, which was published in 1994, has sold more than 1m copies. DSM-5, which will go on sale on May 22nd, is likely to do at least as well.其上一版,1994年出版的DSM-4已售出超过一百万册。DSM-5将于5月22日开售,很可能至少也会卖到这个数。The reason is that the DSM series, which is published by the American Psychiatric Association, has become the global standard for the description of mental illness.美国精神医学会出版的DSM丛书如此大卖的原因是其已经成为精神疾病症状描述的全球标准。Indeed, the DSM is treated by many people less as a medical handbook and more as holy writ.实际上,许多人把DSM更多是当成圣经,而非一本医学手册。Insurers use it to decide whether or not to cover ailments.保险公司用其来确定是否涵盖一些病症。And diagnoses based on it determine whether people get special services at school; whether they qualify for disability benefits; whether they are stigmatised in their careers; even whether they are able to adopt children.据其做出的诊断会决定一个人是否会在学校受到特殊照顾;是否能得到伤残抚恤金;是否会在自己的职业生涯中蒙受污名;甚至是否能够领养小孩。Doctors, patients, drug companies and insurers have all thus been waiting for the latest edition of what has become known as the psychiatric bible.因此医生,患者,制药公司及保险公司都在翘首期盼这本被当作精神病学圣经的最新版。The DSMs purpose is to set strict criteria for identifying mental disorders.DSM的目的是设立鉴别精神疾病的严格标准。This is supposed to make diagnoses more reliable: a laudable aim.这应该会使诊断更为可靠,这一个值得称道的目标。To that end, more than 1,500 experts have spent over a decade labouring.为了这个目标,1500多名专家耗费了多年劳动。In doing so, though, they have succeeded in adding to, rather than subtracting from, criticism that the DSM has become a monster.然而这些辛劳让他们顺利地在DSM中增加了标准,而非减少,这使DSM成为了一个庞然大物。In the eyes of many critics it is a vehicle for misdiagnosis, overdiagnosis, the medicalisation of normal behaviour and the prescription of a large number of unnecessary drugs.在许多批评家眼中,DSM是误诊,过度诊断,正常行为医疗化以及开出大量不必要药物处方的罪魁祸首。and verse引经据典The DSM, the first version of which was published in 1952, has always attracted controversy.DSM自1952年第一版出版起便一直引发争论。That version, and the second edition, published in 1968, relied on the premise that mental illness was a neurotic response to a patients experience and environment.第一版及1968年出版的第二版有赖于精神疾病是对病人的经历及环境的神经质反应这一前提。People with the same symptoms could therefore receive wildly different diagnoses.然而具有相同症状的人会受到截然不同的诊断。Different interpretations of experience and environment also meant that cultural differences affected diagnosis.经历及环境的不同解读也意味着文化差异会影响诊断。In 1971 Robert Kendell demonstrated this by showing that, faced with the same patients, American psychiatrists were much more likely to diagnose them as schizophrenic than were British psychiatrists.罗伯特·肯德尔于1971年明了这点,他指出,面对同一个病人,美国的精神病医生比英国精神病医生更可能将其诊断为精神分裂患者。The third DSM, published in 1980, introduced a new approach—also followed in the fourth in 1994.DSM第三版于1980年出版,引入了一种新的方法,1994年出版的第四版也遵循了该方法。DSM-III acknowledged that psychiatrists had a poor understanding of the physiological cause of mental illness.DSM第三版承认精神病医生对于精神疾病的生理病因不甚了了。Instead specific, observed symptoms became the diagnostic criteria, and clusters of them, known medically as syndromes, that appeared to coexist in individual patients were given labels.观察到的症状而非具体病因被当成诊断标准,貌似存在于同一患者的症状集群-医学上称之为综合症-被冠以名称。The hope was that biological markers of such syndromes would be discovered as physiological understanding increased.希望是在于这些综合症的生物学标记会随着生理学知识的增加而得以发现。