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来源:求医健康    发布时间:2017年10月20日 14:57:56    编辑:admin         

Vladimir Putin and Kim Jong-un...is this beginning of a beautiful bromance?普京和金正恩,这是一段美好兄弟情的开始吗?Increasingly isolated from the leaders ofmajor world powers, Russian President Vladimir Putins governme nt announced on Wednesday that it had entered into a ;Year of Friendship; with nuclear-armed pariah state North Korea.由于渐渐受到世界主要强国的领导人孤立,俄总统普京政府周三宣称已经与拥有核武器的国家朝鲜进入了“朝俄友好年”。Russia and North Korea announced thearrangement through their respective government-owned media outlets. The Korean Central News Agency said the move ;was caused by their joint bid to achieve ahigher level in political, economic and cultural relations.;俄罗斯和朝鲜通过各自的媒体宣布了这个安排。朝中社说这个举动是为了;加强政治,经济和文化方面的关;。Russias ambassador to North Korea, Alexander Matsegora, said that Putin and North Korean leader KimJo un are in frequent contact. ;An active political dialogue ismaintained at the highest and high level,; Ma tsegora told Russian news agency TASS. ;The leaders of the two countries regularly exchange messages.;俄罗斯驻朝鲜大使说普京和朝鲜领导人金正恩正在频繁接触。“双方的政治会谈以最高的级别在进行着,”他对俄塔社说:“两国领导人经常交换信息”。Matsegora said that Russia believes thereis room for significant expansion of the economic relationship between the two countries. ;Taking into account the considerable unused potential, we are not yet satisfied with the level of its development,; he said. ;A lot has to be done in this direction in the future.; This would include financial cooperation, as well as trade and investment deals.他说俄罗斯方面相信两国在经济合作方面还有很大的扩展空间;考虑到还有很多的潜力没有被利用到,所以我们对目前的合作水平还不是很满意。”他说;在这方面未来还有很多的事情需要做。”这将包括金融合作,以及贸易和投资协议。来 /201503/364171。

Should proposed US plurilateral trade agreements be welcomed? This is a big question, not least for those who consider the liberalisation of world trade to be a signal achievement. It is also highly controversial.美国提议的诸边贸易协定应该受到欢迎吗?这是一个大问题,不仅仅是对于那些认为世界贸易自由化是一项重大成就的人。这也是个极富争议的问题。Since the failure of the “Doha roundof multilateral negotiations launched shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the focus of global trade policy has shifted towards plurilateral agreements restricted to a limited subgroup of partners. The most significant are US-led: the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. As a study by the US Council of Economic Advisers puts it, the Obama administration’s trade agenda aims to put America “at the center of an integrated trade zone covering nearly two-thirds of the global economy and almost 65 per cent of US goods trade自从“多哈回合Doha round)多边谈判(“多哈回合”在20011日恐怖袭击之后不久启动)失败以来,全球贸易政策的焦点已转向仅限于某个伙伴国集团的诸边协定。最重要的协定均由美国主导:《跨太平洋伙伴关系》(Trans-Pacific Partnership,简称TPP)以及《跨大西洋贸易与投资伙伴关系协定》(Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership,简称TTIP)。正如白宫经济顾问委员会(CEA)一项研究所指出的,奥巴马政府的贸易议程旨在将美国置于“一个覆盖全球经济近2/3、美国货物贸易近65%的一体化贸易区的中心地位”。The TPP is a negotiation with 11 countries, most importantly Japan. Its partners account for 36 per cent of world output, 11 per cent of population and about one-third of merchandise trade. The TTIP is between the US and the EU, which account for 46 per cent of global output and 28 per cent of merchandise trade. The main partner not included in these negotiations is, of course, China.TPP是美国与11个国家(最重要的是日本)谈判的贸易协定。其伙伴国的产出占世界总量6%,人口占全球总人口的11%,商品贸易占全球的大/3。TTIP是美国与欧盟之间的协定,占全球产出的46%,商品贸易的28%。当然,中国是未被纳入这些谈判的主要贸易伙伴。Some of the countries participating in TPP still have quite high barriers to imports of goods. The CEA notes the relatively high tariffs in Malaysia and Vietnam and agricultural protection in Japan. It also argues that the TPP partners and EU have higher barriers to imports of services than the US.