This was a reasonable approach in principle.这在原则上是一个合理的方法。In practice, though, the lines dividing different disorders are blurry.但实际上,划分不同精神疾病的界限模糊不清。The symptoms used to define them often do not cluster neatly in the way that those of true syndromes would, and the statistical evidence for their existence is sometimes sparse.用来定义精神疾病的症状与综合症真正的症状时常并非一一对应,这些症状存在的统计据有时也很匮乏。Nor, in most cases, have the hoped-for biological markers turned up—and to the extent that they have, they have muddied the waters, rather than clarifying them.在大多数情况下,期望的生物学标记并未被发现,从某种程度而言,已发现的生物学标记把水越搅越浑,而不是越搅越清。The biggest muddyings have come from brain scanning and genetics.最大的一趟浑水来自于脑部扫描术及遗传学。Most psychiatrists, even those sceptical of the DSMs approach, would accept the idea that things like autism, major depression and schizophrenia are different from each other.大多数精神病医生,甚至是那些对DSM的方法持怀疑态度的医生也会接受如自闭症、重度抑郁症及精神分裂症这些疾病互不相同这一概念。However, a study published this year by a group called the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, which has looked for links between genetic variations and psychiatric disorders in tens of thousands of patients, has found that variations in four places were common to people diagnosed, using the DSMs criteria, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, bipolar disorder, major depression and schizophrenia.然而有一家叫做精神疾病基因体联盟的团体于今年发表了一份研究报告,在数以万计的患者中寻找了基因变异及精神疾病的联系,发现在按照DSM的标准确诊的患有注意力不足过动症、自闭症、躁郁症、重度抑郁症及精神分裂症的人中有四处变异很普遍。Likewise, a series of papers over the past decade have shown similar abnormal activation of part of the brain called the amygdala in people diagnosed with anxiety, major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.同样,过去十年中的一系列论文实了确诊患有焦虑症,重度抑郁症及创伤后应激障碍的人的大脑中叫做杏仁核的部分有类似的异常活化。Such results suggest that the DSMs approach of placing patients in diagnostic silos is questionable.这样的结果表明DSM将患者按诊断症状分类的方法值得商榷。As Dan Blazer of Duke University, who served on DSM-5s task-force, puts it, Were basically drawing artificial lines, and the body and the mind do not work like that.正如DSM第五版的编写组成员,杜克大学的丹?布雷泽所说,我们正从大体上勾勒人为的分类界线,身体和精神都不会如此运作。The new DSM aspires to include objective criteria in its manual.It also seeks to scrap nonsensical, strict lines between certain disorders.新版的DSM渴望将客观标准也囊括在其手册中,也寻求将某些病症中荒谬的,严苛的条文去掉。It has, for example, chunked together four previously separate diagnoses, including autism and Aspergers syndrome, into one disorder of varying severity, known as autism spectrum disorder.例如,新版中将之前四种单独的病症,包括自闭症及阿斯伯格综合症合并成一种严重程度不一的神经疾病,叫做自闭症谱系障碍。In this, it is following clinical practice, for the idea of an autistic spectrum has been around for a long time.由于自闭症谱系的概念已经出现很久了,所以对该病症的诊断是遵循临床实践。And the unfortunate truth is that it is still far too early to use biological markers as criteria for diagnosis.但事实令人遗憾,使用生物学标记作为诊断标准仍然太早。The human brain is the most impossibly complex thing in the universe, says Allen Frances, who led the development of DSM-IV.人脑是宇宙中复杂到无可附加的事物,DSM第四版的编写组组长阿伦?弗朗西斯称,It does not yield its secrets easily.它不会轻易把自己的秘密交出来。Worse, argues Dr Frances, DSM-5 has not stopped the rise in the number of allegedly recognisable and nameable mental conditions, many of which annex into psychiatry things that the man in the street would think normal, if not always desirable, behaviour.更糟的是,弗朗西斯士提出,DSM第五版中所谓可以识别及命名的精神状况的数量还在增加,许多连路人都会认为属于正常,但不一定适当的行为被归为精神疾病。Children may now, for example, be diagnosed with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder—what used to be known as temper tantrums.例如,儿童现在可能会被诊断患有破坏性情绪失调症-曾被称为乱发脾气。Past versions of the DSM stipulated that those mourning a death should not be classified as depressed. DSM-5 scraps this bereavement exclusion.之前版本的DSM规定那些哀痛逝者的行为不应该归为抑郁,但DSM第五版删掉了排除丧亲之痛这条。It also includes a new binge-eating disorder, defined as eating to excess at least once a week over the previous three months.第五版还加入了一种新的暴食症,将其定义为在过去三个月内至少每星期饮食过量一次。Such a diagnosis covers millions of Americans, roping in people who would not remotely consider that they were mentally ill.按此诊断的话会将数百万美国人涵盖其内,将那些从未想过自己患有精神病的人圈了进去。DSM-5 does not, after some debate among those who put it together, make addiction to internet gaming a formal disorder. But it recommends further research into the condition.在经过其编写者的一些争论后,DSM第五版并未将网游成瘾归为正式的精神疾病,但其建议针对病情进一步研究。Grief. Indulgence. Unhealthy habits.悲痛、上瘾、不良习惯,All, it seems, may be classified as mental derangement, and treated as such.所有这些看来都会被归为精神错乱,并按此治疗。And the sets of symptoms described by the DSM are often common.DSM中描述的各类症状都非常常见。More than one American child in ten has been diagnosed, using the DSMs definition, with ADHD—and about two-thirds of those so diagnosed are now prescribed drugs.按照DSM的定义,每十名美国儿童中便至少会有一名被诊断患有ADHD-这些所谓患儿中有三分之二正在接受药物治疗。It is this overdiagnosis and overtreatment that is the chief criticism of the DSM—or, rather, of the power it wields in the profession of psychiatry. That power, however, may be waning.这种过度诊断及过度治疗正是针对DSM的主要诟病-或者,更确切的讲,是针对DSM赋予精神病医生职业的权力的诟病。然而这种权力或许正在减弱。Literary criticism专业DSM categories have long been used in research.DSM的分类已经用于研究很久了。That is changing.但情况正在改变。Other areas of medicine, cancer in particular, have been transformed by better understanding of the biological drivers of disease.其它的医学领域,特别是癌症领域,已经通过对疾病的生物学驱动机制的更深入了解而发生了转变。Americas National Institute of Mental Health hopes that will transform psychiatry, too.美国国家心理卫生研究所希望这也将使精神病学发生改变。The NIMH seeks to use genetics, imaging and cognitive science to create new diagnostic criteria.NIMH寻求使用遗传学,成像及认知科学来建立新的诊断标准。Thomas Insel, the NIMHs director, has specifically implored researchers not to be confined by DSM-5s strict rules.NIMH的主任托马斯·英索尔特别恳请研究人员不要被DSM第五版严苛的条文限制住。Abiding by DSM categories may prevent scientists from understanding the underlying causes of sickness.墨守DSM的分类可能会妨碍科学家了解疾病的根本原因。Still, objective laboratory measures for mental illness are a long way off.距离对精神疾病进行客观的实验室评估仍旧很远。The APA says DSM-5 will be continuously updated to respond to new discoveries.APA称DSM第五版将会不断更新以对新的发现做出反应。For now, however, patients treatment will be guided by the imperfect manual.然而目前对病人的诊疗还要接受并不完美的手册指导。The DSM is purely a product of the state of our knowledge at this point in time, says Jeffrey Lieberman, the chairman of Columbia Universitys psychiatry department and president-elect of the APA.DSM仅仅是我们在此时此刻的知识水平下的产物,哥伦比亚大学精神医学系主任,APA新当选的会长杰弗里·利伯曼说。The state of our knowledge is not complete.我们的知识水平还比较有限。 /201311/265974 成都宫外孕保守治疗价格凉山彝族自治州无痛人流多少钱

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