一些参与TPP的国家仍然存在相当高的货物进口壁垒。CEA指出了马来西亚和越南相对较高的关税以及日本的农业保护。该委员会还认为,TPP伙伴国以及欧盟的务进口壁垒高于美国。Yet lowering barriers is only a part of the US aim. The CEA report adds that, in the TPP, Washington is proposing “enforceable labor protections and greener policies But it is also seeking “strong enforcement of intellectual property rights In the TTIP, “both sides seek agreement on crosscutting disciplines on regulatory coherence and transparencyin other words making rules more compatible with one another and more transparent for business. Thus, both TPP and TTIP are efforts to shape the rules of international commerce. Pascal Lamy, former director-general of the World Trade Organisation, argues that “TPP is mostly, though not only, about classical protection- related market access issues#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;TTIP is mostly, though not only, about#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201; regulatory convergence不过,降低壁垒只是美国的一部分目标。CEA报告补充称,在TPP中,华盛顿方面提议“可强制执行的劳动保护和更环保政策”。但是,它还寻求“有力执行知识产权保护”。在TTIP中,“双方寻求就交叉领域的监管连贯性和透明度达成一致”——换句话说,让双方的法规更兼容、对企业更透明。因此,TTP和TTIP都是旨在塑造国际商务规则的努力。世界贸易组WTO)前任总干事帕斯卡#8226;拉米(Pascal Lamy)认为,“TPP主要是(尽管不全是)关于经典的与贸易保护相关的市场准入问题……而TTIP主要是(尽管不全是)关于监管融合”。Whether these negotiations succeed will depend on whether the administration obtains trade promotion authority from Congress. But should we want them to succeed?这些谈判能否取得成功,将取决于奥巴马政府是否会从国会获得贸易促进TPA)。但是,我们应该期盼谈判成功吗?The straightforward points in favour are: plurilateral agreements are now the best way to liberalise global trade, given the failure of multilateral negotiations; their new rules and procedures offer the best template for the future; and they will bring significant gains.直截了当的持理由是:考虑到多边谈判的失败,眼下诸边协定是促进全球贸易自由化的最佳方式;它们的新规则和程序为未来提供了最好的模板;它们将带来显著收益。These arguments have force. Yet there are also counter-arguments.这些观点很有说力。不过,也有反面的观点。With limited political capital, the focus on plurilateral trade arrangements risks diversion of effort from the WTO. That might undermine the potency of global rules. Jagdish Bhagwati of Columbia University stresses such risks. Furthermore, preferential trading arrangements risk distorting complex global production chains.在政治资本有限的情况下,专注于诸边贸易安排可能会分散投入WTO的努力。这进而可能削弱全球规则的效力。哥伦比亚大Columbia University)的贾格迪什#8226;巴格沃蒂(Jagdish Bhagwati)强调了此类风险。此外,特惠贸易安排可能扭曲复杂的全球生产链。Another concern is that the US is using its clout to impose regulations that are not in the interests of its partners.另一个担忧在于,美国正利用其影响力强行制定不符合伙伴国利益的法规。I would be less concerned about labour and environmental standards, though both might be inappropriate, than about protection of intellectual property. It is not true that tighter standards are in the interest of all. On the contrary, if US standards were to be imposed, the costs might be very high.尽管劳工和环境标准都可能不适当,但我对它们不如对知识产权保护那么担忧。关于更严格的标准有利于各方的说法是不对的。相反,如果普遍推行美国标准,成本可能会非常高。Finally, the economic gains are unlikely to be large. Trade has been substantially liberalised aly and any gains decline as barriers fall. A study of the TPP by the Peterson Institute for International Economics in Washington suggests that the rise in US real incomes would be below 0.4 per cent of national income. A study of TTIP published by the Centre for Economic Policy Research in London comes to slightly higher numbers for the EU and US. Completion of TPP and TTIP might raise US real incomes by 1 per cent of GDP This is not nothing, but it is not large.最后一点是,经济收益不太可能会很高。贸易已经得到大幅自由化,随着贸易壁垒的降低,进一步的收益会减少。华盛顿彼得森国际经济研究所(Peterson Institute for International Economics)对TPP的研究显示,美国的实际收入增量将不到国民收入.4%。伦敦的经济政策研究中心(Centre for Economic Policy Research)发表的对TTIP的研究显示,欧盟和美国的增量数字略高。TPP和TTIP达成后,可能会使美国实际收入增量达到GDP%。这不容忽略,但也不是很大。The US-EU agreement does not raise concerns about the US ability to bully its partners. In trade, the two sides are equally matched. There are three further concerns with the TTIP, however.美国和欧盟之间的协定并未引起人们对美国欺负伙伴国的担忧。在贸易方面,双方势均力敌。不过,人们对TTIP还是抱有3个担忧。First, Jeronim Capaldo of Tufts University has argued that estimates of the gains ignore macroeconomic costs. His Keynesian approach argues that the EU will lose demand because of a fall in its trade surplus. This is ridiculous. Macroeconomic problems should be addressed with macroeconomic policies. Trade policy has different goals.第一,塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)的叶罗尼#8226;卡帕尔多(Jeronim Capaldo)认为,对收益的预估忽视了宏观经济的成本。按照他的凯恩斯主义逻辑,欧盟将损失需求,因为其贸易顺差将会下降。这是无稽之谈。宏观经济问题应该用宏观经济政策来解决。贸易政策的目标本来就不同。Second, some of the barriers they are attempting to remove reflect different attitudes to risk. The negotiators will have to devise a text that allows co-ordination of regulatory procedures over drug testing, say, without imposing identical preferences. If Europeans do not want genetically modified organisms, they must be allowed to preserve that preference. If trade policy ts on such sacred ground, it will die.第二,这些协定试图消除的某些壁垒,反映了伙伴国对待风险的不同态度。谈判代表们将不得不妥善拟定文本,在避免强加相同偏好的前提下,使监管程序的协调成为可能,比如说针对药物测试。如果欧洲人不想要转基因生物,他们必须被允许保留这种偏好。如果贸易政策触犯此类神圣领域,它将会碰壁。Finally, we have the vexed issue of investor-state dispute settlement. Many complain that political choices publicly-funded health systems or the right to control drug prices might be put at risk by systems biased in favour of business. Negotiators fervently deny this. They had better be right.最后,我们还有一个棘手问题,那就是投资国家纠纷解决。很多人抱怨称,政治选择——公费医疗体系或者控制药品价格的权利——可能会被偏向于企业的制度置于风险之中。谈判代表们强烈否认这一点。他们最好没说错。On balance, the benefits of TPP and TTIP will probably be positive, but modest. But there are risks. They must not become an alternative to the WTO or an attempt to push China to the margins of trade policy making. They must not be used to impose damaging regulations or subvert legitimate ones. T carefully. Overreaching could prove counterproductive even to the cause of global trade liberalisation.总而言之,TPP和TTIP的好处可能是积极的,但程度有限。但是这其中存在风险。必须避免用它们替代世界贸易组织、或把中国推向贸易政策制定边缘的企图。它们不得被用于推行破坏性的法规或是颠覆正当法规。必须谨慎行事。把手伸得过长可能会适得其反,甚至不利于全球贸易自由化事业。来 /201505/376112。

President Barack Obama said Thursday that he ;thinks theres a possibility; a bomb destroyed a Russian jetliner over Egypt last week, killing all 224 passengers and crew.美国总统奥巴马说,他“认为有可能”是一枚炸弹上星期在埃及上空炸毁了那架俄罗斯班机。机24人全部遇难。Obama told KIRO radio in Seattle, ;Were going to spend a lot of time just making sure our own investigators and our own intelligence community find out whats going on before we make any definitive pronouncements. But its certainly possible that there was a bomb on board.;奥巴马星期四在西雅图接受当地广播电台采访时说,“在发出任何确定声明之前,我们会花很多时间确保我们自己的调查人员和情报机构了解到底发生了什么事。但是当然有可能机上有一颗炸弹。”British Prime Minister David Cameron said he thought it was ;more likely than not; that a bomb brought the Russian jet down.英国首相卡梅伦也说“很有可能”飞机是被炸弹炸毁。However, speaking before talks Thursday with Egyptian President Abdel Fattah el-Sissi in London, Cameron noted that experts were not yet certain of the cause of the crash.卡梅伦星期四在伦敦与埃及总统塞西会面。塞西与俄罗斯方面都表示,任何飞机上有炸弹的理论只不过是“猜测”。俄罗斯的那架美捷航班上星期六从沙姆沙伊赫飞往圣彼得堡,在经过西奈半岛时坠毁。Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attack, but it has yet to offer any evidence to back it up, and the claim was widely discredited. Sissi dismissed the IS claim as nothing but propaganda aimed at damaging Egyptian stability and security.伊斯兰国声称对袭击班机事件负责,不过还没有出示任何持这一说法的据。不过一名美国官员说,截获的通讯信息显示,沙姆沙伊赫机场机场内部的人帮助在飞机上放置了炸弹。Metrojet spokesmen contend neither pilot error nor technical problems could have brought down the plane. Nonetheless, the company suspended all flights of its remaining four A321 aircraft Thursday, pending checks by authorities.塞西驳斥伊斯兰国的说法不过是宣传,以达到损害埃及稳定和安全的目的。Experts are examining the Metrojet wreckage for any signs of terrorism. Some reports said forensic examinations had revealed shrapnel in some of the victims. The experts have retrieved both flight recorders.专家们正在检查飞机残骸是否有任何恐怖主义痕迹。一些报道说,检测结果显示一些遇害者身上有弹片。专家们已经找回了两个飞行记录黑匣子。Camerons office said Thursday, however, that British airlines would start flying stranded British tourists from Sharm el-Sheikh on Friday. British officials said they had reached agreement with Egypt on a package of new airport security measures that included flying passengers suitcases on separate planes. Flights from Britain to the resort city are still suspended.英国首相卡梅伦办公室说,英国各航空公司将从星期五开始让滞留在沙姆沙伊赫的英国游客登机离开。英国官员说,他们和埃及方面就新的机场安全一揽子计划达成协议,计划包括将乘客的行李用不同飞机运送。从英国飞往沙姆沙伊赫的航班仍然停飞。来 /201511/408331。

A young Yazidi woman pleaded on Wednesday (December 16) for the ed Nations Security Council to wipe out Islamic State after describing the torture and rape she suffered at the hands of the militants, who abducted her as ;war booty; and held her for three months.上周三(126日),一名伊拉克雅兹迪族少女现身联合国安理会作,痛;伊斯兰国;将其掳作性奴,遭大批武装分子轮奸折磨长达三月之久,她含泪恳请国际社会将IS彻底铲除。Nadia Murad Basee Taha was only 20 years old when she was abducted by the IS and a year later, she has been left wounded but bravely pleading for an answer that will stop such atrocities happening to others.这位名叫纳迪亚的少女,被IS掳走时年0岁,一年后,虽然伤痕累累,但她勇敢现身联合国安理会作,恳请国际社会能采取措施铲除这一非人道组织,阻止他们的暴行。Last August, the young girls life changed for the worse when she was abducted in August last year from her village in Iraq and taken by bus to a building in the Islamic State stronghold of Mosul, where thousands of Yazidi women and children were exchanged by militants as gifts.去年八月,纳迪亚在家乡被掳走,便开始经受IS的暴虐罪行,她被大巴带到IS重镇苏尔的一幢建筑物内,里面有数千名雅兹迪妇女和儿童,都是被武装分子当作礼物来随意交换。Taha, said several of her brothers were killed by Islamic State militants, but eventually escaped and is now living Germany. The ed Nations has said that Islamic State may have committed genocide in trying to wipe out the Yazidi minority and has urged the U.N. Security Council to refer the issue to the International Criminal Court for prosecution.纳迪亚目前已成功逃离IS魔爪,现在定居在德国,而她的几个兄弟已经被IS残忍杀害。联合国表示,IS正对雅兹迪族实行种族灭绝,并催促安理会将之转到国际刑事法庭审理。In her speech Nadia Murad Basee Taha stated that ;We, the women and children were brought by bus to another region. Along the way, they humiliated us. They touched us and violated us. They took us to Mosul with more than 150 other Yazidi families. In a building, there were thousands of Yazidi families and children who were exchanged as gifts. One of these people came up to me. He wanted to take me. I looked down at the floor. I was absolutely petrified. When I looked up, I saw a huge man. He looked like a monster.在词中,纳迪亚说道;在前往另一处的大巴上,有很多妇女和儿童,在路上他们就侵犯我们。我们和另外150户雅兹迪家庭一起被带到苏尔,在那里有数千名雅兹迪妇女儿童,被武装分子当作礼物交换。其中一名武装分子上来把我带走,当时我已经被吓呆了,一直低头看地上,当我抬起头,看到一个大个头男的,他看起来就像一头怪物;Struggling to relive the experience she recalled the situation of the women around her, noting that ;A few days later, he forced me to get dressed and put makeup on and then that terrible night, he did it. He humiliated me every day. He forced me to wear clothes that didnt cover my body. I was tortured. I tried to flee but one of the guards stopped me. That night, he beat me. He asked me to take my clothes off. He put me in a room with the guards, then they proceeded to commit their crime until I fainted. ;纳迪亚挣扎着回忆那段经历,回忆周围妇女的境况,说道,;几天后,他强迫我换好衣化妆,就在那个可怕的晚上,他强暴了我。以后他每晚都凌辱折磨我,他逼我穿暴露的衣。我曾尝试逃离魔掌,可都被守卫拦回来,有一晚我又被殴打,他让我脱了衣,把我推进全是守卫的房间,这些人轮流强奸我,直到我昏过去;She finally expressed bravely ending her story ;Three months after my abduction, I was finally able to escape. Im currently living in Germany.;最后纳迪亚勇敢地结束了她的词;三个月后我终于逃了出来,现在我住在德国;Islamic State militants consider the Yazidis to be devil-worshipers. The Yazidi faith has elements of Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Islam. Most of the Yazidi population, numbering around half a million, remains displaced in camps inside the autonomous entity in Iraqs north known as Kurdistan.在IS眼中,雅兹迪是一个崇拜恶魔的民族,因为雅兹迪的信仰中有基督教、袄教和伊斯兰教的元素。有将近50万左右的雅兹迪人流离失所,在伊拉克北部自治地区库尔德斯坦搭帐篷生活。来 /201512/417720。

China and Vietnam have agreed to resume military ties and curb their maritime dispute, according to Beijing’s official Xinhua News Agency.据官方的新华社报道,中国和越南已经同意恢复军事关系,并控制住两国的海上纠纷。The two communist neighbours had been in a maritime face-off since July, when China placed an oil rig in disputed waters in the South China Sea.此前这两个相邻的共产党国家自7月以来处于海上对峙,起因是中国在南中国海争议海域部署了一个石油钻井平台。However, relations have reportedly been soothed this weekend by the visit to Beijing of a high-level Vietnamese military delegation.然而,在越南一个高级军事代表团在刚刚过去的周末访问北京后,双边关系据报道已经平静下来。“We should make our troops well-behaved, and not make remarks harming the feelings of both people or do things undermining the overall bilateral relations,Fan Changlong, vice-chairman of China’s powerful Central Military Commission, said in remarks carried by Xinhua.新华社引述中国中央军委副主席范长龙的话称,中越应当“管控好部队,不说伤害两国人民感情的话,不做影响两国关系大局的事。”The three-month showdown, during which Chinese boats rammed Vietnamese ships, was the most serious in a series of confrontations between China and its maritime neighbours.中国船只曾在持续三个月的海上对峙期间撞击越方船只,这场对峙是中国与海上邻国之间一连串对抗中最严重的。It sparked violent demonstrations against Taiwanese factories and Chinese worksites in Vietnam, in which five people died.它在越南引发针对台资工厂和中资项目工地的暴力示威,导人死亡。The military meetings in Beijing this weekend were important “because they indicate that both China and Vietnam acknowledge that an accident or miscalculation between their armed forces could get out of control wrote Carl Thayer, professor emeritus with the University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, who closely follows events in the South China Sea.澳大利亚国防学院(Australian Defence Force Academy)南海问题专家、新南威尔士大学(University of New South Wales)名誉退休教授卡#8226;泰尔(Carl Thayer)写道,周末在北京举行的两军会晤是重要的,“因为它们表明,中国和越南都承认,两国军队之间发生意外或误判可能导致局面失控”。“Both sides appear willing to reach an understanding on how to respond to incidents to prevent their escalation.”“双方似乎都愿意就如何对事件做出回应、以防止其升级达成谅解。”Vietnam, the Philippines and Japan have drawn closer together diplomatically as China becomes more assertive in its territorial claims in waters rich in oil and fish.随着中国在拥有丰富石油和渔业资源海域的领土主张上变得更加强硬,越南、菲律宾和日本已经在外交上走得更近。Nonetheless, China’s strategy seems to be working. It has reinforced military bases on the islets in the South China Sea on which it bases its claims to the surrounding waters, while stepping back from each individual confrontation before its neighbours can cobble together a unified diplomatic response.尽管如此,中国的战略似乎奏效。它在南中国海的小岛加强了军事基地,这些小岛是中国声索周围海域主权的依据;同时在邻国能够协调做出统一的外交回应之前在相关对峙中后退一步。In this case, China has mended its fences before it hosts regional heads of state at the Asia Pacific Economic Forum near Beijing. The withdrawal of the contentious rig came shortly before a regional defence meeting in August.这一次,中国于在北京附近举行亚太经济合作论坛(Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum,简称APEC)、迎接区域各国元首前夕修补了关系月份一次地区防务会议之前不久,中国撤走了有争议的石油钻井平台。来 /201410/337019。